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50 Strategies for Improving Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Fluency offers a practical approach of step-by-step instructional procedures for developing key literacy skills. Each strategy is supported by an authentic classroom example. An additional example of each strategy is provided on the free CD-ROM that accompanies the book. These teaching examples clearly identify how to implement the strategy and adapt its use to fit the needs of learners in a primary/elementary and a middle school/secondary classroom. Margin features titled Focus on English Language Learners explain how to create learning tools to make the strategy fit the needs of English language learners. This '50 Strategies' book also offers:
I. WORD- AND SENTENCE-LEVEL COMPREHENSION.
1. Collecting Words: Learning the Nuances of Word Meanings.
2. Structural Analysis: Focusing on the Meaning of Word Parts.
3. Word Mapping: Exploring Word Meanings and Applications.
4. Word Origin Studies: Linking Word Histories and Roots to Word Comprehension.
5. Vocabulary Processing: Multiple Strategies Approach.
6. Text Talk: Scaffolding Comprehension Through Oral Discussion.
7. Microselection: Introducing the Concepts of Keywords and Main Ideas.
8. Fluency Strategies: Multiple Approaches.
II. PARAGRAPH-LEVEL COMPREHENSION.
9. Anaphoric Relations: Word Substitutions.
10. Connectives: Focusing on Words that Support Cohesion and Inference.
11. Text Charting: Exploring the Connections among Sentences.
12. Inferences: Filling in the Missing Pieces.
13. Read, Pair, Share: Working with a Partner to Answer Questions.
14. Cooperative Scripts: Working in Pairs to Improve Comprehension and Recall.
15. GIST (Generating Interaction Between Schemata and Text): Making Comprehension Connections.
III. INTEGRATING BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE.
16. Predicting: Using Past Experiences to Support Comprehension.
17. Perspective Taking: Getting Into the Minds of the Characters.
18. Double-Entry Journals: Connecting Experiences to Text.
19. Read/Think Aloud: Emphasizing Connections and Thought Processes.
20. Series Book Studies: Building Background Knowledge through Familiar Story Elements.
21. Intertextual Studies: Comparing Story Elements to Build Comprehension.
22. Graphic Organizers: Visually Representing Ideas, Text, and Connections.
23. Critical Reading: Analyzing Text through Higher-Level Thinking Activities.
24. Imagination, Images, and Interaction: Creating and Describing Mental Pictures.
IV. HOLISTIC COMPREHENSION.
25. KWL Charts: Supporting Comprehension Into, Through, and Beyond Reading.
26. Data Charts: Organizing Information to Aid Comprehension and Recall.
27. Drama Centers: Building Comprehension through Active Processing.
28. Story Retelling Boxes: Using Props to Reenact Stories.
29. Script Writing: Investigating and Analyzing Text.
30. Readers Theatre: Using Active Reading Processes to Enhance Comprehension.
31. Story Structure Studies: Recognizing and Building on Narrative Story Elements.
32. Text Mapping: A Travelers' Guide to Comprehension.
33. Summarization: Identifying the Main Idea and Supporting Details.
34. NIPS: An Interactive Support Strategy for Comprehending "Tough" Text.
V. SELF-MONITORING STRATEGIES.
35. Cross-Checking: Self-Monitoring at the Sentence Level.
36. Periodic Paraphrasing: Monitoring Your Own Understanding.
37. Self-Monitoring through Imaging and Interacting: Demonstrating Understanding.
38. Note Taking: Identifying and Monitoring Understanding of Important Information.
39. Reciprocal Teaching: A Cooperative Approach to Comprehension Monitoring.
40. Fix-up Strategies: Knowing What to Do When Reading Doesn't Make Sense.
41. SQ4R: An Approach to Studying for Comprehension and Memory.
VI. ASSESSMENT TO INFORM INSTRUCTION.
42. Literacy Observation Checklists: Observing and Conferencing to Document and Set Goals.
43. Vocabulary Rating: Assessing Word Understanding and Use.
44. Retelling for Assessment: Using Free Recall to Determine Depth of Understanding.
45. Comprehension Style Assessment: How Does the Reader Construct Meaning?
46. Cloze Assessment: Evaluating the Use of Comprehension Processes.
47. Think-Aloud: Assessing Comprehension Strategy Use.
48. Process Questions: Identifying Metacognitive Strategies.
49. Question-Answer Relationships: Identifying Question Types and Locating Answers.
50. Element Interviews: Engaging Students in Interactions Centered on Story Elements.