3G Wireless Networks, Second Edition / Edition 2

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Overview

Fully up-to-date coverage of the inner-workings of 3G

This revised and updated edition of 3G Wireless Networks covers the changes taking place within the arena of 3G—the wireless technology that enables voice, full-featured video, CD-quality sound, and Web browsing anywhere in the world. The book covers key standards and protocols and the critical issues of compatibility, internetworking, and voice/data convergence. You will learn how to successfully design and integrate WCDMA/UMTS, CDMA2000, and SCDMA into existing cellular/PCS networks.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780072263442
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
  • Publication date: 11/16/2006
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 695
  • Sales rank: 1,067,492
  • Product dimensions: 7.60 (w) x 9.40 (h) x 1.57 (d)

Meet the Author

Clint Smith, P.E. is an internationally known technical author whose books and industry trade articles are used extensively in the telecommunications industry. He has more than 20 years of experience in all aspects related to fixed and wireless telecommunications, including system design, project management, budgeting, operations, sales, and management. He has specific design and operational experience with CDMA, GSM/GPRS/EDGE, WCDMA, TDMA, iDEN, AMPS, LMDS, WiMAX, WiFi, PtP, and PSCS. Presently, he is the vice president of Rivada Networks, a company working with the U.S. Department of Defense, federal, and state agencies solving communications interoperability for first responders. Some previous positions he has held include vice president of engineering for CCS, director for planning with Cingular, direct of engineering for NYNEX (Verizon), and senior engineer with Motorola.

Current books published by McGraw-Hill include Wireless Network Performance Handbook, 3G Wireless Networks (first edition), LMDS, Wireless Telecom FAQ, Practical Cellular and PCS Design, Cellular System Design and Optimization, and 3G Wireless with WiMAX and Wi-Fi.

Clint holds a masters in business administration degree from Fairleigh Dickinson University and a bachelor of engineering degree from Stevens Institute of Technology (SIT). He is also a registered professional engineer in New York and New Jersey; science fiction author; member of IEEE, APCO, Authors Guild, Radio Club of America (RCA), and Boy Scouts of America (BSA); and an adjunct professor at SIT.

Daniel Collins played key roles in the development of 2G wireless systems and the introduction of GSM to North America during nearly a decade of work with Ericsson in the United States and the United Kingdom. He also spent five years as an independent consultant specializing in VoIP and 2.5G and 3G wireless network architectures, including serving as chief network architect for implementation of a nationwide GSM/GPRS network. He is now chief technology officer of a new wireless carrier.

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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 1: Wireless Communications

1.1 The Amazing Growth of Mobile Communications

Over recent years, telecommunications has been a fast-growing industry. This growth can be seen in the increasing revenues of major telecommunications carriers and the continued entry into the marketplace of new competitive carriers. No segment of the industry, however, has seen growth to match that experienced in mobile communications. From relatively humble beginnings, the last 15 years have seen an explosion in the number of mobile communications subscribers and it appears that growth is likely to continue well into the future.

The growth in the number of mobile subscribers is expected to continue for some years, with the number of mobile subscribers surpassing the number of fixed network subscribers at some point in the near future. Although it may appear that such predictions are optimistic, it is worth pointing out that in the past, most predictions for the penetration of mobile communications have been far lower than what actually occurred. In fact, in several countries, the number of mobile subscribers already exceeds the number of fixed subscribers, which suggests that predictions of strong growth are well founded. It is clear that the future is bright for mobile communications. For the next few years at least, that future means third-generation systems, the subject of this book.

Before delving into the details of third-generation systems, however, it is appropriate to review mobile communications in general, as well as first- and second-generation systems. Like most technologies, advances in wireless communications occur mainly through a process of steady evolution (although there is the occasional quantum-leap forward). Therefore, a good understanding of third-generation systems requires an understanding of what has come before. In order to place everything in the correct perspective, the following sections of this chapter provide a history and a brief overview of mobile communications in general. Chapter 2, "First Generation (1G)," and Chapter 3, "Second Generation (2G)," provide some technical detail on first- and second-generation systems, with the remaining chapters of the book dedicated to the technologies involved in third-generation systems.

