4G Wireless Video Communications / Edition 1

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A comprehensive presentation of the video communication techniques and systems, this book examines 4G wireless systems which are set to revolutionise ubiquitous multimedia communication.4G Wireless Video Communications covers the fundamental theory and looks at systems’ descriptions with a focus on digital video. It addresses the key topics associated with multimedia communication on 4G networks, including advanced video coding standards, error resilience and error concealment techniques, as well as advanced content-analysis and adaptation techniques for video communications, cross-layer design and optimization frameworks and methods. It also provides a high-level overview of the digital video compression standard MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 that is expected to play a key role in 4G networks.

Material is presented logically allowing readers to turn directly to specific points of interest. The first half of the book covers fundamental theory and systems, while the second half moves onto advanced techniques and applications. This book is a timely reflection of the latest advances in video communications for 4G wireless systems.

  • One of the first books to study the latest video communications developments for emerging 4G wireless systems
  • Considers challenges and techniques in video delivery over 4G wireless systems
  • Examines system architecture, key techniques and related standards of advanced wireless multimedia applications
  • Written from both the perspective of industry and academia
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Haohong Wang received the B.S. degree in computer science and the M.Eng. degree in computer & its application both from Nanjing University, the M.S. degree in computer science from University of New Mexico, and the Ph.D. degree in Electrical and computer engineering from Northwestern University. He is currently a Senior System Architect and Manager at Marvell Semiconductors at Santa Clara, California. Prior to joining Marvell, he held various technical positions at AT&T, Catapult Communications, and Qualcomm. Dr. Wang’s research involves the areas of multimedia communications, graphics and image/video analysis and processing. He has published more than 40 articles in peer-reviewed journals and International conferences. He is the inventor of more than 40 U.S. patens and pending applications. He is the co-author of 4G Wireless Video Communications (John Wiley & Sons, 2009), and Computer Graphics (1997). Dr. Wang is the Associate Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Communications, Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE MMTC E-Letter, an Associate Editor of the Journal of Computer Systems, Networks, and Communications and a Guest Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Multimedia. He served as a Guest Editor of the IEEE Communications Magazine, Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, and Advances in Multimedia. Dr. Wang is the Technical Program Chair of IEEE GLOBECOM 2010 (Miami). He served as the General Chair of the 17th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN 2008) (US Virgin Island), and the Technical Program Chair of many other International conferences including IEEE ICCCN 2007 (Honolulu), IMAP 2007 (Honolulu), ISMW 2006 (Vancouver), and the ISMW 2005 (Maui). He is the Founding Steering Committee Chair of the annual International Symposium on Multimedia over Wireless (2005–). He chairs the TC Promotion & Improvement Sub-Committee, as well as the Cross-layer Communications SIG of the IEEE Multimedia Communications Technical Committee. He is also an elected member of the IEEE Visual Signal Processing and Communications Technical Committee (2005–), and IEEE Multimedia and Systems Applications Technical Committee (2006–).

Lisimachos P. Kondi received a diploma in electrical engineering from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, in 1994 and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, both in electrical and computer engineering, from Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA in 1996 and 1999, respectively. He is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Ioannina, Greece. His research interests are in the general area of multimedia communications and signal processing, including image and video compression and transmission over wireless channels and the Internet, super-resolution of video sequences and shape coding. Dr Kondi is an Associate Editor of the EURASIP Journal of Advances in Signal Processing and an Associate Editor of IEEE Signal Processing Letters.

Ajay Luthra received his B.E. (Hons) from BITS, Pilani, India in 1975, M.Tech. in Communications Engineering from IIT Delhi in 1977 and Ph.D. from Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania in 1981. From 1981 to 1984 he was a Senior Engineer at Interspec Inc., where he was involved in digital signal and image processing for bio-medical applications. From 1984 to 1995 he was at Tektronix Inc., where from 1985 to 1990 he was manager of the Digital Signal and Picture Processing Group and from 1990 to 1995 Director of the Communications/Video Systems Research Lab. He is currently a Senior Director in the Advanced Technology Group at Connected Home Solutions, Motorola Inc., where he is involved in advanced development work in the areas of digital video compression and processing, streaming video, interactive TV, cable head-end system design, advanced set top box architectures and IPTV. Dr Luthra has been an active member of the MPEG Committee for more than twelve years where he has chaired several technical sub-groups and pioneered the MPEG-2 extensions for studio applications. He is currently an associate rapporteur/co-chair of the Joint Video Team (JVT) consisting of ISO/MPEG and ITU-T/VCEG experts working on developing the next generation of video coding standard known as MPEG-4 Part 10 AVC/H.264. He is also the USA’s Head of Delegates (HoD) to MPEG. He was an Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology (2000–2002) and a Guest Editor for its Special Issues on the H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard, July 2003 and Streaming Video, March 2001. He holds 30 patents, has published more than 30 papers and has been a guest speaker at numerous conferences.

