3G Wireless Networks, Second Edition / Edition 2

3G Wireless Networks, Second Edition / Edition 2

by Clint Smith, Daniel Collins
     
 

ISBN-10: 007226344X

ISBN-13: 9780072263442

Pub. Date: 11/16/2006

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing

Fully up-to-date coverage of the inner-workings of 3G

This revised and updated edition of 3G Wireless Networks covers the changes taking place within the arena of 3G—the wireless technology that enables voice, full-featured video, CD-quality sound, and Web browsing anywhere in the world. The book covers key standards and protocols and the critical issues of

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Overview

Fully up-to-date coverage of the inner-workings of 3G

This revised and updated edition of 3G Wireless Networks covers the changes taking place within the arena of 3G—the wireless technology that enables voice, full-featured video, CD-quality sound, and Web browsing anywhere in the world. The book covers key standards and protocols and the critical issues of compatibility, internetworking, and voice/data convergence. You will learn how to successfully design and integrate WCDMA/UMTS, CDMA2000, and SCDMA into existing cellular/PCS networks.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780072263442
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
Publication date:
11/16/2006
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
695
Product dimensions:
7.60(w) x 9.40(h) x 1.57(d)

Table of Contents


Acknowledgments     xxi
Introduction     xxiii
Introduction     1
The Amazing Growth of Mobile Communications     1
A Little History     2
History of First-Generation Systems     2
History of Second-Generation Systems     3
The Path to Third-Generation Technology     5
4G and Beyond     9
Mobile Communications Fundamentals     9
Basic Network Architecture     10
Air-Interface Access Techniques     13
Roaming     18
Handoff/Handover     19
Mobile Data     20
Wireless Migration Options     22
Harmonization Process     23
Overview of Following Chapters     23
References     23
First-Generation (1G) Analog     25
First Generation (1G)     25
1G Systems     26
General 1G System Architecture     28
Typical MTSO Configuration     29
1G BTS (Cell Site) Configuration     30
AMPS Call Setup Scenarios     31
Handoff     32
Frequency Reuse     34
Spectrum Allocation     37
Channel Band Plan     37
1G Systems     40
References     40
Second Generation (2G)     41
Overview     41
Enhancements over 1G Systems     46
Integration with Existing 1G Systems     46
GSM     47
TDMA (IS-54/IS-136)     48
CDMA     49
DECT     52
GSM     53
GSM Network Architecture     53
The GSM Air Interface     58
Types of Air-Interface Channels     59
Air-Interface Channel Structure     60
GSM Traffic Scenarios     62
Location Update     62
Mobile-Originated Voice Call     64
Mobile-Terminated Voice Call     66
Handover     68
Traffic Calculation Methods     71
IS-136 System Description     71
The IS-54 Digital Voice Channel     72
Control Channel     76
MAHO     77
Frequency Reuse     78
Call Quality     80
IS-95 System Description     80
Standard CDMA Cell-Site Configurations     81
Pilot Channel Allocation     83
Forward CDMA Channel      85
Reverse CDMA Channel     87
Call Processing     88
Handoffs     90
Pilot Channel PN Assignment     94
Link Budget     97
Traffic Model     99
iDEN (Integrated Dispatch Enhanced Network)     102
WiDEN     113
CDPD     113
Summary     115
References     115
Third Generation (3G) Overview     119
Introduction     119
Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS)     123
Migration Path to UMTS and the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)     124
UMTS Services     125
UMTS Speech Service     125
The UMTS Air Interface     127
WCDMA Basics     127
Spectrum Allocation     130
Overview of the 3GPP Release 1999 Network Architecture     131
Overview of the 3GPP Release 4 Network Architecture     133
Overview of the 3GPP Release 5 All-IP Network Architecture     135
Overview CDMA2000     137
Migration Path     137
System Architecture     139
Spectrum     139
TD-CDMA     141
Generic TD-CDMA Architecture      141
Radio Network     142
RAN     142
Handover     143
Implementation     144
TD-SCDMA     144
System Architecture     144
Channel Structure     145
Interference-Mitigation Techniques     146
Handover     146
Commonality among WCDMA, CDMA2000, TD-CDMA, and TD-SCDMA     147
References     148
The Evolution Generation (2.5G)     151
What Is 2.5G?     151
Enhancements over 2G     152
Technology Platforms     153
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)     154
GPRS Services     154
GPRS User Devices     155
The GPRS Air Interface     156
GPRS Control Channels     157
GPRS Network Architecture     158
GPRS Traffic Scenarios     163
Inter-SGSN Routing Area Update     171
Traffic Calculation and Network Dimensioning for GPRS     173
Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE)     175
The EDGE Network Architecture     176
