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Overview

"Eagerly peering into the predawn skies of October 1957, amateur scientists kept watch for a glimpse of a faint dot in the sky: Sputnik! Patrick McCray tells us who these people were and how their observations helped Operation Moonwatch become a rousing success for Fred Whipple and the scientists of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Keep Watching the Skies! highlights this unique alliance of amateur and professional scientists at the dawn of the Space Age. If you are among those who remember the thrill of the first satellites—even more so if you are not—you need to read this book."—Robert P. Kirshner, author of The Extravagant Universe

"Patrick McCray has produced a gem! With the aid of meticulous research, he has unearthed the story of Operation Moonwatch and some of the forgotten heroes of the early years of the Space Age. They were the worldwide citizen-scientists who monitored the orbits of the early satellites. He has brought the era alive. A great read for scientists, engineers, historians—and anyone interested in the Space Age."—John Zarnecki, Open University

"A unique and valuable cultural history of what was the largest collaboration between amateur and professional scientists in history, this book will interest anyone who wishes to know more about the early days of the Space Age."—Charles Whitney, professor emeritus of astronomy, Harvard University

"Keep Watching the Skies! makes a compelling case for the importance of an aspect of the early space race that has largely been ignored: Operation Moonwatch. In contrast to the top-down approach that has dominated histories of the space race, this book gives us a bottom-up view, and it promises to be received as a major contribution to the history of science and technology."—Robert Smith, author of The Space Telescope: A Study of NASA, Science, Technology, and Politics