1.2 A Little History

Mobile telephony dates back to 1920s, when several police departments in the United States began to use radiotelephony, albeit on an experimental basis. Although the technology at the time had had some success with maritime vessels, it was not particularly suited to on-land communication. The equipment was extremely bulky and the radio technology did not deal very well with buildings and other obstacles found in cities. Therefore, the experiment remained just an experiment.

Further progress was made in the 1930s with the development of frequency modulation (FM), which helped in battlefield communications during the Second World War. These developments were carried over to peacetime, and limited mobile telephony service became available in the 1940s in some large cities. Such systems were of limited capacity, however, and it took many years for mobile telephone to become a viable commercial product.

1.2.1 History of First-Generation Systems

Mobile communications as we know it today really started in the late 1970s, with the implementation of a trial system in Chicago in 1978. The system used a technology known as Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS), operating in the 800-MHz band. For numerous reasons, however, including the break-up of AT&T, it took a few years before a commercial system was launched in the United States. That launch occurred in Chicago in 1983, with other cities following rapidly.

Meanwhile, however, other countries were making progress, and a commercial AMPS system was launched in Japan in 1979. The Europeans also were active in mobile communications technology, and the first European system was launched in 1981 in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland. The European system used a technology known as Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT), operating in the 450-MHz band. Later, a version of NMT was developed to operate in the 900-MHz band and was known (not surprisingly) as NMT900. Not to be left out, the British introduced yet another technology in 1985. This technology is known as the Total Access Communications System (TACS) and operates in the 900-MHz band. TACS is basically a modi-fied version of AMPS.

Many other countries followed along, and soon mobile communications services spread across the globe. Although several other technologies were developed, particularly in Europe, AMPS, NMT (both variants), and TACS were certainly the most successful technologies. These are the main first-generation systems and they are still in service today.

First-generation systems experienced success far greater than anyone had expected. In fact, this success exposed one of the weaknesses in the technologies—limited capacity. Of course, the systems were able to handle large numbers of subscribers, but when the subscribers started to number in the millions, cracks started to appear, particularly since subscribers tend to be densely clustered in metropolitan areas. Limited capacity was not the only problem, however, and other problems such as fraud became a major concern. Consequently, significant effort was dedicated to the development of second-generation systems.

1.2.2 History of Second-Generation Systems

Unlike first-generation systems, which are analog, second-generation systems are digital. The use of digital technology has a number of advantages, including increased capacity, greater security against fraud, and more advanced services.

Like first-generation systems, various types of second-generation technology have been developed. The three most successful variants of second-generation technology are Interim Standard 136 (IS-136) TDMA, IS-95 CDMA, and the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM). Each of these came about in very different ways.

1.2.2.1 IS-54B and IS-136
IS-136 came about through a two-stage evolution from analog AMPS. As described in more detail later, AMPS is a frequency division multiple access (FDMA) system, with each channel occupying 30 KHz. Some of the channels, known as control channels, are dedicated to control signaling and some, known as voice channels, are dedicated to carrying the actual voice conversation.

The first step in digitizing this system was the introduction of digital voice channels. This step involved the application of time division multiplexing (TDM) to the voice channels such that each voice channel was divided into time slots, enabling up to three simultaneous conversations on the same RF channel. This stage in the evolution was known as IS-54 B (also known as Digital AMPS or D-AMPS) and it obviously gives a significant capacity boost compared to analog AMPS. IS-54 B was introduced in 1990.

Note that IS-54 B involves digital voice channels only, and still uses analog control channels. Thus, although it may offer increased capacity and some other advantages, the fact that the control channel is analog does limit the number of services that can be offered. For that reason, among others, the next obvious step was to make the control channels also digital. That step took place in 1994 with the development of IS-136, a system that includes digital control channels and digital voice channels.

Today AMPS, IS-54B, and IS-136 are all in service. AMPS and IS-54 operate only in the 800-MHz band, whereas IS-136 can be found both in the 800-MHz band and in the 1900-MHz band, at least in North America. The 1900-MHz band in North America is allocated to Personal Communications Service (PCS), which can be described as a family of second-generation mobile communications services.

