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Posted May 5, 2013
In 1838 in Germany Friedrich Bessel accurately measured stellar
In 1838 in Germany Friedrich Bessel accurately measured stellar parallax for the first time with an instrument he developed, his heliometer. Ten years later in France Jean Foucault developed, and 3 years later demonstrated his eponymous pendulum, perhaps the simplest, but no less profound instrument developed in physics. The observations based on these instruments, were the first real proof that the Earth rotated around the Sun while spinning on its axis and were made a little more than 200 years after Galileo Galilei stood before the Holy Inquisition in Rome accused of heresy. Nominally, Galileo's heresy was professing that the Earth moved in space and the Sun stood still. In fact Galileo was "wrong" in the sense that he had no real proof that the Copernican system of planetary motion was any more valid than the Ptolemaic one. Alternative models of planetary motion, including Ptolemy and especially that of Galileo's contemporary Kepler, were just as valid as that of Copernicus. Galileo was 200 years ahead of his time.
Yet the myth that has persisted for some 4 centuries is that the tottering 70-year-old Galileo, innocent and totally "right" appeared before the Inquisition's ignorant cadre of prelates and, faced with threats of torture and death, was forced to ultimately recant his support for the Copernican world system. Galileo's trial has become the symbol of objective reason and science defiant in the face of superstition and ignorance - "Yet, it still moves!"
Wade Rowland's contribution, Galileo's Mistake, to the voluminous literature on Galileo is, to this reader's knowledge, the first to tell a part of the scientist's story using his own literary style - a narrative dialog between real and fictitious characters who hold contrasting positions on the topic at hand - used by Galileo in his Dialogue Concerning the Two World Systems - the book that landed him before the Inquisition.
Rowland argues that the real reason for the charge of heresy against Galileo was not his adherence to the Copernican model per se, but Galileo's parallel belief that everything in the universe could ultimately be completely explained in mathematical terms; that defining a physical phenomena in mathematical terms was equivalent to seeing and understanding how God works. Rowland proposes that only Galileo's close friendship with then Pope Urban III as well as other influential prelates saved him from being burned at the stake for that heresy of mathematical determinism - the actual reason for his trial before the Inquisition, yet glossed over by his judges in a successful attempt to defray harsh punishment.
Rowland's hypothesis may very well be true - he assembles several arguments along the way to counter numerous apparent inconsistencies in Galileo's words and writings. The author goes further in suggesting that his version of the Galileo story can serve as a model for modern science that has reached a logical, and amoral, "dead-end" - namely, that science needs to practice a measure of humility before nature, leave open the possibility of alternative explanations for reality, and, as a consequence, adopt an overarching philosophy that allows for the possibility of purpose and meaning as well as mechanism.
A few pages of Notes with embedded references and a sprinkling of illustrations, one Appendix, but no Index, complete this work.
Richard R. Pardi Environmental Science William Paterson University
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