9/11 Commision Report with Related Documents / Edition 1

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The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 left Americans wondering how such a breach of security could have occurred. Relatives and friends of the victims pushed for the creation of a National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States to investigate the government's preparedness for and response to the attacks and to provide recommendations for preventing future disasters. As Senior Advisor to the 9/11 Commission, Ernest R. May provides students with a firsthand account of the commission's methods and actions. His introduction, which describes the drafting process and the collaboration of the commissioners despite the bitter political divisions surrounding them, allows students to view the report as an historical document. The report itself has been carefully abridged for the classroom while preserving the essence of the complete version. A cast of characters, a glossary of political acronyms, a chronology, a selected bibliography, and questions for consideration make this edition ideal for students.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780312450991
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 2/25/2007
  • Series: Bedford Cultural Editions Series
  • Edition description: First Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 224
  • Sales rank: 817,755
  • Product dimensions: 5.91 (w) x 8.17 (h) x 0.37 (d)

Meet the Author

ERNEST R. MAY is Charles Warren Professor of History at Harvard University, where he has served as dean of Harvard College, associate dean of Faculty of Arts and Sciences, director of the Institute of Politics at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, chair of the history department, and director of the Charles Warren Center for Studies in American History. In 1988 he won the Grawemeyer Award for Ideas Contributing to World Order and in 2001 the American Historical Association's Distinguished Scholar Award. His most recent books include Strange Victory: Hitler's Conquest of France (2000) and The Kennedy Tapes: Inside the White House During the Cuban Missile Crisis (1997).

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Table of Contents



Introduction: The Making of The 9/11 Commission Report
The Politics of the 9/11 Era
The Creation of the 9/11 Commission
Battles between the Commission and the Administration
The Public Hearings of the Commission
The Commission Report
Shortcomings of the Report

What’s Missing?

Cast of Characters

Glossary of Acronyms


The Document: The 9/11 Commission Report


1. "We Have Some Planes"
Inside the Four Flights

Boston: American 11 and United 175 • Washington

Dulles: American 77 • Newark: United 93 • The

Hijacking of American 11 • The Hijacking of United

175 • The Hijacking of American 77 • The Battle

for United 93

Improvising a Homeland Defense
National Crisis Management

The President and the Vice President • United 93 and

the Shootdown Order

2. The Foundation of the New Terrorism
A Declaration of War
Bin Ladin's Appeal in the Islamic World

Islam • Bin Ladin’s Worldview • History and

Political Context • Social and Economic Malaise •

Bin Ladin’s Historical Opportunity
The Rise of Bin Ladin and al Qaeda (1988–1992)
Al Qaeda's Renewal in Afghanistan (1996–1998)

The Embassy Bombings

3. Counterterrorism Evolves
From the Old Terrorism to the New: The First World Trade Center Bombing
Adaptation — and Nonadaptation — in the Law Enforcement Community
The Justice Department and the FBI • Legal Constraints

on the FBI and "the Wall" • Other Law Enforcement


…and in the Intelligence Community

The CIA • Clandestine and Covert Action •

Analysis • Early Counterterrorism Efforts
…and in the State Department and the Defense Department

The State Department • The Department of Defense
…and in the White House
…and in the Congress

4. Responses to al Qaeda's Initial Assaults
Before the Bombings in Kenya and Tanzania

Early Efforts against Bin Ladin • The CIA Develops a

Capture Plan
Crisis: August 1998

A Follow-on Campaign?
Covert Action
Searching for Fresh Options

"Boots on the Ground?" • The Desert Camp, February

1999 • Looking for New Partners • Kandahar,

May 1999

5. Al Qaeda Aims at the American Homeland
Terrorist Entrepreneurs

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed [KSM]
The "Planes Operation"

The Plan Evolves
The Hamburg Contingent

Mohamed Atta • Ramzi Binalshibh • Marwan

al Shehhi • Ziad Jarrah • Requirements for a

Successful Attack

6. From Threat to Threat
The Millennium Crisis

"Bodies Will Pile Up in Sacks" • Ressam’s Arrest

Emergency Cooperation • A Lost Trail in Southeast

Post-Crisis Reflection: Agenda for 2000

"Afghan Eyes"
The Attack on the USS Cole

Considering a Response
Change and Continuity

Early Decisions • Starting a Review
The New Administration's Approach

September 2001

7. The Attack Looms
First Arrivals in California
The 9/11 Pilots in the United States

The Fourth Pilot: Hani Hanjour
Assembling the Teams
Dissent within the al Qaeda Leadership • Moving to

Departure Positions

8. "The System Was Blinking Red"
The Summer of Threat
Zacarias Moussaoui • Time Runs Out

9. Heroism and Horror

Emergency Response at the Pentagon

10. Wartime
Immediate Responses at Home
Planning for War
"Phase Two" and the Question of Iraq

11. Foresight — and Hindsight

Historical Perspective • Understanding the

Danger • Institutionalizing Imagination: The Case

of Aircraft as Weapons

Operational Management • Institutional

Management • The Millennium Exception

12. What to Do? A Global Strategy

13. How to Do It? A Different Way of Organizing Government


Related Documents

1. Declarations by Usama Bin Ladin, August 23, 1996; May 10, 1997; February 23, 1998

2. From The President’s Daily Brief, December 4, 1998, and August 6, 2001

3. The 9/11 Commission, Final Report on 9/11 Commission Recommendations, December 5, 2005

A 9/11 Chronology (1978-2005)
Questions for Consideration
Selected Bibliography


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