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Editorial Reviews

Nature
Patrick McCray reconstructs an era when the world was taking its baby steps into the space age. He views it through the eyes of amateur star-gazers who experienced the excitement of those Sputnik days by joining Moonwatch, a worldwide effort to track satellites. McCray went beyond the official documents, ferreting out records from several of the most effective team leaders, and spotlights these throughout his well-illustrated presentation. McCray's account is an important contribution towards preserving the history of a fascinating episode at the dawn of the space age. [A] genuine page-turner.
— Owen Gingerich
Times Higher Education
Keep Watching the Skies! is the story of the worldwide effort...by amateur astronomers...to monitor the artificial moon Sputnik 1 launched by the Soviet space programme. This book is a superb history.
— Colin Pillinger
BBC Focus Magazine
Patrick McCray's book tells the story of [the] devoted 'Moonwatchers' as they embarked upon Operation Moonwatch, to carefully study early satellite activity. McCray's text is meticulous, well written and follows the stories of the fabled Moonwatchers. If you want to explore the fascinating task that this diverse worldwide ensemble of amateurs and professionals undertook, this book would be an excellent place to start.
— Will Gater
Astronomy Now
[A] serious, scholarly work written in an easy informal style. For the first time this important part of space history has been documented; McCray's book really brings the players to life and is highly recommended.
— Nick Quinn
Physics World
In Keep Watching the Skies! McCray succeeds in bringing back to life an era that few today will remember.
— Richard Corfield
Choice
This book is an excellent history of an important but little-known program that came into existence at the dawn of the space age. McCray clearly tells the story of how Operation Moonwatch recruited and trained ordinary people to spot and track satellites. . . . This excellent volume provides a good overview and includes extensive references for those who wish to delve deeper into the subject.
— D.B. Mason
Coalition for Space Exploration
This is a fascinating look at the dawn of the Space Age—and the ripple effect created by the former Soviet Union's launching of Sputnik 1 back in October 1958. However, the focus of this book is unique in that it tells the story of how the general public—from teenagers to amateur astronomers and others took part in eying for the first time an artificial satellite of the Earth.
Technology and Culture
McCray successfully conveys a sense of their motivation, passion, and achievement through his presentation of lively materials from their scrapbooks, observation logs, and collections as well as personal interviews. . . . This book reminds us that the pursuit of science is a matter of state and society, in which we as citizens have rights and obligations to know and to participate.
— Chihyung Jeon
Phi Beta Kappa Key Reporter
As the quality of amateur astronomical photography, given advances in electronic imaging and computer processing, begins to exceed the quality of images from the world's largest telescopes of decades ago, McCray's book provides an interesting and pleasant way to bring us back to an earlier age.
— Jay Pasachoff
Isis
McCray has given us a highly nuanced, eminently readable, and meticulously researched account of an unusual subject. . . . In addition to documenting an important scientific program for the first time, McCray's volume represents an excellent addition to an important body of work on the relationship between amateur and professional scientists.
— Steven J. Dick
Nature - Owen Gingerich
Patrick McCray reconstructs an era when the world was taking its baby steps into the space age. He views it through the eyes of amateur star-gazers who experienced the excitement of those Sputnik days by joining Moonwatch, a worldwide effort to track satellites. McCray went beyond the official documents, ferreting out records from several of the most effective team leaders, and spotlights these throughout his well-illustrated presentation. McCray's account is an important contribution towards preserving the history of a fascinating episode at the dawn of the space age. [A] genuine page-turner.
Times Higher Education - Colin Pillinger
Keep Watching the Skies! is the story of the worldwide effort...by amateur astronomers...to monitor the artificial moon Sputnik 1 launched by the Soviet space programme. This book is a superb history.
BBC Focus Magazine - Will Gater
Patrick McCray's book tells the story of [the] devoted 'Moonwatchers' as they embarked upon Operation Moonwatch, to carefully study early satellite activity. McCray's text is meticulous, well written and follows the stories of the fabled Moonwatchers. If you want to explore the fascinating task that this diverse worldwide ensemble of amateurs and professionals undertook, this book would be an excellent place to start.
Astronomy Now - Nick Quinn
[A] serious, scholarly work written in an easy informal style. For the first time this important part of space history has been documented; McCray's book really brings the players to life and is highly recommended.
Physics World - Richard Corfield
In Keep Watching the Skies! McCray succeeds in bringing back to life an era that few today will remember.
Choice - D.B. Mason
This book is an excellent history of an important but little-known program that came into existence at the dawn of the space age. McCray clearly tells the story of how Operation Moonwatch recruited and trained ordinary people to spot and track satellites. . . . This excellent volume provides a good overview and includes extensive references for those who wish to delve deeper into the subject.
Technology and Culture - Chihyung Jeon
McCray successfully conveys a sense of their motivation, passion, and achievement through his presentation of lively materials from their scrapbooks, observation logs, and collections as well as personal interviews. . . . This book reminds us that the pursuit of science is a matter of state and society, in which we as citizens have rights and obligations to know and to participate.
Isis - Steven J. Dick
McCray has given us a highly nuanced, eminently readable, and meticulously researched account of an unusual subject. . . . In addition to documenting an important scientific program for the first time, McCray's volume represents an excellent addition to an important body of work on the relationship between amateur and professional scientists.
Phi Beta Kappa Key Reporter - Jay Pasachoff
As the quality of amateur astronomical photography, given advances in electronic imaging and computer processing, begins to exceed the quality of images from the world's largest telescopes of decades ago, McCray's book provides an interesting and pleasant way to bring us back to an earlier age.
From the Publisher
"At a time when very little was known about the ionosphere and upper atmosphere, armchair astronomers of all backgrounds turned out in the thousands to aid the scientific pursuit of knowledge; when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, it was the Moonwatchers who provided the first observations to astronomers. McCray's history is full of fascinating individuals. This pop science takes a fascinating look at a fundamental, and almost-forgotten, moment in Space Age history."—Publishers Weekly

"Patrick McCray reconstructs an era when the world was taking its baby steps into the space age. He views it through the eyes of amateur star-gazers who experienced the excitement of those Sputnik days by joining Moonwatch, a worldwide effort to track satellites. McCray went beyond the official documents, ferreting out records from several of the most effective team leaders, and spotlights these throughout his well-illustrated presentation. McCray's account is an important contribution towards preserving the history of a fascinating episode at the dawn of the space age. [A] genuine page-turner."—Owen Gingerich, Nature

"Keep Watching the Skies! is the story of the worldwide effort...by amateur astronomers...to monitor the artificial moon Sputnik 1 launched by the Soviet space programme. This book is a superb history."—Colin Pillinger, Times Higher Education

"Patrick McCray's book tells the story of [the] devoted 'Moonwatchers' as they embarked upon Operation Moonwatch, to carefully study early satellite activity. McCray's text is meticulous, well written and follows the stories of the fabled Moonwatchers. If you want to explore the fascinating task that this diverse worldwide ensemble of amateurs and professionals undertook, this book would be an excellent place to start."—Will Gater, BBC Focus Magazine