1.2.2.2 GSM
Although NMT had been introduced in Europe as recently as 1981, the Europeans soon recognized the need for a pan-European digital system. There were many reasons for this, but a major reason was the fact that multiple incompatible analog systems were being deployed across Europe. It was understood that a single Europe-wide digital system could enable seamless roaming between countries as well as features and capabilities not possible with analog systems. Consequently, in 1982, the Conference on European Posts and Telecommunications (CEPT) embarked on developing such a system. The organization established a group called (in French) Group Spéciale Mobile (GSM). This group was assigned the necessary technical work involved in developing this new digital standard. Much work was done over several years before the newly created European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) took over the effort in 1989. Under ETSI, the first set of technical specifications was finalized, and the technology was given the same name as the group that had originally begun the work on its development—GSM.

The first GSM network was launched in 1991, with several more launched in 1992. International roaming between the various networks quickly followed. GSM was hugely successful and soon, most countries in Europe had launched GSM service. Furthermore, GSM began to spread outside Europe to countries as far away as Australia. It was clear that GSM was going to be more than just a European system; it was going to be global. Consequently, the letters GSM have taken on a new meaning—Global System for Mobile communications.

Initially, GSM was specified to operate only in the 900-MHz band, and most of the GSM networks in service use this band. There are, however, other frequency bands used by GSM technology. The first implementation of GSM at a different frequency happened in the United Kingdom in 1993. That service was initially known as DCS1800 since it operates in the 1800- MHz band. These days, however, it is known as GSM1800. After all, it really is just GSM operating at 1800 MHz.

Subsequently, GSM was introduced to North America as one of the technologies to be used for PCS—that is, at 1900 MHz. In fact, the very first PCS network to be launched in North America used GSM technology.

1.2.2.3 IS-95 CDMA
Although they have significant differences, both IS-136 and GSM use Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). This means that individual radio channels are divided into timeslots, enabling a number of users to share a single RF channel on a time-sharing basis. For several reasons, this technique offers an increase in capacity compared to an analog system where each radio channel is dedicated to a single conversation. TDMA is not the only system that enables multiple users to share a given radio frequency, however. A number of other options exist—most notably Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).

CDMA is a technique whereby all users share the same frequency at the same time. Obviously, since all users share the same frequency simultaneously, they all interfere with each other. The challenge is to pick out the sig-nal of one user from all of the other signals on the same frequency. This can be done if the signal from each user is modulated with a unique code sequence, where the code bit rate is far higher than the bit rate of the information being sent. At the receiving end, knowledge of the code sequence being used for a given signal allows the signal to be extracted.

Although CDMA had been considered for commercial mobile communications services by several bodies, it was never considered a viable technology until 1989 when a CDMA system was demonstrated by Qualcomm in San Diego, California. At the time, great claims were made about the potential capacity improvement compared to AMPS, as well as the potential improved voice quality and simplified system planning. Many people were impressed with these claims and the Qualcomm CDMA system was standardized as IS-95 in 1993 by the U.S. Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA). Since then, many IS-95 CDMA systems have been deployed, particularly in North America and Korea. Although some of the initial claims regarding capacity improvements were perhaps a little overstated, IS-95 CDMA is certainly a significant improvement over AMPS and has had significant success. In North America, IS-95 CDMA has been deployed in the 800-MHz band and a variation known as J-STD-008 has been deployed in the 1900-MHz band....

