50 Strategies for Improving Vocabulary, Comprehension and Fluency / Edition 2

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50 Strategies for Improving Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Fluency offers a practical approach of step-by-step instructional procedures for developing key literacy skills. Each strategy is supported by an authentic classroom example. An additional example of each strategy is provided on the free CD-ROM that accompanies the book. These teaching examples clearly identify how to implement the strategy and adapt its use to fit the needs of learners in a primary/elementary and a middle school/secondary classroom. Margin features titled Focus on English Language Learners explain how to create learning tools to make the strategy fit the needs of English language learners. This '50 Strategies' book also offers:

  • Classroom-based examples and strategies—Explains each strategy through step-by-step instructions.
  • Teachers acquire the knowledge to teach necessary strategies.
  • Strategies are grouped according to approach.
  • Realistic application—Offers a variety of strategic approaches that can be incorporated into existing vocabulary development and reading comprehension programs.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131712058
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 4/27/2005
  • Series: Teaching Strategies Series Series
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 264
  • Product dimensions: 8.68 (w) x 10.76 (h) x 0.63 (d)

Meet the Author

Adrienne Herrell has recently retired from California State University-Fresno, where she was a professor of reading/language arts and taught classes in early literacy, assessment, and strategies for teaching English language learners. 50 Strategies for Improving Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Fluency: An Active Approach is Dr. Herrell's eighth book for Merrill/Prentice Hall. Her previous books include Camcorder in the Classroom with Joel Fowler, Fifty Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners with Michael Jordan, Reflective Planning, Teaching, and Evaluation: K-12 with Judy Eby and Jim Hicks, and Teaching Elementary School with Judy Eby. Dr. Herrell's writing and research are built on her experiences teaching in Florida's public schools for 23 years. She and Dr. Jordan (co-author) are currently engaged in research in public schools in California and Florida. She teaches part-time for her alma mater, Florida State University, in Panana City where she now resides.

Michael Jordan is an associate professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at California State University-Fresno. He has taught primary grades through high school in Georgia, Alabama, Florida, and California. Dr. Jordan is also an actor, education director, and board member of the Theatre Three Repertory Company in Fresno, California, and is dedicated to providing access to live theatre to children and youth. He and Dr. Herrell incorporate many dramatic reenactment strategies in their joint research working with vocabulary and comprehension development in children learning English in the public schools of California and Florida.

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Table of Contents


1. Collecting Words: Learning the Nuances of Word Meanings.

2. Structural Analysis: Focusing on the Meaning of Word Parts.

3. Word Mapping: Exploring Word Meanings and Applications.

4. Word Origin Studies: Linking Word Histories and Roots to Word Comprehension.

5. Vocabulary Processing: Multiple Strategies Approach.

6. Text Talk: Scaffolding Comprehension Through Oral Discussion.

7. Microselection: Introducing the Concepts of Keywords and Main Ideas.

8. Fluency Strategies: Multiple Approaches.


9. Anaphoric Relations: Word Substitutions.

10. Connectives: Focusing on Words that Support Cohesion and Inference.

11. Text Charting: Exploring the Connections among Sentences.

12. Inferences: Filling in the Missing Pieces.

13. Read, Pair, Share: Working with a Partner to Answer Questions.

14. Cooperative Scripts: Working in Pairs to Improve Comprehension and Recall.

15. GIST (Generating Interaction Between Schemata and Text): Making Comprehension Connections.


16. Predicting: Using Past Experiences to Support Comprehension.

17. Perspective Taking: Getting Into the Minds of the Characters.

18. Double-Entry Journals: Connecting Experiences to Text.

19. Read/Think Aloud: Emphasizing Connections and Thought Processes.

20. Series Book Studies: Building Background Knowledge through Familiar Story Elements.

21. Intertextual Studies: Comparing Story Elements to Build Comprehension.

22. Graphic Organizers: Visually Representing Ideas, Text, and Connections.

23. Critical Reading: Analyzing Text through Higher-Level Thinking Activities.

24. Imagination, Images, and Interaction: Creating and Describing Mental Pictures.


25. KWL Charts: Supporting Comprehension Into, Through, and Beyond Reading.

26. Data Charts: Organizing Information to Aid Comprehension and Recall.

27. Drama Centers: Building Comprehension through Active Processing.

28. Story Retelling Boxes: Using Props to Reenact Stories.

29. Script Writing: Investigating and Analyzing Text.

30. Readers Theatre: Using Active Reading Processes to Enhance Comprehension.

31. Story Structure Studies: Recognizing and Building on Narrative Story Elements.

32. Text Mapping: A Travelers' Guide to Comprehension.

33. Summarization: Identifying the Main Idea and Supporting Details.

34. NIPS: An Interactive Support Strategy for Comprehending "Tough" Text.


35. Cross-Checking: Self-Monitoring at the Sentence Level.

36. Periodic Paraphrasing: Monitoring Your Own Understanding.

37. Self-Monitoring through Imaging and Interacting: Demonstrating Understanding.

38. Note Taking: Identifying and Monitoring Understanding of Important Information.

39. Reciprocal Teaching: A Cooperative Approach to Comprehension Monitoring.

40. Fix-up Strategies: Knowing What to Do When Reading Doesn't Make Sense.

41. SQ4R: An Approach to Studying for Comprehension and Memory.


42. Literacy Observation Checklists: Observing and Conferencing to Document and Set Goals.

43. Vocabulary Rating: Assessing Word Understanding and Use.

44. Retelling for Assessment: Using Free Recall to Determine Depth of Understanding.

45. Comprehension Style Assessment: How Does the Reader Construct Meaning?

46. Cloze Assessment: Evaluating the Use of Comprehension Processes.

47. Think-Aloud: Assessing Comprehension Strategy Use.

48. Process Questions: Identifying Metacognitive Strategies.

49. Question-Answer Relationships: Identifying Question Types and Locating Answers.

50. Element Interviews: Engaging Students in Interactions Centered on Story Elements.

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