"[A] serious, scholarly work written in an easy informal style. For the first time this important part of space history has been documented; McCray's book really brings the players to life and is highly recommended."—Nick Quinn, Astronomy Now

"In Keep Watching the Skies! McCray succeeds in bringing back to life an era that few today will remember."—Richard Corfield, Physics World

"This book is an excellent history of an important but little-known program that came into existence at the dawn of the space age. McCray clearly tells the story of how Operation Moonwatch recruited and trained ordinary people to spot and track satellites. . . . This excellent volume provides a good overview and includes extensive references for those who wish to delve deeper into the subject."—D.B. Mason, Choice

"This is a fascinating look at the dawn of the Space Age—and the ripple effect created by the former Soviet Union's launching of Sputnik 1 back in October 1958. However, the focus of this book is unique in that it tells the story of how the general public—from teenagers to amateur astronomers and others took part in eying for the first time an artificial satellite of the Earth."—Coalition for Space Exploration

"McCray successfully conveys a sense of their motivation, passion, and achievement through his presentation of lively materials from their scrapbooks, observation logs, and collections as well as personal interviews. . . . This book reminds us that the pursuit of science is a matter of state and society, in which we as citizens have rights and obligations to know and to participate."—Chihyung Jeon, Technology and Culture

"McCray has given us a highly nuanced, eminently readable, and meticulously researched account of an unusual subject. . . . In addition to documenting an important scientific program for the first time, McCray's volume represents an excellent addition to an important body of work on the relationship between amateur and professional scientists."—Steven J. Dick, Isis

"As the quality of amateur astronomical photography, given advances in electronic imaging and computer processing, begins to exceed the quality of images from the world's largest telescopes of decades ago, McCray's book provides an interesting and pleasant way to bring us back to an earlier age."—Jay Pasachoff, Phi Beta Kappa Key Reporter

Times Higher Education
Keep Watching the Skies! is the story of the worldwide effort...by amateur astronomers...to monitor the artificial moon Sputnik 1 launched by the Soviet space programme. This book is a superb history.
— Colin Pillinger
Physics World
In Keep Watching the Skies! McCray succeeds in bringing back to life an era that few today will remember.
— Richard Corfield
Publishers Weekly
Starred Review.

McCray, professor of history at the Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, has previously written about "big science" in Giant Telescopes: Astronomical Ambition & the Promise of Technology. Here, he examines "small science" at the dawn of the space age: Project Moonwatch, in which groups of non-scientist volunteers dutifully observed the passage of artificial satellites in the sky. The project's mastermind, astronomer Fred Whipple, intended to provide a manual backup for the automated camera system that was meant to track satellites, a huge, multi-national science effort. At a time when very little was known about the ionosphere and upper atmosphere, armchair astronomers of all backgrounds turned out in the thousands to aid the scientific pursuit of knowledge (and, to a lesser extent, fight the Commies); when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, it was the Moonwatchers who provided the first observations to astronomers at the Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory. McCray's history is full of fascinating individuals-not only Whipple, a legend among scientists for his energy and creative engineering, but "citizen heroes" as well. McCray has included a useful bibliography, and a helpful list of acronyms and people, but his text is jargon-free. This pop science takes a fascinating look at a fundamental, and almost-forgotten, moment in Space Age history.
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780691128542
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • Publication date: 4/1/2008
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 324

Meet the Author

W. Patrick McCray is professor of history at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He is the author of "Giant Telescopes: Astronomical Ambition and the Promise of Technology".

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Read an Excerpt

Keep Watching the Skies! The Story of Operation Moonwatch and the Dawn of the Space Age
By W. Patrick McCray Princeton University Press
Copyright © 2008
Princeton University Press
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-0-691-12854-2


Introduction "THEY Said It Couldn't Be Done!"

Vioalle Clark Hefferan returned to her Seventh Street apartment, relieved it was finally Friday. All week long, she had helped students get ready for Bulldog Day, Albuquerque High School's annual day of homecoming festivities. Although her students' float, decked out in green and white, did not win any prizes, Hefferan knew that they would forget their disappointment by the time that evening's football game started.

