A+ Certification Training Kit

Overview

The A+ Certification program defines baseline knowledge and skill levels for IT professionals who support Intel-based personal computer hardware and software. As you build these real-world support skills, you're also preparing for the ...
See more details below
Available through our Marketplace sellers.
Other sellers (Paperback)
  • All (14) from $1.99   
  • New (1) from $115.00   
  • Used (13) from $1.99   
Close
Sort by
Page 1 of 1
Showing All
Note: Marketplace items are not eligible for any BN.com coupons and promotions
$115.00
Seller since 2015

Feedback rating:

(218)

Condition:

New — never opened or used in original packaging.

Like New — packaging may have been opened. A "Like New" item is suitable to give as a gift.

Very Good — may have minor signs of wear on packaging but item works perfectly and has no damage.

Good — item is in good condition but packaging may have signs of shelf wear/aging or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Acceptable — item is in working order but may show signs of wear such as scratches or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Used — An item that has been opened and may show signs of wear. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Refurbished — A used item that has been renewed or updated and verified to be in proper working condition. Not necessarily completed by the original manufacturer.

New
Brand new.

Ships from: acton, MA

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
Page 1 of 1
Showing All
Close
Sort by
Sending request ...

Overview

The A+ Certification program defines baseline knowledge and skill levels for IT professionals who support Intel-based personal computer hardware and software. As you build these real-world support skills, you're also preparing for the corresponding areas of the A+ Certification Core and Specialty exams -- making this kit your first step to career advancement!

Here's what you'll learn:

HARDWARE

  • Installation, configuration, and upgrading
  • Diagnosis and troubleshooting
  • Safety and preventive maintenance
  • Motherboard/processors/memory
  • Printers
  • Portable systems
  • Basic networking
MS-DOS/WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEMS
  • Function, structure, operation, and file management
  • Memory management
  • Installation, configuration, and upgrading
  • Diagnosis and troubleshooting
  • Networks
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780735606357
  • Publisher: Microsoft Press
  • Publication date: 3/31/1999
  • Pages: 900
  • Product dimensions: 7.57 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 1.72 (d)

Table of Contents


* (MS-DOS wildcard)    381
? (MS-DOS wildcard)    381
\ (backslash)   609
24-bit graphics    229, 260
32-bit VFAT    416, 470. See also FAT32
4004 microprocessor    44
8008 microprocessor    44
8080 microprocessor    44
8086 microprocessor    51, 53, 71, 125
8088 microprocessor    47, 48, 51-52, 53, 71, 125, 235, 256
8237 chips    238-39
8259 chips    235-37
8514/A graphics 80286 microprocessor    54-55, 71, 125, 223, 236, 374
80386 microprocessor    56-57
80386DX microprocessor    71, 125
80386SX microprocessor    56, 71
80486 microprocessor    58-61, 60, 125
80486DX microprocessor    59, 71
80486SX microprocessor    59, 71