Song Ci is an Assistant Professor of computer and electronics engineering at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. He received his B.S. from Shandong University, Jinan, China, in 1992, M.S. from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, in 1998, and a Ph.D. from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 2002, all in Electrical Engineering. He also worked with China Telecom (Shandong) as a telecommunications engineer from 1992 to 1995, and with the Wireless Connectivity Division of 3COM Cooperation, Santa Clara, CA, as a R&D Engineer in 2001. Prior to joining the University of Nebraska Lincoln, he was an Assistant Professor of computer science at the University of Massachusetts Boston and the University of Michigan-Flint. He is the founding director of the Intelligent Ubiquitous Computing Laboratory (iUbiComp Lab) at the Peter Kiewit Institute of the University of Nebraska. His research interests include cross-layer design for multimedia wireless communications, intelligent network management, resource allocation and scheduling in various wireless networks and power-aware multimedia embedded networked sensing system design and development. He has published more than 60 research papers in referred journals and at international conferences in those areas. Dr Song Ci serves currently as Associate Editor on the Editorial Board of Wiley Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (WCMC) and Guest Editor of IEEE Network Magazine Special Issue on Wireless Mesh Networks: Applications, Architectures and Protocols, Editor of Journal of Computer Systems, Networks, and Communications and an Associate Editor of the Wiley Journal of Security and Communication Networks. He also serves as the TPC co-Chair of IEEE ICCCN 2007, TPC co-Chair of IEEE WLN 2007, TPC co-Chair of the Wireless Applications track at IEEE VTC 2007 Fall, the session Chair at IEEE MILCOM 2007 and as a reviewer for numerous referred journals and technical committee members at many international conferences. He is the Vice Chair  of Communications Society of IEEE Nebraska Section, Senior Member of the IEEE and Member of the ACM and the ASHRAE.

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Table of Contents

Forward xiii

Preface xv

About the Authors xxi

About the Series Editors xxv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Why 4G? 1