AMR Half-Rate Traffic Channels     178
GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Dimensioning     181
High-Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD)     182
CDMA2000 (1xRTT)     182
Deployment Issues     183
System Architecture     185
Frequency Planning     188
Handoff     188
Traffic Calculation Methods     189
Deployment     190
WAP     192
Short Message Service (SMS)     193
Migration Path from 2G to 2.5G to 3G     194
References     194
Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS)     197
Introduction     197
UMTS Basics     197
The WCDMA Air Interface     199
Uplink Spreading, Scrambling, and Modulation     199
Downlink Spreading, Scrambling, and Modulation     204
WCDMA Air-Interface Protocol Architecture     207
WCDMA Channel Types     211
Power Control in WCDMA     218
User Data Transfer     221
The UTRAN Architecture     223
Functional Roles of the RNC     227
UTRAN Interfaces and Protocols     227
Establishment of a UMTS Speech Call     234
UMTS Packet Data (R99)     236
High-Speed Packet Data     239
HSDPA      239
HSUPA     245
Handover     246
UMTS Core Network Evolution     248
The 3GPP Release 4 Network Architecture     248
The 3GPP Release 5 IP Multimedia Domain     251
References     252
CDMA2000     255
Radio and Network Components     258
Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN)     260
Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA)     261
Home Agent     261
Router     261
Home Location Register (HLR)     261
Base Transceiver Station (BTS)     262
Base-Station Controller (BSC)     263
Network Structure     263
Packet-Data Transport Process Flow     265
Simple IP     268
Simple IP with VPN     269
Mobile IP (3G)     270
Mobile IP with VPN     272
Radio Network (IS-2000 1xRTT)     272
Forward Channel     275
Reverse Channel     277
SR and RC     279
Power Control     280
Walsh Codes     281
EVDO     283
EVDO Forward Link     286
EVDO Reverse Link     287
EVDO Revision 0      288
EVDO Revision A     289
Data Rate     293
EVDO Revision B     294
Multicast     295
MIMO     295
BCMCS     295
EVDV     296
CDMA Channel Allocation     296
References     297
TD-SCDMA     303
Generic TD-SCDMA Architecture     303
Core Network     305
Release 4     305
Release 5     306
Radio Network     307
Radio Spectrum     308
Channel Structure     308
Spreading Codes     309
Logical Channel     310
Codes     311
Interference-Mitigation Techniques     312
"Smart" Antennas     312
Joint Detection     313
Terminal Synchronization     313
Dynamic Channel Allocation     313
RAN Traffic Planning     314
Handover     315
Implementation     316
References     318
TD-CDMA     319
Generic TD-CDMA Architecture     320
Core Network     320
Radio Network     322
Radio Spectrum     323
Channel Structure     323
Codes     324
Logical Channel     325
Interference-Mitigation Techniques     326
RAN Traffic Planning     327
Handover     330
Implementation     331
Comparison     333
References     333
Voice over IP (VoIP) Technology     335
Why VoIP?     336
The Basics of IP Transport     336
VoIP Challenges     337
H.323     339
H.323 Network Architecture     339
Overview of H.323 Protocols     341
H.323 Call Establishment     342
H.323 Call Release     346
The H.323 Fast Connect Procedure     346
The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)     347
The SIP Network Architecture     348
SIP Call Establishment     350
Information in SIP Messages     351
The Session Description Protocol     352
Distributed Architecture and Media Gateway Control     354
The MEGACO Protocol     356
VoIP and SS7     363
The SIGTRAN Protocol Suite     366
Example of SIGTRAN Usage      369
VoIP Quality of Service     369
The Resource Reservation Protocol     369
Differentiated Service     372
Multi-Protocol Label Switching     372
References     373
Broadband     375
WiFi (802.11)     375
802.11b     378
802.11g     378
802.11a     378
802.16     379
802.16     380
802.16d     384
802.16e     384
802.16x Specifications     385
Bluetooth     385
Cable Systems     386
References     388
3G System RF Design Considerations     391
RF System Design Procedures     394
Planning Process Flow     395
New Wireless System Procedure     395
Methodology     399
RAN Migration Methodology     399
Spectrum     400
Radio Access Method     401
Traffic Forecast     402
Legacy System     402
Subscriber Migration Process     403
Link Budget     403
Propagation Models     406
Free Space     408
Hata      408
Cost231-Walfisch/Ikegami     409
Cost231-Hata     411
Quick     412
Tower-Top Amplifiers     413
RF Design Guidelines     414
Traffic Projections     415
Traffic Tables (Appendix)     416
Radio Traffic Projections     418
Radio Voice Traffic Projections     419
Radio Data Traffic Projection     419
Cell-Site Design     424
Search Area     424
Site Qualification Test (SQT)     425
Site Acceptance (SA)     426
Site Rejection (SR)     428
Site Activation     428
FAA Guidelines     429
EMF Compliance     429
RF Design Report     431
Cover Sheet     431