A
A+ Certification Program   xxiii-xxix
     benefits of certification,   xxxiii-xxiv
A+ exam. See alsocourse information
     A+ DOS/Windows Service Technician Examination,  xxii
     Core Service Technician Examination, xxi
     modules and domains,   xxiv-xxix
     registering    xxx
A drive    148, 167
abacus    2
Abort, Retry, Failerrors    177
AC (alternating current) power    318-19, 321, 322
Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP)    229-30, 609
access speed    122-23, 352, 609
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) specification,  524
AC testers    322
active hard disk drive partition    171
active-matrix displays    517-18
active memory, 120
actuator arms    155-56
address buses
     32- bit    56
     and CPU performance    51
     defined    30
     glossary      and I/O addresses    232
     and random access memory    47-49
     as type of bus    21
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) specification    524
Advanced Microdevices (AMD)    51, 56, 60, 61, 63
Advanced Power Management (APM) standard    524
Advanced SCSI Programming Interface (ASPI)    161
alternating current (AC 318-19, 321, 322
AMD (Advanced Microdevices)    51, 56, 60, 61, 63
American Megatrends, Inc. (AMI)    103, 104
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)    17-19
amperes    317, 318, 609
analog-to-digital (A/D) converters    288
analog vs. digital communication    287-88
analytical engine    3
ANSI standards    207-8
antistatic tools    344
antivirus software
     importance of    107
     and Phoenix BIOS setup    107
APM (Advanced Power Management) standard    524
Apple computers    68-69, 208
AppleTalk    507
application programming interface (API)    375
Artisoft,  499
ASCII code
     character set table    18
     in CPU    45
     example    17
     overview    17
     and printers    271
     as protocol, 271, 297
ASCII files,  609
ASPI (Advanced SCSI Programming Interface)    161
asynchronous communication
     e-mail as   545
     glossary definition    609
     overview   289
     USB support    230
ATA/CAM (AT Attachment/Common Access Method) 160
Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC)    4
ATAPI (Attachment Packet Interface)    198
ATA standard    196
AT commands    302-3
AT-style motherboard connections    81, 82-84, 97
Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI)    198
attachments, e- mail    609
ATX-style motherboard connections    81, 84, 97
autodetection    166
AUTOEXEC.BAT file
     and CD-ROM drive installation    193
     and conventional memory    140
     list of commands    385
     and MS-DOS boot process    379, 383,384
     sample listing, 385
     standardizing, 560
     tips    386
     and Windows 3. x    370, 372, 394
     and Windows 95, 414, 423, 430, 432, 433, 441, 454, 455, 461
autotermination    216
Award BIOS  103, 104

B
B drive    148, 167
Babbage    Charles    3
backing up back injuries    536
backslash (\)    609
bandwidth    251, 609
banking memory    125, 126
base-16 numbering system
See
hexadecimal notation
.BAT files    380
batteries
     and CMOS      as computer processing component    31
     defined    31
     glossary      lithium ion    522-23
     nickel cadmium    522
     nickel metal      for portable baud    295, 296, 609
baud rate
     vs. bps    295, 296
     defined    284
     illustrated    296
     overview    295
BBS (bulletin board systems)    285, 546, 609
Bell Telephone bidirectional binary files    609
binary system. See alsohexadecimal notation
     in computers    13-16
     counting      and data      vs. decimal      defined    14
     examples    14
     glossary      in Morse      overview    13-14
BIOS (basic input/output system)
     accessing setup programs    104-8
     on add-on      chip manufacturers    102-3
     classes of    101
     core chips    101
     defined    100
     determining      and device      early CHS      enhanced    202-3
     and floppy disk drives    148
     glossary      multiple block read feature    205
     and portable      and shadow      updatable      upgrading    100
     and very large hard disk drives    200-201
Bi-Tronics bits
     in binary      vs. bytes    127
     in chip measurements    127
     defined    13
     glossary blackouts    87
BNC connectors    500
books and bootable floppy disks
     carrying    344
     contents      creating    168, 460
     files on    177, 344, 372
boot drive
     C drive as    167, 172, 215, 415
     SCSI drive booting up
     glossary      MS-DOS boot      Windows 95 boot process    430-31
BOOTLOG.TXT boot partition    172, 610
boot process. Seebooting up
boot sector    179
boxes, computer. See cases, computer
bps (bits per second)
     vs. baud      defined    284
     glossary      overview    296
branch prediction    61, 63, 65, 67, 68
branch target buffer (BTB)    65
BREAK command    441
bridges    507, 610
broadband    505, 610
brownouts    87
browsers    284, 512, 610
BTB (branch target buffer)    65
bulletin board systems (BBS)    285, 546, 609
burst mode    227
bus cycles    15, 122
buses. See alsodata bus; expansion buses
     8- bit    20, 40, 223
     16- bit    20, 40, 223
     32- bit    40, 56, 224, 225, 226, 227
     64- bit    40
     as computer processing component    30
     function      glossary      home wiring      number of wires in    20, 21
     overview    20-21
     for specific      telegraph bus mastering    227, 228, 232, 610
bus networks    498, 505, 610
bus topology    498, 505
bytes
     in ASCII      in binary      vs. bits    127
     defined    13, 121
     glossary      in memory