As soon as Vioalle walked in the door, the phone rang. She put down her books and picked up the receiver. An out-of-breath voice exclaimed, "The Russians have launched a satellite!" It was 4:30 p.m. in New Mexico, on October 4, 1957. Only minutes had passed since news of the successful launch had traveled from the Soviet embassy in Washington, D.C., to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Hefferan's mystery caller begged her to assemble her team of amateur satellite spotters and be ready to observe Sputnik's passage in less than an hour.

As the sun started to set, Vioalle Hefferan phoned members of Moonwatch team #041 and passed the word. She realized she might not have any takers. Students from Hefferan's high school astronomy club made up most of her team, andmany of them might not want to cancel their dates for that evening's festivities (fig. I.1). Within two hours, however, two dozen teens rendezvoused with Hefferan on the fourth-floor roof of Albuquerque High School.

The constellation Sagittarius emerged in the twilit sky, hanging between Saturn and the nearly full moon. However, Hefferan's students weren't interested in this particular moon. They had their sights set on spotting the earth's newest satellite, one that no eyes had yet seen in the sky.

While they did not know it at the time, amateur scientists around the world, equipped with homebuilt telescopes and ham radio equipment, were the only groups with the capability to spot and track the first satellites that October night. Although teams of engineers were constructing a global system of sophisticated and expensive satellite tracking cameras, this was unfinished. The Soviets' surprise launch of Sputnik caught these professionally staffed stations, as one Chicago newspaper would chide, "with their telescopes down."

Hefferan's team and the dozens of other Moonwatch teams mobilizing around the world that evening stood to make history. As the night chill settled in, her students took their places at observing stations and scanned the skies through telescopes they had helped design and build. Their objective was ambitious. A speeding satellite could cross the face of the full moon in less than a second and traverse an entire continent in minutes. A student was ready at a nearby telephone to relay the team's data-exactly when and where they spotted the Soviet satellite in the night sky-to scientists who anxiously waited to plot the course of the world's first satellite. telescopes pivoted, feet shifted, voices quieted, and eyes strained for a sign that the long-awaited exploration of space had begun.

Satellites, Science, and the IGY

In the weeks that followed, similar scenes repeated at Moonwatch stations all over the globe. Thousands of teenagers, homemakers, longtime amateur astronomers, school teachers, blue-collar workers, and other citizen-scientists took turns scanning the skies in the hopes of spotting one of the first satellites flashing by at 18,000 miles per hour. Despite their all-night vigil, the big prize of being the first team in the United States, perhaps the world, to see Sputnik, eluded Hefferan's students that night. This was not due to lack of training or effort on their part, however. Predicting the orbits of artificial satellites and locating the actual objects in the wide expanse of sky was as much art and luck as science. Hefferan's team soon learned that Sputnik wouldn't be visible over New Mexico for several more days. When it finally did arrive, however, they manned their posts again and won acclaim throughout their school and state for spotting it.

The novelty of what flashed and beeped in the October sky in 1957 is hard to appreciate today. As I write this, thousands of objects of varying size are orbiting the earth. Hundreds of these are functioning satellites. These objects girding the globe are critical links in a modern technological and scientific infrastructure that most people reflect on little, if at all.

Only when a solar flare or technical glitch knocks a satellite out of commission do we realize how our lives tenuously connect to these objects silently speeding overhead. Global positioning tools in our cars and even watches rely on a system of satellites. Weather satellites help meteorologists predict the path of deadly storms giving people days rather than hours to evacuate. Other satellites send music and television shows to people's homes. Orbiting platforms with sensitive infrared detectors can spot plumes of hot gases coming from a hostile missile launch while others carry cameras that provide real-time intelligence data. Satellites have revolutionized world communications, provided entertainment for billions, and spawned vast multinational companies-all while knitting the world into a global village.

Satellites and orbiting telescopes have also helped revolutionize how science is done. From the first small satellites and solar system probes that helped scientists understand the nature of the earth's immediate environment to multibillion-dollar space telescopes, scientific instruments freed from landbound confines have provided scientists and ordinary citizens with extraordinary new powers of observation. When the amateur scientists of Moonwatch worked with professional scientists to spot and track the first satellites, they also helped humans move toward a new understanding of how we see ourselves, our planet, and our place in the cosmos.