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Table of Contents


Acknowledgments     xxi
Introduction     xxiii
Introduction     1
The Amazing Growth of Mobile Communications     1
A Little History     2
History of First-Generation Systems     2
History of Second-Generation Systems     3
The Path to Third-Generation Technology     5
4G and Beyond     9
Mobile Communications Fundamentals     9
Basic Network Architecture     10
Air-Interface Access Techniques     13
Roaming     18
Handoff/Handover     19
Mobile Data     20
Wireless Migration Options     22
Harmonization Process     23
Overview of Following Chapters     23
References     23
First-Generation (1G) Analog     25
First Generation (1G)     25
1G Systems     26
General 1G System Architecture     28
Typical MTSO Configuration     29
1G BTS (Cell Site) Configuration     30
AMPS Call Setup Scenarios     31
Handoff     32
Frequency Reuse     34
Spectrum Allocation     37
Channel Band Plan     37
1G Systems     40
References     40
Second Generation (2G)     41
Overview     41
Enhancements over 1G Systems     46
Integration with Existing 1G Systems     46
GSM     47
TDMA (IS-54/IS-136)     48
CDMA     49
DECT     52
GSM     53
GSM Network Architecture     53
The GSM Air Interface     58
Types of Air-Interface Channels     59
Air-Interface Channel Structure     60
GSM Traffic Scenarios     62
Location Update     62
Mobile-Originated Voice Call     64
Mobile-Terminated Voice Call     66
Handover     68
Traffic Calculation Methods     71
IS-136 System Description     71
The IS-54 Digital Voice Channel     72
Control Channel     76
MAHO     77
Frequency Reuse     78
Call Quality     80
IS-95 System Description     80
Standard CDMA Cell-Site Configurations     81
Pilot Channel Allocation     83
Forward CDMA Channel      85
Reverse CDMA Channel     87
Call Processing     88
Handoffs     90
Pilot Channel PN Assignment     94
Link Budget     97
Traffic Model     99
iDEN (Integrated Dispatch Enhanced Network)     102
WiDEN     113
CDPD     113
Summary     115
References     115
Third Generation (3G) Overview     119
Introduction     119
Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS)     123
Migration Path to UMTS and the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)     124
UMTS Services     125
UMTS Speech Service     125
The UMTS Air Interface     127
WCDMA Basics     127
Spectrum Allocation     130
Overview of the 3GPP Release 1999 Network Architecture     131
Overview of the 3GPP Release 4 Network Architecture     133
Overview of the 3GPP Release 5 All-IP Network Architecture     135
Overview CDMA2000     137
Migration Path     137
System Architecture     139
Spectrum     139
TD-CDMA     141
Generic TD-CDMA Architecture      141
Radio Network     142
RAN     142
Handover     143
Implementation     144
TD-SCDMA     144
System Architecture     144
Channel Structure     145
Interference-Mitigation Techniques     146
Handover     146
Commonality among WCDMA, CDMA2000, TD-CDMA, and TD-SCDMA     147
References     148
The Evolution Generation (2.5G)     151
What Is 2.5G?     151
Enhancements over 2G     152
Technology Platforms     153
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)     154
GPRS Services     154
GPRS User Devices     155
The GPRS Air Interface     156
GPRS Control Channels     157
GPRS Network Architecture     158
GPRS Traffic Scenarios     163
Inter-SGSN Routing Area Update     171
Traffic Calculation and Network Dimensioning for GPRS     173
Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE)     175
The EDGE Network Architecture     176
AMR Half-Rate Traffic Channels     178
GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Dimensioning     181
High-Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD)     182
CDMA2000 (1xRTT)     182
Deployment Issues     183
System Architecture     185
Frequency Planning     188
Handoff     188
Traffic Calculation Methods     189
Deployment     190
WAP     192
Short Message Service (SMS)     193
Migration Path from 2G to 2.5G to 3G     194
References     194
Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS)     197
Introduction     197
UMTS Basics     197
The WCDMA Air Interface     199
Uplink Spreading, Scrambling, and Modulation     199
Downlink Spreading, Scrambling, and Modulation     204
WCDMA Air-Interface Protocol Architecture     207
WCDMA Channel Types     211
Power Control in WCDMA     218
User Data Transfer     221
The UTRAN Architecture     223
Functional Roles of the RNC     227
UTRAN Interfaces and Protocols     227