1.2 4G Status and Key Technologies 3

1.2.1 3GPP LTE 3

1.2.2 Mobile WiMAX 4

1.3 Video Over Wireless 5

1.3.1 Video Compression Basics 5

1.3.2 Video Coding Standards 9

1.3.3 Error Resilience 10

1.3.4 Network Integration 12

1.3.5 Cross-Layer Design for Wireless Video Delivery 14

1.4 Challenges and Opportunities for 4G Wireless Video 15

References 17

2 Wireless Communications and Networking 19

2.1 Characteristics and Modeling of Wireless Channels 19

2.1.1 Degradation in Radio Propagation 19

2.1.2 Rayleigh Fading Channel 20

2.2 Adaptive Modulation and Coding 23

2.2.1 Basics of Modulation Schemes 23

2.2.2 System Model of AMC 25

2.2.3 Channel Quality Estimation and Prediction 26

2.2.4 Modulation and Coding Parameter Adaptation 28

2.2.5 Estimation Error and Delay in AMC 30

2.2.6 Selection of Adaptation Interval 30

2.3 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 31

2.3.1 Background 31

2.3.2 System Model and Implementation 31

2.3.3 Pros and Cons 33

2.4 Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems 34

2.4.1 MIMO System Model 34

2.4.2 MIMO Capacity Gain: Multiplexing 35

2.4.3 MIMO Diversity Gain: Beamforming 35

2.4.4 Diversity-Multiplexing Trade-offs 35

2.4.5 Space-Time Coding 36

2.5 Cross-Layer Design of AMC and HARQ 37

2.5.1 Background 38

2.5.2 System Modeling 39

2.5.3 Cross-Layer Design 41

2.5.4 Performance Analysis 44

2.5.5 Performance 45

2.6 Wireless Networking 47

2.6.1 Layering Network Architectures 48

2.6.2 Network Service Models 50

2.6.3 Multiplexing Methods 51

2.6.4 Connection Management in IP-Based Data Networks 53

2.6.5 QoS Handoff 54

2.7 Summary 55

References 56

3 Video Coding and Communications 59

3.1 Digital Video Compression – Why and How Much? 59

3.2 Basics 60

3.2.1 Video Formats 60

3.3 Information Theory 64

3.3.1 Entropy and Mutual Information 65

3.3.2 Encoding of an Information Source 66

3.3.3 Variable Length Coding 68

3.3.4 Quantization 71

3.4 Encoder Architectures 73

3.4.1 DPCM 73

3.4.2 Hybrid Transform-DPCM Architecture 77

3.4.3 A Typical Hybrid Transform DPCM-based Video Codec 79

3.4.4 Motion Compensation 82

3.4.5 DCT and Quantization 83

3.4.6 Procedures Performed at the Decoder 84

3.5 Wavelet-Based Video Compression 86

3.5.1 Motion-Compensated Temporal Wavelet Transform Using Lifting 90

References 94

4 4G Wireless Communications and Networking 97

4.1 IMT-Advanced and 4G 97

4.2 LTE 99

4.2.1 Introduction 101

4.2.2 Protocol Architecture 102

4.2.3 LTE Layer 2 107

4.2.4 The Evolution of Architecture 110

4.2.5 LTE Standardization 110

4.3 WIMAX-IEEE 802.16m 112

4.3.1 Network Architecture 113

4.3.2 System Reference Model 114

4.3.3 Protocol Structure 114

4.3.4 Other Functions Supported by IEEE 802.16m for Further Study 125

4.4 3GPP2 UMB 125

4.4.1 Architecture Reference Model 126

4.4.2 Layering Architecture and Protocols 127

Acknowledgements 133

References 133

5 Advanced Video Coding (AVC)/H.264 Standard 135

5.1 Digital Video Compression Standards 135

5.2 AVC/H.264 Coding Algorithm 138

5.2.1 Temporal Prediction 139

5.2.2 Spatial Prediction 147

5.2.3 The Transform 148

5.2.4 Quantization and Scaling 151

5.2.5 Scanning 151

5.2.6 Variable Length Lossless Codecs 152

5.2.7 Deblocking Filter 155

5.2.8 Hierarchy in the Coded Video 156

5.2.9 Buffers 158

5.2.10 Encapsulation/Packetization 159

5.2.11 Profiles 160

5.2.12 Levels 163

5.2.13 Parameter Sets 167

5.2.14 Supplemental Enhancement Information (SEI) 167

5.2.15 Subjective Tests 168

References 168

6 Content Analysis for Communications 171

6.1 Introduction 171

6.2 Content Analysis 173

6.2.1 Low-Level Feature Extraction 174

6.2.2 Image Segmentation 179

6.2.3 Video Object Segmentation 185

6.2.4 Video Structure Understanding 200

6.2.5 Analysis Methods in Compressed Domain 208

6.3 Content-Based Video Representation 209

6.4 Content-Based Video Coding and Communications 212

6.4.1 Object-Based Video Coding 212

6.4.2 Error Resilience for Object-Based Video 215

6.5 Content Description and Management 217

6.5.1 MPEG-7 217

6.5.2 MPEG-21 219

References 219