The initial entrne for amateur scientists to take part in this grand adventure came as professional scientists prepared for the International Geophysical Year. The IGY, as it was known in the 1950s, was the most ambitious and complex science project of the twentieth century. Between July 1957 and December 1958, tens of thousands of professional scientists from sixty-seven different nations staffed hundreds of stations around the globe. Together, they researched important topics in fields like geophysics, atmospheric sciences, and oceanography. During the IGY, scientists gained a remarkable new understanding of our planet. For instance, they detected the Van Allen radiation belts around the earth, explored Antarctica, and probed the worldwide system of underwater mountains and ridges to help explain how continents moved.

Most stunning of all, though, and what dominated headlines, political debate, and dining room conversation more than anything else during the IGY, was the launch of the world's first artificial satellites. The ramifications of first one and then several satellites affected national politics, influenced pop culture, and transformed international relations.

The IGY provided opportunities not only for Moonwatchers but for amateur scientists of all interests. Ham radio operators, meteor spotters, and weather observers participated in IGY-related activities and stimulated interest among ordinary citizens to explore science's seemingly endless frontier. War-surplus equipment, commercially available science kits, and a knack for constructing their own equipment enabled the amateurs' pursuits. The community of amateur scientists blossomed during the heyday of Operation Moonwatch. *

* Throughout its lifetime, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory gave its amateur satellite tracking program various names including (as this book's title indicates) Operation Moonwatch as well as Project Moonwatch. For simplicity's sake, hereafter I refer to it as Moonwatch.

Moonwatch and amateur science were part of the multifaceted bonanza of science popularization that emerged first after the end of World War Two and then again following Sputnik. As the public recognized the role of scientists in winning World War Two, the prestige of scientists rose dramatically. "Physical scientists are in vogue these days," Harper's commented after the war. "No dinner party is a success without at least one physicist to explain ... the nature of the new age in which we live." The postwar media consequently depicted scientists as heroic explorers and science as a majestic adventure.

The symbols of postwar science were indeed grand. The United States Postal Service memorialized the Hale Telescope, perched high atop Palomar Mountain in southern California, on a postage stamp when it was dedicated in 1948. Beneath its graceful, classically shaped dome, the world's largest telescope with its massive 200-inch mirror silently collected the universe's mysteries. Colorful articles in Time, Collier's, and Life presented a romantic image of the lone astronomer exploring the universe with this giant new instrument. The public was fascinated by its size and majesty, some believing that its capabilities transcended even science. The president of the Rockefeller Foundation, which had funded the telescope, even described it as an instrument to help heal an ailing world. Giant telescopes, powerful atom smashers, nuclear-powered submarines, the structure of DNA, the invention of the transistor, rockets probing the limits of the earth's atmosphere-all broached the sublime and thrilled a public eager to understand and embrace the transformative potential of science and technology.

What distinguished the citizens around the world who took part in Moonwatch from their curious neighbors was that they were not just passive consumers of science popularization. As dedicated observers, tinkerers, and experimenters, Moonwatchers and other amateur scientists vigorously worked with professional scientists to help produce new scientific knowledge. Moonwatchers were among the most enthusiastic devotees of science and technology in the 1950s. While the first Soviet satellites alarmed many Westerners, Moonwatchers had a different reaction. Their correspondence and newsletters spoke of the great adventure space exploration promised and the broader horizons that beckoned to their children. As one Moonwatcher rhapsodized during the IGY, "One cannot look for very long into the workshop of the Creator without changing his attitude towards life." Before widespread disenchantment with science and technology took hold in the 1960s, launching satellites and exploring space seemed triumphant and glorious endeavors. Moonwatch provided an invitation for amateur scientists and other curious citizens to come along for the ride and actively participate.

What Was Moonwatch?

The imminent availability of satellites in 1957 promised scientists new vistas for research. By knowing, with great accuracy and precision, where a satellite was, scientists could learn far more about their planet than earthbound instruments permitted. Orbiting instruments, for example, could reliably send scientists information about cosmic rays and other forms of radiation that the earth's atmosphere screens out. By sighting the satellite from different points on earth and triangulating the observations, researchers could create a more accurate map of the earth's surface and the planet's actual shape. They could study the motion of satellites to understand how the earth's gravitational field varied with location, such as over the earth's equatorial bulge. In addition, the orbit of satellites could provide scientists with much more detailed information about the earth's upper atmosphere, including its density and temperature.