C
C drive    167, 172, 215, 415
cables
     coaxial    503-4, 611
     for connecting floppy disk drives to data bus    147-48
     fiber-optic    504
     for hard disk drives    162
     as hazard    536
     identifying      for keyboards    307
     mixing types in systems    504
     network    502-5
     null-modem    307
     parallel    272, 304-6
     for printer      RS-232, 293
     SCSI    213, 214, 307
     serial    306-7
     specifying    505
     switch boxes      troubleshooting    308
     twisted-pair    500, 502-3, 621
cache
     adding to      and CPU    51, 130
     defined    130
     external    131
     glossary      installing disk caching    401-2
     internal    51, 130, 615
     Level 1 (L1) 64, 66, 130, 352
     Level 2 (L2) 64, 66, 131, 352
     overview    130-32
     and Pentium      troubleshooting    464
     and Windows 95, 462-65
     write-back    62, 132
     write-through    62, 131
CAM (Common Access Method) SCSI interface    161
capacitors    overview    328-29
capital letters. Seecase sensitivity
carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD)    505
cascaded cases, computer
     defined    36
     functions      keeping closed    94, 95
     opening    95, 346
     size considerations    95
     tower vs. case sensitivity
     in ASCII      glossary      in MS-DOS cathode-ray tubes (CRTs)    248, 250, 612
CCITT (Comité Consultatif Télégraphique et Télephonique)    296, 300
CCS (Command Command Set)    208
CDFS.VXD CD-R (CD-recordable) CD recorders    33
CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory) drives
     advantages of using    186-87
     and ATA interface    198
     audio capability    189, 190
     background    186, 187
     connecting      controllers      data transfer      drivers for    192-93
     glossary      vs. hard disk drives    188
     how they      as input      installing    189, 191-93
     mean access      mounting    191-92
     for portable      SCSI    189, 191
     software      and sound      specifying cache setting    464
CD-ROM drives (continued)
     standards      and Windows 3. x    192-93
     and Windows 95 and 98, 193, 470
Celeron processors    66-67
central processing unit
See
CPU (central processing unit)
Centronics    304, 309
certification    list of programs    509
See also
A+ Certification Program
Certified Novell Administrator (CNA)    509
Certified Novell Engineer (CNE)    509
CFGBACK.EXE CGA (Color/Graphics Adapter)    256, 257, 610
character chassis    computer. See cases, computer
CHCP command    441
CHDIR command    382, 441
chip removers    343
chips. See alsochip sets; microprocessors
     cascaded    236-37
     glossary      handling    73
     for portable      ROM BIOS    100-115
chip sets
     as computer processing component    30
     defined    30, 42
     elements      glossary CHKDSK command    382
CHS values    159, 165, 173, 198, 199, 202-3
See also
LCHS (logical cylinders, heads, and sectors)
CISC (complex instruction set computing)    64, 611
clients    496, 611
clock, CPU
     changing      as computer processing component    31
     and CPU performance    51
     defined    31
     glossary      overview    46-47
clock, external
     and CMOS      and MS-DOS    110
     and Windows 95, 110
clock cycles    46, 51
clock doubling    59-60
clock speed
     and 486 microprocessors    59
     changing    223
     and CPU performance    51
     glossary      overview    47
clones    53, 223, 611
CLS command    382, 441
clusters    173, 611
CMOS battery    109-10, 611
CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) chips
     backing up      and BIOS      and EPP and ECP bidirectional standards    305
     glossary      information      as nonvolatile      overview    101-2
     and Plug and Play    109
     resetting after upgrading RAM    130
     settings for floppy disk drives    149, 151
     settings for hard disk drives    164-67
     setup procedures    102-8
     troubleshooting    178
     typical setup      updating    102-9
CMOS virus coaxial cable    503-4, 611
codes
     ASCII    17-18, 45, 271, 297
     in CPU    45-46
     glossary      machine    46
coils    331
cold boot    380, 611
Color/Graphics Adapter (CGA)    256, 257, 610
Colossus I computer    4
.com domains    512
.COM files    380
Comité Consultatif Télégraphique et Téléphonique (CCITT)    296, 300
COMMAND.COM file
     defined    372