Establishment of a UMTS Speech Call     234
UMTS Packet Data (R99)     236
High-Speed Packet Data     239
HSDPA      239
HSUPA     245
Handover     246
UMTS Core Network Evolution     248
The 3GPP Release 4 Network Architecture     248
The 3GPP Release 5 IP Multimedia Domain     251
References     252
CDMA2000     255
Radio and Network Components     258
Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN)     260
Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA)     261
Home Agent     261
Router     261
Home Location Register (HLR)     261
Base Transceiver Station (BTS)     262
Base-Station Controller (BSC)     263
Network Structure     263
Packet-Data Transport Process Flow     265
Simple IP     268
Simple IP with VPN     269
Mobile IP (3G)     270
Mobile IP with VPN     272
Radio Network (IS-2000 1xRTT)     272
Forward Channel     275
Reverse Channel     277
SR and RC     279
Power Control     280
Walsh Codes     281
EVDO     283
EVDO Forward Link     286
EVDO Reverse Link     287
EVDO Revision 0      288
EVDO Revision A     289
Data Rate     293
EVDO Revision B     294
Multicast     295
MIMO     295
BCMCS     295
EVDV     296
CDMA Channel Allocation     296
References     297
TD-SCDMA     303
Generic TD-SCDMA Architecture     303
Core Network     305
Release 4     305
Release 5     306
Radio Network     307
Radio Spectrum     308
Channel Structure     308
Spreading Codes     309
Logical Channel     310
Codes     311
Interference-Mitigation Techniques     312
"Smart" Antennas     312
Joint Detection     313
Terminal Synchronization     313
Dynamic Channel Allocation     313
RAN Traffic Planning     314
Handover     315
Implementation     316
References     318
TD-CDMA     319
Generic TD-CDMA Architecture     320
Core Network     320
Radio Network     322
Radio Spectrum     323
Channel Structure     323
Codes     324
Logical Channel     325
Interference-Mitigation Techniques     326
RAN Traffic Planning     327
Handover     330
Implementation     331
Comparison     333
References     333
Voice over IP (VoIP) Technology     335
Why VoIP?     336
The Basics of IP Transport     336
VoIP Challenges     337
H.323     339
H.323 Network Architecture     339
Overview of H.323 Protocols     341
H.323 Call Establishment     342
H.323 Call Release     346
The H.323 Fast Connect Procedure     346
The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)     347
The SIP Network Architecture     348
SIP Call Establishment     350
Information in SIP Messages     351
The Session Description Protocol     352
Distributed Architecture and Media Gateway Control     354
The MEGACO Protocol     356
VoIP and SS7     363
The SIGTRAN Protocol Suite     366
Example of SIGTRAN Usage      369
VoIP Quality of Service     369
The Resource Reservation Protocol     369
Differentiated Service     372
Multi-Protocol Label Switching     372
References     373
Broadband     375
WiFi (802.11)     375
802.11b     378
802.11g     378
802.11a     378
802.16     379
802.16     380
802.16d     384
802.16e     384
802.16x Specifications     385
Bluetooth     385
Cable Systems     386
References     388
3G System RF Design Considerations     391
RF System Design Procedures     394
Planning Process Flow     395
New Wireless System Procedure     395
Methodology     399
RAN Migration Methodology     399
Spectrum     400
Radio Access Method     401
Traffic Forecast     402
Legacy System     402
Subscriber Migration Process     403
Link Budget     403
Propagation Models     406
Free Space     408
Hata      408
Cost231-Walfisch/Ikegami     409
Cost231-Hata     411
Quick     412
Tower-Top Amplifiers     413
RF Design Guidelines     414
Traffic Projections     415
Traffic Tables (Appendix)     416
Radio Traffic Projections     418
Radio Voice Traffic Projections     419
Radio Data Traffic Projection     419
Cell-Site Design     424
Search Area     424
Site Qualification Test (SQT)     425
Site Acceptance (SA)     426
Site Rejection (SR)     428
Site Activation     428
FAA Guidelines     429
EMF Compliance     429
RF Design Report     431
Cover Sheet     431
Executive Summary     431
Revision     431
Table of Contents     431
Introduction     432
Design Criteria     432
Existing System Overview     432
Coverage Objectives     432
Coverage Quality     433
RF System Growth Requirements     433
Intersystem Coverage     433
Link Budget      433
Analysis     434
Summary of Requirements     434
References     434
Network Design Considerations     437
Traffic Forecasts     438
Subscriber Forecast     439
Voice Usage Forecast     439