While this research might sound mundane today, in 1957 it was basic information essential for any future space exploration by either people or machines. These data were also valuable for national security. The air force, for example, couldn't accurately launch rockets from Kansas to Kiev if it did not know exactly where on the earth Kiev actually was or how missiles would behave as they zoomed through the earth's atmosphere.

Before orbiting satellites could provide scientists and engineers with this cornucopia of information and applications, they needed to know where the satellites were and how they moved. While today's modern tracking tools and sophisticated computer programs make this a relatively straightforward and incredibly precise operation, the situation was quite different when Sputnik and its brethren first appeared. Importantly, rocket engine and guidance technologies could not guarantee that the first satellites would go exactly where Soviet or American engineers wanted. A rocket burn of a few extra seconds, for an object moving several thousand miles per hour, could put it in an orbit much different from what engineers initially planned.

Once a satellite had been lofted into orbit, it continued to move with stunning speed. A navy scientist in 1956 likened seeing a satellite to catching a glimpse of a golf ball tossed out of a jet plane. This created two challenges to people on the ground. One was finding the satellite-under the best of conditions, scientists imagined, it would appear as a faint star-while it moved against the vast celestial tapestry. The second task, after the object had been acquired, was to continue to track it. Once scientists had established the location of the satellite at several points in its orbit, they could use classical physics to calculate its orbit and thus predict when and where the satellite would be in the future.

While the first satellites would broadcast radio signals, the first radio tracking systems wouldn't produce the precision scientists wanted. Moreover, the transmitters themselves were delicate pieces of equipment, powered at first by short-lived batteries and operating in a harsh new environment scientists were just beginning to understand. In contrast, visual sighting and tracking offered scientists and politicians unquestionable proof that an object was indeed in orbit along with a dependable source of information about its position. Even if newfangled radio devices failed, visual satellite observations using the tried and true combination of human-eye-plus-telescope could still reveal to scientists many secrets of the earth's shape and nature of the upper atmosphere.

Other than meteors and comets, scientists had never tried to track such fast-moving celestial objects moving so close to earth. A satellite's speed varies with its apogee and perigee while its path over the earth's surface can continually change over time. The orbit of the first Soviet Sputnik, for example, moved slightly to the west with each revolution while the earth itself moved underneath it. All of these variables made tracking the first satellites a major engineering and scientific accomplishment.

This is where amateur scientists entered the picture. Moonwatchers, scientists initially thought, would assist professionally staffed (and presumably more reliable) optical and radio tracking stations. At least that was the plan. During the opening weeks of the Space Age, however, Moonwatchers and other amateurs became a much more essential part of the global satellite tracking network. Organized, trained, and geared up when the first Soviet sputniks appeared, these heretofore unknown citizen-scientists made critical contributions in the opening days of the Space Age and contributed to the work of "real" scientists and engineers.

Harvard astronomer Fred L. Whipple conceived of Moonwatch when scientists around the world were making plans for the IGY. Whipple was already famous in scientific circles for his study of meteors and comets and for his wartime research on how to defeat enemy radar technology. He quickly transformed the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), newly moved from Washington, D.C., to Cambridge, Massachusetts, into one of the world's largest organizations for research in astronomy and space science. (Continues...)



Excerpted from Keep Watching the Skies! by W. Patrick McCray
Copyright © 2008 by Princeton University Press. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.
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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments ix
Organizations and People xi
Introduction: "THEY Said It Couldn't Be Done!" 1
Chapter 1: Cultures of Observation 19
Chapter 2: An Astronomical Engineer 45
Chapter 3: Wanted: Satellite Spotters 72
Chapter 4: Of Spacehounds and Lunartiks 93
Chapter 5: Seeing History through a Small Telescope 139
Chapter 6: Amateurs Provide Strength on the Bench 165
Chapter 7: Moonwatch Grows Up 190
Chapter 8: The Legacy of Moonwatch 223
Explanation of Sources Used 249
Notes to the Chapters 251
Index 293

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