     list of commands    441-42
     and MS-DOS boot process    379
     in Windows 95, 414, 425, 432, 437, 441-42
COMMAND.DOS command mode    380, 611. See also MS-DOS
Common Access Method (CAM) SCSI interface    161
communication    11, 12-13
Compaq    160
complex instruction set computing (CISC)    64, 611
COM ports
     background    240-41
     cables for    306-7
     connectors      defined    239
     and external      glossary      installation      standard    239-40
compressed compression    175-76, 299, 301, 611
computer cases. See cases, computer
computer games, examples of input, processing, and  output    28
computers
     cleaning    530-31
     components      digital era    4-7
     dissassembling    346
     early development    2-7
     first    2
     hardware      history of    2-7
     lockup problems    405-6
computers (continued)
     portable    514-24
     preventive      reassembling    347
     role of technicians. Seecomputer technicians
     stages of I3 output    27, 28
I3 processing    27, 28
     standardizing in organizations    560
     timeline    4-7
     troubleshooting. See troubleshooting
     upgrading    348-64
computer technicians
     and customer      handling support calls    559, 560-61
     matching computers with customer needs    549
     need for spare parts    550, 551, 559
     network certification      obtaining technical support    547-49
     on-site service      providing telephone support    548, 559, 560-61
     and recordkeeping    557-58, 561-62
     staying current    544-47
     troubleshooting See also troubleshooting
     types of tools needed    343-44, 549, 550-51, 559
     ways of providing computer user groups    545
computer conductors    317. See also buses
conferences    611
CONFIGMG.VXD CONFIG.SYS file
     and CD-ROM drive installation    193
     and conventional      and device      list of commands    384
     and memory      and MS-DOS boot process    379, 383, 384
     sample    385
     standardizing    560
CONFIG.SYS file(continued)
     tips    385, 386
     and Windows 3. x    370, 372, 394
     and Windows 95, 414, 424, 430, 432, 433,
436, 437, 441, 454, 455, 461, 462
connectivity connectors
     9- pin    306, 308, 309
     25- pin    272, 306-7, 308, 309
     AT-style    82-84
     ATX-style    81, 84, 97
     extenders      identifying      for keyboards    307
     mini    85, 616
     Molex    85, 86, 616
     most common      parallel    272, 306
     for printer      RJ-11, 293, 309
     RJ-12, 293, 309
     RJ-45, 309, 500
     for RS-232      serial    306-7
     splitters      troubleshooting    308
CONTROL.INI file, Windows 3. x    397-98
Control Panel
     Device Manager    456-59
     in Windows 3. x    392
conventional cooling systems. See fans; heat sinks
coprocessors    257-58, 612
COPY command    382, 441
copying floppy core ROM course information. See also A+ Certification Program, A+ exam
     about the CD-ROM, xviii
     about the electronic book, xxiii
     chapter and appendix overview, xix-xx
course information (continued)
     features of this book, xviii
     finding the best starting point for you, xxi
     getting started    xxii-xxiii
     hardware requirements, xxii
     intended audience, xvii
     prerequisites    xviii
     software requirements, xxiii
     where to find specific skill areas in this
book, xxi-xxii
CPU (central processing unit)
See also
microprocessors
     and address      cache on    51, 130
     and chip      and clocks    31, 46-47, 51, 223
     and data      defined    30, 42-43
     gauging performance and capabilities    51-61
     glossary      handling    73
     installing    354-55
     and interrupt      and I/O addresses    232-34
     math problem      and motherboard    30, 41, 354, 355
     overview    30-31
     for portable      real vs. protected mode    54-55
     role of    42-43
     upgrading    354-55
     when to upgrade    70-71
CRTs (cathode-ray tubes)    248, 250, 612
crystal. See clock; system crystal
CTTY command    441
current
     alternating (AC)    318-19, 321, 322
     defined    316
     direct (DC) 320, 323
     in Ohm’s cursor    380, 612
customer service
     overview    557, 560-63
     and referrals    562
     support in corporate environments    558-59
     telephone      working with difficult clients    562
cylinders    hard disk    157-58, 159
Cyrix    51, 60, 62, 63