Executive Summary     431
Revision     431
Table of Contents     431
Introduction     432
Design Criteria     432
Existing System Overview     432
Coverage Objectives     432
Coverage Quality     433
RF System Growth Requirements     433
Intersystem Coverage     433
Link Budget      433
Analysis     434
Summary of Requirements     434
References     434
Network Design Considerations     437
Traffic Forecasts     438
Subscriber Forecast     439
Voice Usage Forecast     439
Data Usage Forecast     440
Build-Ahead     441
Network Node Dimensioning     442
BSC Dimensioning     442
UMTS RNC Dimensioning     443
CDMA2000 BSC     444
MSC Dimensioning     444
SGSN and GGSN Dimensioning     445
PDSN and Home Agent Dimensioning     446
Dimensioning of Other Network Elements     446
Interface Design and Transmission Network Considerations     447
Placement of Network Nodes and Overall Network Topology     449
Cost Optimization     450
Considerations for All-IP Networks     451
Network Reliability Considerations     452
Service Treatments     452
TDM/IP/ATM Considerations     454
TDM Switching     455
Switching Functions     455
Circuit Switches     456
Space-Division Switching     456
Time-Division Switching      456
Circuit-Switching Hierarchy     458
Packet Switching     458
IP Networks     459
IP Addressing     460
Soft Switches     463
ATM     465
ATM Networks     468
ATM Design Aspects     469
Facility Sizes     471
Demand Estimation     471
VoIP     472
OSI Levels     474
Final Report     474
Summary     475
References     475
Antenna System Selection     477
Base-Station Antennas     478
Performance Criteria     479
Diversity     482
Cross-Pole Antennas     485
Dual-Band Antenna     487
Intelligent Antennas     488
MIMO     490
dBi and dBd     490
References     491
UMTS System Design     493
Network Design Principles     493
RF Coverage Analysis     494
Link Budgets     496
RF Capacity Analysis     501
Calculating Uplink Cell Load     503
Downlink Cell Load     507
Load Sharing      511
Design of the Radio Access Network     513
Iub-Interface Dimensioning     514
Determining the Number of RNCs     515
Designing the UTRAN Transmission Network     516
UMTS Overlaid on GSM     520
HSDPA/HSUPA     523
References     523
CDMA2000 System Design     525
Design Methodology     526
Deployment Guidelines     527
1xRTT     530
1xEV-DO     530
1xEVDV     530
System Traffic Estimation     531
Radio Elements     534
Antenna Configurations     534
BTS     535
Channel Element (CE) Dimensioning     536
Packet-Data Services (RF Environment)     537
Fixed Network Design Requirements     538
PDSN     539
Packet Zone     539
Design Utilization Rates     540
IP Addressing     540
Traffic Model (1xRTT)     543
Walsh Codes     544
Packet- Data Rates     553
Handoffs     556
Search Window     556
Soft Handoffs (1xRTT)     556
EVDO      558
PN Offset Assignment     558
Link Budget     560
1xRTT     560
EVDO     561
Sample Basic Designs     564
CDMA2000 1xRTT     565
EVDO (IS-856)     569
CDMA2000 1xRTT with EVDO Overlay     573
References     578
TD-CDMA and TD-SCDMA System Design     581
Design Methodology     582
Deployment Guidelines     584
System Traffic Estimation     585
Radio Elements     589
Spectrum     589
Antenna Configurations     590
Node B     590
Fixed Network Design Requirements     591
Utilization Rates     593
IP Addressing     593
Sample Basic Designs     595
References     596
Communication Sites     599
Communication-Site Types     599
Macrocell Site     600
Omnidirectional Cell Sites     601
Directional Cell Site     602
Microcells     604
Picocell Sites     605
Installation     606
Cable Runs     606
Antenna Mounting      606
Diversity Spacing     607
Roof Mounting     608
Wall Mounting     608
Towers     610
Stealth     610
In-Building and Tunnel Systems     611
Antenna System     615
In-Building Application     615
Tunnel Applications     616
Planning     618
Intermodulation     619
IM Check Procedure     620
Colocation     621
Isolation Requirements     622
Calculating Needed Isolation     624
Isolation Requirements     625
Free Space     625
Antenna Patterns     626
Vertical Separation     626
Horizontal Separation     628
Slant Separation     630
Colocation Guidelines     631
Colocation Rules     636
Communication-Site Checklist     637
References     638
4G and Beyond     639
Technology Path     640
IMS     641
Convergent Devices     643
Smart Phones     643
Software Defined Radio (SDR)     644
Laptops     645
PTT      645
Advanced Broadband Wireless Access     645
Ultrawideband (UWB)     645
Unlicensed Wireless Access (UWA)     646
802.20 MBWA     647
FOMA and iMODE     652
WiBRO     652
FWA     652
Advanced Wireless Services (AWS)     652
Multimedia (Mobile TV)     653
MediaFLO     654
T-DBM     654
DVB-H Digital     654
MVNO     655
First Responders     655
Business Requirements     657
References     659
Erlang Tables     661=970 12$lErlang B     661=970 12$lErlang C     663
Index     665

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