7 Video Error Resilience and Error Concealment 223

7.1 Introduction 223

7.2 Error Resilience 224

7.2.1 Resynchronization Markers 224

7.2.2 Reversible Variable Length Coding (RVLC) 225

7.2.3 Error-Resilient Entropy Coding (EREC) 226

7.2.4 Independent Segment Decoding 228

7.2.5 Insertion of Intra Blocks or Frames 228

7.2.6 Scalable Coding 229

7.2.7 Multiple Description Coding 230

7.3 Channel Coding 232

7.4 Error Concealment 234

7.4.1 Intra Error Concealment Techniques 234

7.4.2 Inter Error Concealment Techniques 234

7.5 Error Resilience Features of H.264/AVC 236

7.5.1 Picture Segmentation 236

7.5.2 Intra Placement 236

7.5.3 Reference Picture Selection 237

7.5.4 Data Partitioning 237

7.5.5 Parameter Sets 237

7.5.6 Flexible Macroblock Ordering 238

7.5.7 Redundant Slices (RSs) 239

References 239

8 Cross-Layer Optimized Video Delivery over 4G Wireless Networks 241

8.1 Why Cross-Layer Design? 241

8.2 Quality-Driven Cross-Layer Framework 242

8.3 Application Layer 244

8.4 Rate Control at the Transport Layer 244

8.4.1 Background 244

8.4.2 System Model 246

8.4.3 Network Setting 246

8.4.4 Problem Formulation 248

8.4.5 Problem Solution 248

8.4.6 Performance Evaluation 249

8.5 Routing at the Network Layer 252

8.5.1 Background 252

8.5.2 System Model 254

8.5.3 Routing Metric 255

8.5.4 Problem Formulation 257

8.5.5 Problem Solution 258

8.5.6 Implementation Considerations 262

8.5.7 Performance Evaluation 263

8.6 Content-Aware Real-Time Video Streaming 265

8.6.1 Background 265

8.6.2 Background 265

8.6.3 Problem Formulation 266

8.6.4 Routing Based on Priority Queuing 267

8.6.5 Problem Solution 269

8.6.6 Performance Evaluation 270

8.7 Cross-Layer Optimization for Video Summary Transmission 272

8.7.1 Background 272

8.7.2 Problem Formulation 274

8.7.3 System Model 276

8.7.4 Link Adaptation for Good Content Coverage 278

8.7.5 Problem Solution 280

8.7.6 Performance Evaluation 283

8.8 Conclusions 287

References 287

9 Content-based Video Communications 291

9.1 Network-Adaptive Video Object Encoding 291

9.2 Joint Source Coding and Unequal Error Protection 294

9.2.1 Problem Formulation 295

9.2.2 Solution and Implementation Details 299

9.2.3 Application on Energy-Efficient Wireless Network 301

9.2.4 Application on Differentiated Services Networks 303

9.3 Joint Source-Channel Coding with Utilization of Data Hiding 305

9.3.1 Hiding Shape in Texture 308

9.3.2 Joint Source-Channel Coding 309

9.3.3 Joint Source-Channel Coding and Data Hiding 311

9.3.4 Experimental Results 315

References 322

10 AVC/H.264 Application – Digital TV 325

10.1 Introduction 325

10.1.1 Encoder Flexibility 326

10.2 Random Access 326

10.2.1 GOP Bazaar 327

10.2.2 Buffers, Before and After 332

10.3 Bitstream Splicing 335

10.4 Trick Modes 337

10.4.1 Fast Forward 338

10.4.2 Reverse 338

10.4.3 Pause 338

10.5 Carriage of AVC/H.264 Over MPEG-2 Systems 338

10.5.1 Packetization 339

10.5.2 Audio Video Synchronization 344

10.5.3 Transmitter and Receiver Clock Synchronization 344

10.5.4 System Target Decoder and Timing Model 344

References 345

11 Interactive Video Communications 347

11.1 Video Conferencing and Telephony 347

11.1.1 IP and Broadband Video Telephony 347

11.1.2 Wireless Video Telephony 348

11.1.3 3G-324M Protocol 348

11.2 Region-of-Interest Video Communications 351

11.2.1 ROI based Bit Allocation 351

11.2.2 Content Adaptive Background Skipping 356

References 366

12 Wireless Video Streaming 369

12.1 Introduction 369

12.2 Streaming System Architecture 370

12.2.1 Video Compression 370

12.2.2 Application Layer QoS Control 372

12.2.3 Protocols 374

12.2.4 Video/Audio Synchronization 376

12.3 Delay-Constrained Retransmission 377

12.3.1 Receiver-Based Control 378

12.3.2 Sender-Based Control 378

12.3.3 Hybrid Control 379

12.3.4 Rate-Distortion Optimal Retransmission 379

12.4 Considerations for Wireless Video Streaming 382

12.4.1 Cross-Layer Optimization and Physical Layer Consideration 383

12.5 P2P Video Streaming 384

References 385

Index 389

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