D
daisy-wheel databases    examples of input, processing,
and output    28
data bus. See alsoexpansion buses
     as computer processing component    30
     connecting floppy disk drives to    147-48
     and CPU performance    51
     defined    30
     device connections    41, 42
     glossary      overview    40-42
     parts of    223
     as type of Data Communications Equipment (DCE)    299, 612
data compression
     for modem      to save disk data files    sharing on LANs    495
data flow
     analysis capability in Pentium processors    64, 65, 67, 68
     controlling between modems    299
Data Link Control (DLC) protocol    507, 612
Data Termination Equipment (DTE)    299
data transfer rates
     vs. access      CD-ROM drives    190
     hard disk      USB support    230
DATE command    382, 441
DB-9 connectors    306, 308, 309
DB-25 connectors    272, 306-7, 308, 309
DBLBUFFER DC (direct current) power    320, 323
DCE (Data Communications Equipment)    299, 612
DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange)    613
decimal notation    14
default drive    380, 612
defragmentation    175, 176, 612
degaussing    253, 254
DEL command    382, 441
demand paging    470
DETLOG.TXT device drivers
     for CD-ROM      defined    375
     for display      glossary      installing    111
     for printers    279, 408
     and system      virtual vs. real- mode    443, 455
     .VXD files    443, 455
     for Windows 3. x    391
     and Windows 95, 454-60
Device Manager. SeeControl Panel, Device Manager
digital communication    287, 288, 289
digital volt-ohm meters. See multimeters
digital vs. analog communication    287-88
DIME (Direct Memory Execute)    229
DIMMs (dual inline memory modules)    130, 352
diodes    329-30
DIP (dual inline package) chips    52, 55, 123, 353
DIR command    382, 442
direct current (DC)    320, 323
direct memory access (DMA)
See alsoUltra DMA drives
     conflicts    239, 406
     glossary      overview    200, 238
     setting channels    239
Direct Memory Execute (DIME)    229
directories    381, 612. See also folders
disk cache    installing    401-2
DISKCOMP disk compression    175-76
DISKCOPY disks. See also CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory) drives; floppy disk drives;
hard disk drives
     formatting      formatting using Windows Explorer    478
     managing in windows 95   477-80
     partitioning from windows 95   415, 480
     partitioning using FDISK utility    169-72, 415, 480
     viewing properties    479-80
display adapters
     24-bit color      and Accelerated Graphics Port    229-30
     advanced    258, 259-60
     background    256
     defined    256
     erratic behavior    408
     and graphics      selecting    263-64
     troubleshooting    264-65
     true-color    260
     and updatable ROM chips    101
display coprocessors    257-58
display monitors
See
displays, portable computer; monitors
Display Power-Management Signaling (DPMS)    252
displays    portable computer    517-18
dissassembling DLC (Data Link Control) protocol    507, 612
.DLL files    375-76, 391
DMA (direct memory access)
See also
Ultra DMA drives
     conflicts    239, 406
     glossary      overview    200, 238
     setting channels    239
DNS. See domain-name servers
docking stations    515
documentation
     importance      keeping client profile logs    561-62
     sample configuration domain-name domains    defined    512
DOS (disk operating system)    370, 371-72, 612
See also
MS-DOS
DOS prompt    381, 612
DOS Protected Mode Interface (DPMI)    136, 413, 612
DOS/Windows Service Technician Exam
See
A+ Exam
dot-matrix dot pitch    251
dots per inch (dpi)    270, 281, 612
downloading    285, 612
dpi (dots per inch)    270, 281, 612
DPMI (MS-DOS Protected Mode Interface)    136, 413, 612
DPMS (Display Power-Management Signaling)    252
drag-and-drop    474
DRAM (dynamic random access memory)
     access speed    122-23
     defined    121
     in early display adapters    257
     extended data out (EDO)    261, 352
     fast page-mode (FPM)    260
     glossary      how it works    121
     list of common module sizes    127
     in module      specifying width and depth    126-27
DR- DOS    370
drive letters    167
drive pointers    MS- DOS    381
drivers. Seedevice drivers
DriveSpace    175, 176, 461
.DRV files    375
DTE (Data Termination Equipment)    299
DTMF (dual-tone multifrequency)    285
dual-boot Dual Independent Bus (DIB) architecture    66
dual inline memory modules (DIMMs)    130, 352
dual inline package (DIP) chips    52, 55, 123, 353
dual-scan dual-tone multifrequency (DTMF)    285
duplexing    printer    272
DVD drives    186
Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE)    613
Dynamic Drive Overlay (DDO)    203
dynamic execution    64, 68
dynamic-link libraries (DLLs)    375-76, 391
dynamic random access memory
See
DRAM (dynamic random access memory)