Data Usage Forecast     440
Build-Ahead     441
Network Node Dimensioning     442
BSC Dimensioning     442
UMTS RNC Dimensioning     443
CDMA2000 BSC     444
MSC Dimensioning     444
SGSN and GGSN Dimensioning     445
PDSN and Home Agent Dimensioning     446
Dimensioning of Other Network Elements     446
Interface Design and Transmission Network Considerations     447
Placement of Network Nodes and Overall Network Topology     449
Cost Optimization     450
Considerations for All-IP Networks     451
Network Reliability Considerations     452
Service Treatments     452
TDM/IP/ATM Considerations     454
TDM Switching     455
Switching Functions     455
Circuit Switches     456
Space-Division Switching     456
Time-Division Switching      456
Circuit-Switching Hierarchy     458
Packet Switching     458
IP Networks     459
IP Addressing     460
Soft Switches     463
ATM     465
ATM Networks     468
ATM Design Aspects     469
Facility Sizes     471
Demand Estimation     471
VoIP     472
OSI Levels     474
Final Report     474
Summary     475
References     475
Antenna System Selection     477
Base-Station Antennas     478
Performance Criteria     479
Diversity     482
Cross-Pole Antennas     485
Dual-Band Antenna     487
Intelligent Antennas     488
MIMO     490
dBi and dBd     490
References     491
UMTS System Design     493
Network Design Principles     493
RF Coverage Analysis     494
Link Budgets     496
RF Capacity Analysis     501
Calculating Uplink Cell Load     503
Downlink Cell Load     507
Load Sharing      511
Design of the Radio Access Network     513
Iub-Interface Dimensioning     514
Determining the Number of RNCs     515
Designing the UTRAN Transmission Network     516
UMTS Overlaid on GSM     520
HSDPA/HSUPA     523
References     523
CDMA2000 System Design     525
Design Methodology     526
Deployment Guidelines     527
1xRTT     530
1xEV-DO     530
1xEVDV     530
System Traffic Estimation     531
Radio Elements     534
Antenna Configurations     534
BTS     535
Channel Element (CE) Dimensioning     536
Packet-Data Services (RF Environment)     537
Fixed Network Design Requirements     538
PDSN     539
Packet Zone     539
Design Utilization Rates     540
IP Addressing     540
Traffic Model (1xRTT)     543
Walsh Codes     544
Packet- Data Rates     553
Handoffs     556
Search Window     556
Soft Handoffs (1xRTT)     556
EVDO      558
PN Offset Assignment     558
Link Budget     560
1xRTT     560
EVDO     561
Sample Basic Designs     564
CDMA2000 1xRTT     565
EVDO (IS-856)     569
CDMA2000 1xRTT with EVDO Overlay     573
References     578
TD-CDMA and TD-SCDMA System Design     581
Design Methodology     582
Deployment Guidelines     584
System Traffic Estimation     585
Radio Elements     589
Spectrum     589
Antenna Configurations     590
Node B     590
Fixed Network Design Requirements     591
Utilization Rates     593
IP Addressing     593
Sample Basic Designs     595
References     596
Communication Sites     599
Communication-Site Types     599
Macrocell Site     600
Omnidirectional Cell Sites     601
Directional Cell Site     602
Microcells     604
Picocell Sites     605
Installation     606
Cable Runs     606
Antenna Mounting      606
Diversity Spacing     607
Roof Mounting     608
Wall Mounting     608
Towers     610
Stealth     610
In-Building and Tunnel Systems     611
Antenna System     615
In-Building Application     615
Tunnel Applications     616
Planning     618
Intermodulation     619
IM Check Procedure     620
Colocation     621
Isolation Requirements     622
Calculating Needed Isolation     624
Isolation Requirements     625
Free Space     625
Antenna Patterns     626
Vertical Separation     626
Horizontal Separation     628
Slant Separation     630
Colocation Guidelines     631
Colocation Rules     636
Communication-Site Checklist     637
References     638
4G and Beyond     639
Technology Path     640
IMS     641
Convergent Devices     643
Smart Phones     643
Software Defined Radio (SDR)     644
Laptops     645
PTT      645
Advanced Broadband Wireless Access     645
Ultrawideband (UWB)     645
Unlicensed Wireless Access (UWA)     646
802.20 MBWA     647
FOMA and iMODE     652
WiBRO     652
FWA     652
Advanced Wireless Services (AWS)     652
Multimedia (Mobile TV)     653
MediaFLO     654
T-DBM     654
DVB-H Digital     654
MVNO     655
First Responders     655
Business Requirements     657
References     659
Erlang Tables     661=970 12$lErlang B     661=970 12$lErlang C     663
Index     665
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