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World Wide Web: This text has an accompanying website that offers a self-assessment tool to test your understanding of important concepts:
The website contains sets of questions keyed to approximately half the lessons in the text, which test your understanding of key concepts. Take these quizzes online as practice exams and you will receive immediate feedback on your progress. The site also contains important starter drawing files for use with the text.
AutoCAD 2002-One Step at a Time
AutoCAD 2000-One Step at a Time-Basics
AutoCAD 2000-One Step at a Time-Advanced
AutoCAD LT 2000-One Step at a Time
Prentice Hall publishes a broad range of graphics and CAD books available at a discount when bundled with this text. For information, see the Preface of this text or consult your Prentice Hall rep.
Timothy Sean Sykes has been an instructor at Houston Community College for the past five years. Before that, he spent 16 years as a designer in the Piping, Furniture, Structural, and Display fields.
|Part I||Important Review||1|
|Lesson 1||Space for a New Beginning||3|
|1.1||Understanding the Terminology||4|
|1.2||Using Tiled Viewports||5|
|1.3||Setting Up a Paper Space Environment||13|
|1.4||Using Floating Viewports||18|
|1.4.1||Creating Floating Viewports Using MView||19|
|1.4.2||The Viewports Toolbar||24|
|1.4.3||Adjusting the Views in Floating Viewports||25|
|1.5||And Now the Easy Way--The LayoutWizard Command||29|
|1.7||What Have We Learned?||33|
|Lesson 2||After the Setup||43|
|2.1||Dimensioning and Paper Space||44|
|2.1.1||Dimensioning and Paper Space--The Olde Way||44|
|2.1.2||Dimensioning and Paper Space--The New Way||48|
|2.2||The Benefits of Layers in Paper Space||50|
|2.3||Using Text in Paper Space||55|
|2.4||Plotting the Layout||59|
|2.5||Tweaking the Layout||61|
|2.5.1||Modifying Viewports with the MVSetup Command||61|
|2.5.2||Changing the Shape of a Viewport with the VPClip Command||66|
|2.6||Putting It All Together--A Project||69|
|2.8||What Have We Learned?||81|
|Part II||Welcome to the Third Dimension||91|
|Lesson 3||"Z" Basics||93|
|3.1||The UCS Icon and the Right-Hand Rule||94|
|3.1.1||The UCS Icon||94|
|3.1.2||The Right-Hand Rule||98|
|3.2||Maneuvering Through Z-Space with the VPoint Command||99|
|3.2.1||Using Coordinates to Assign a Viewpoint||99|
|3.2.2||Using the Compass to Assign a Viewpoint||104|
|3.2.3||Setting Viewpoints Using a Dialog Box||108|
|3.3||Drawing with the Z-Axis||112|
|3.3.1||Three-Dimensional Coordinate Entry||112|
|3.3.2||Using the Thickness and Elevation System Variables||117|
|3.4||Three-Dimensional Viewing Made Easy||123|
|3.4.1||The Hide Command||123|
|3.4.2||The Shademode Command||126|
|3.6||What Have We Learned?||133|
|Lesson 4||More of Z Basics||145|
|4.1||WCS vs. UCS||146|
|4.2||The UCS Manager||157|
|4.3||Using Working Planes||159|
|4.4||Advanced Viewing Techniques||169|
|4.4.2||A Continuous Three-Dimensional Orbit--3DCOrbit||179|
|4.6||What Have We Learned?||181|
|Part III||Simple Modeling||193|
|Lesson 5||Wireframes and Surface Modeling||195|
|5.1||3DPoly vs. PLine||196|
|5.2||Drawing in Three Directions at Once--Point Projection||197|
|5.3||Adding Surfaces--Regions, Solids, or 3D Faces||201|
|5.3.2||Invisible Edges in 3D Faces--SPLFrame and the Edge Command||207|
|5.3.3||Solids and Regions||210|
|5.3.4||Which Method Should I Use?||219|
|5.5||What Have We Learned?||222|
|Lesson 6||Predefined Surface Models||233|
|6.1||What Are Predefined Surface Models?||234|
|6.2||Drawing Predefined Surface Models||235|
|6.2.6||Domes and Dishes||250|
|6.3||Understanding the Limitations of Predefined Surface Models||255|
|6.5||What Have We Learned?||256|
|Lesson 7||Complex Surface Models||265|
|7.1||Controlling the Number of Surfaces--Surftab1 and Surftab2||266|
|7.2||Different Approaches for Different Goals||267|
|7.2.1||Follow the Path--The Tabsurf Command||267|
|7.2.2||Add a Surface between Objects--The Rulesurf Command||272|
|7.2.3||Creating Circular Surfaces--The Revsurf Command||275|
|7.2.4||Using Edges to Define a Surface Plane--The Edgesurf Command||279|
|7.3||More Complex Surfaces||281|
|7.3.1||Creating Meshes with the 3DMesh Command||282|
|7.3.2||Creating Meshes with the PFace Command||285|
|7.5||What Have We Learned?||293|
|Part IV||Simple Model Editing||303|
|Lesson 8||Z-Space Editing||305|
|8.1||Three-Dimensional Uses for Familiar (Two-Dimensional) Tools||306|
|8.1.1||Trimming and Extending in Z-Space||306|
|8.1.2||Aligning Three-Dimensional Objects||315|
|8.1.3||Three-Dimensional Object Properties||317|
|8.1.4||Modifying a 3D Mesh||322|
|8.2||Editing Tools Designed for Z-Space||334|
|8.2.1||Rotating About an Axis--The Rotate3d Command||335|
|8.2.2||Mirroring Three-Dimensional Objects--The Mirror3d Command||340|
|8.2.3||Arrayed Copies in Three Dimensions--The 3DArray Command||343|
|8.4||What Have We Learned?||350|
|Part V||Advanced Modeling||359|
|Lesson 9||Solid Modeling Building Blocks||361|
|9.1||What Are Solid Modeling Building Blocks?||363|
|9.2||Extruding 2D Regions and Solids||363|
|9.3||Drawing the Blocks||368|
|9.3.3||Cones and Cylinders||374|
|9.4||Creating More Complex Solids Using the Revolve Command||383|
|9.6||What Have We Learned?||389|
|Lesson 10||Composite Solids||397|
|10.1||Many Become One--Solid Construction Tools||399|
|10.2||Using Some Old Friends on Solids--Fillet and Chamfer||417|
|10.3||Creating Cross Sections the Easy Way--The Section Command||421|
|10.5||What Have We Learned?||425|
|Lesson 11||Editing 3D Solids||435|
|11.1||A Single Command, But It Does So Much--SolidEdit||436|
|11.2||Changing Faces--The Face Category||437|
|11.2.1||Changing the Thickness of a 3D Solid Face--The Extrude Option||437|
|11.2.2||Moving a Face on a 3D Solid||440|
|11.2.3||Rotating Faces on a 3D Solid||444|
|11.2.4||Offsetting Faces on a 3D Solid||447|
|11.2.5||Tapering Faces on a 3D Solid||450|
|11.2.6||Deleting 3D Solid Faces||453|
|11.2.7||Copying 3D Solid Faces as Regions or Bodies||455|
|11.2.8||Changing the Color of a Single Face||457|
|11.3||Modifying Edges--The Edge Category||459|
|11.4||Changing the Whole 3D Solid--The Body Category||462|
|11.4.1||Imprinting an Image onto a 3D Solid||463|
|11.4.2||Separating 3D Solids with the seParate solids Routines||466|
|11.4.5||Checking to Be Certain You Have an ACIS Solid||471|
|11.6||What Have We Learned?||472|
|Lesson 12||Three-Dimensional Blocks and Three-Dimensional Plotting Tools||483|
|12.1||Using Blocks in Z-Space||484|
|12.1.1||Three-Dimensional Blocks and the UCS||484|
|12.1.2||Inserting Three-Dimensional Blocks||486|
|12.1.3||Making Good Use of Attributes||492|
|12.2||Plotting a 3D Solid||494|
|12.2.1||Setting Up the Plot--The Solview Command||494|
|12.2.2||Creating the Plot Images--The Soldraw and Solprof Commands||503|
|12.4||What Have We Learned?||509|
|Part VI||Rendering and Xrefs||521|
|Lesson 13||Is It Real or Is It Rendered?||523|
|13.1||What Is Rendering and Why Is It So Challenging?||524|
|13.2||Beyond Shademode--The Render Command||525|
|13.3||Adding Materials to Make Your Solids Look Real||538|
|13.4||Special Effects--Adding Other Graphic Images to Your Drawing||546|
|13.5||Lights and Angles||554|
|13.6||Creating a Scene||563|
|13.8||What Have We Learned?||568|
|Lesson 14||Externally Referenced Drawings||581|
|14.1||Working with Externally Referenced Drawings--Xrefs||583|
|14.1.1||Attaching and Detaching Xrefs to Your Drawing||584|
|14.1.2||Removing Part of a Reference--The XClip Command||592|
|14.1.3||Xrefs and Dependent Symbols||596|
|14.1.4||Unloading, Reloading, and Overlaying Xrefs||599|
|14.3||Using Our Drawing as a Reference||606|
|14.4||Binding an Xref to Your Drawing||608|
|14.6||What Have We Learned?||614|
|Appendix A||Drawing Scales||629|
|Appendix B||Project Drawings||630|
|Appendix C||Review Question Answers||638|
|Appendix D||Additional Projects||642|
3D AutoCAD 2002: One Step at a Time is a great software program, and in writing this text, l have tried to make learning AutoCAD simple and fun. My system of step-by-step instructions, supported by reference material, creates a hands-on approach to which you can refer over and over again. Each lesson includes: explanations of command options, worked examples of each command, and where appropriate, tips on using specific techniques in industry. AutoCAD is a challenging yet powerful program. We developed this package to provide all the support you need to master it.
When you use this book, you are not just using a single text, but an integrated multimedia learning system made up of 2 parts:
1. Book--14 AutoCAD lessons designed to bring you fully up to speed with 2-D drawing, and a first lesson in 3-D. Lessons are clearly marked as to purpose and content, and provide hands-on, step-by-step instructions to help the student master the task. Lessons contain tips and tricks I developed through years of experience as a designer and CAD guru. Each lesson concludes with some extra steps for learning enhancement, several projects from a variety of disciplines and at various levels of mastery, and a list of review questions to validate student accomplishment. All lessons are covered in a clear, friendly, and encouraging writing style to set the student at ease.
2. World Wide Web--This text makes use of the Web as a self-assessment tool to test your understanding of important concepts at its own Web site prenhall.com/sykes/. It contains sets of questions keyed to approximately half the "Do This"exercises in the text that test your understanding of key concepts. "Do This" exercises that have online quiz material are marked with a web icon. Take these quizzes on-line as practice exams, and you will receive immediate feedback to your progress. Instructors can ask students to take these on-line quizzes and submit their results electronically, allowing instructors to easily track the students' progress. Professors may also use the syllabus builder feature of this web page to quickly prepare their own on-line syllabus.
To complete the "Do This" and end-of-lesson exercises, you will need the reference files. These are available at: prenhall.com/sykes/--simply follow the appropriate text to the download site.
Sometimes a bit of time elapses between publication of the text and availability of the website material. To avoid any hassles, I have provided the same files at my own site as an interim measure. Access the interim site at uneedcad.com/2002/3Dfiles.
All files have been zipped for ease and speed of downloading. If you lack 'unzipping' ability (generally users of Windows 98 or earlier), you can download Winzip from winzip.com/ddchomea.htm Be sure to unzip the files to "C:" Winzip will do the rest (place the files in a series of lesson-related subfolders of a folder called Steps3D).
Instructors with text-related questions or students looking for a course may contact the author via the uneedcad.com site.
Let me repeat some of what I said in 3D AutoCAD 2002: One Step at a Time.
Some years ago I took my first AutoCAD course. I had been drafting for almost ten years at the time, but I saw that the drawing board would eventually give way to the computer. So I dug deep into the shallow recesses of a draftsman's wallet and came up with the $300 I needed to take the course.
A year or so later, still on the board, I was designing piping systems for one of the big petrochemical companies in Houston. There was one computer on the job, but nobody knew how to use it. I dedicated my lunches and evenings to exploring that old 286--often messing it up badly and having to call the computer support folks to come fix it.
After a few months of this, my immediate supervisor was transferred to an AutoCAD project. He was somewhat lost in the computer world, and I was the only one he knew who could turn one on. So he asked for me to follow him. I was excited by the prospect-until I learned that I was to be in charge of five CAD stations on the new project! Then I was a bit nervous (okay, terrified).
I did what any closet teacher would do--I went right out and bought a book! For the next several weeks, I managed to stay exactly 12 hours ahead of the rest of my crew. That is (it seemed miraculous), what I read one evening was what I was asked about the next day! So my reputation as a guru was established. Later, the questions became more difficult, and I had to buy another book (AutoLISP). But, by the grace of God, I am still staying 12 hours ahead of my students.
So, why am I a guru? Simply because I was the guy who bought (and read) a book.
Why this book? 3D AutoCAD 2002: One Step at a Time continues and concludes the training begun in AutoCAD 2000: One Step at a Time-Basics. It does not require familiarity with that text, but it does continue the techniques that readers of Basics have come to know.
I have tried, again, to create lessons that are friendly rather than egghead academic. My intent is to teach my students (and readers) how to make a living using AutoCAD-essentially to answer the questions that I faced that first year as a guru and in the years since as an instructor. I will not cover every nook and cranny of this marvelous tool, but let's face it, it's not an encyclopedia. (I tend to shy away from people who promise it all.)
I am not "just a teacher" or "just a writer" or "just a designer." I have made a good living using AutoCAD for several years. I am a trained and experienced instructor (I have a degree in Secondary Education and instructor certifications from both Autodesk and Microsoft), a trained and experienced writer (my third and fourth teaching fields are English and English Language Arts), and I was a Senior Piping Designer when I finally left the petrochemical industry for greener pastures. (I have also designed furniture, architectural structures, and "those nifty little houses that Santa sits in down at the mall." And my fifth teaching field is industrial Education.)
Why this book? Because here I bring all of this together to help my students and readers conquer their goal of making a living using AutoCAD.
I have written this book for draftsmen who have already achieved competence in basic AutoCAD operation.
As with the Basics book, I make no attempt to teach drafting here, but you should have some education or background in drafting, or at least in reading blueprints, before attempting to learn AutoCAD. For more on the basics of drafting, I highly recommend Frederick E. Giesecke's Technical Drawing (Prentice Hall). Now in its eleventh edition, it has been the basic drafting text of choice at least since I studied the subject more than 20 years ago.
Likewise, I do not attempt to instruct the user on how to use Windows or any other computer operating system. However, you should be familiar with a computer and its operating system before attempting to master any complex software like AutoCAD. If you are not comfortable with Windows, please precede your AutoCAD attempts with an appropriate computer ops course. If there are no courses available or convenient, I suggest picking up a copy of Microsoft's Windows 95 98 Step by Step. All of Microsoft's Step by Step books are remarkably good course material--simple to follow and easy to understand.
Expertise with other software is also not required, but some experience with MS Access (or some other database program) as well as any graphics program can be quite beneficial.
People are still asking me who my target audience is. I find the question a bit confusing since the training is the same regardless of whom is being trained. I have designed these texts to stand alone or as classroom guides. Therefore, anyone can use it--from high school students through college or professional development instructors.