E
ECC (error-correction coding)    122, 613
Eckert, John ECP (Extended Capabilities Port) standard    305, 613
EDIT command    383
EDO (extended data out) RAM    261, 352
.edu domains    512
EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter)    256, 257, 613
EIA (Electronics Industry Association)    292
EIDE hard disk drives. SeeEnhanced IDE (EIDE) hard disk drives
EISA (Enhanced ISA) standard    225-26
electrical circuits, defined    316. See also current
electrical electrical electric charge, defined    316
See also
electrostatic discharge (ESD)
electric current. See current
electricity
     AC vs. DC      defined    316
     measuring    320-23
     Ohm’s Law    317-18
     safety considerations    336-37, 537-38
electromagnetic interference (EMI)    94, 537
electron electronic computers. See computers
electronic mail (e-mail)    510, 545
Electronics Industry Association (EIA)    292
electrostatic discharge (ESD)
     devices for      overview    333, 537
     preventing    334-35
     types of e-mail (electronic mail)    510, 545, 613
Emergency Recovery Utility (ERU)    450, 452
EMI (electromagnetic interference)    94, 537
EMM386.EXE EMMExclude EMMInclude EMS (expanded memory)    137
energy. See power
Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA)    256, 257, 613
Enhanced IDE (EIDE) hard disk drives
     advances over IDE drives    196-97
     and BIOS    202-3
     glossary      installing    201-4
     overview    160-61, 196-97
     for portable      and secondary      setting PIO      upgrades to ATA/IDE specification    198
Enhanced ISA (EISA) standard    225-26
Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP) standard    305, 613
Enhanced Print Troubleshooter    487-88
Enhanced Small Device Interface (ESDI) hard disk  drives    160
ENIAC computer    4
Enigma codes    4
entering MS-DOS commands    381
environmental EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port) standard    305, 613
ERASE command    442
error-correction coding (ECC)    122, 613
error detection    for modem communication    299, 301
error messages
     disk-drive      glossary      MS- DOS    381
     during POST (power-on self test)    113-14
ERU.EXE file    450, 452
ESD. See electrostatic discharge (ESD)
ESDI (Enhanced Small Device Interface)
hard disk drives    160
Ethernet    500, 505-6, 613
even parity    290
.EXE files    380
EXIT command    442
Expanded Memory Specification (EMS)    137, 613
expansion buses. See alsoexpansion cards
     AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port)    229-30, 609
     background    222-23
     defined    222
     EISA (Enhanced ISA)    225-26
     glossary      industry      ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)    223-24
     MCA (Micro Channel Architecture)    224-25, 616
     PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)    227-28
     as type of      USB (universal serial bus)    230-31, 293, 309, 621
     VESA local bus (VLB)    226-27
expansion cards
     configuring    232-41
     installing    241, 357-59
     internal      network interface cards (NICs)    33, 500-502
     PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association)    516, 520
     and Plug and Play    241
     in system expansion slots. See alsoexpansion buses
     as computer processing components    31
     defined    31
     glossary      lack of availability    356
     and motherboard    41, 222
Extended Capabilities Port (ECP) standard    305, 613
extended character set    17
extended data out (EDO) RAM    261, 352
eXtended Graphics Array (XGA)    259
extended hard disk drive partitions    169, 170
extended memory specification (XMS)    136, 375, 613
extenders    connector    86
external external data bus. Seedata bus
external hard disk drives    520
external E-zines    547

F
factors    mathematical    14
fans
     for cooling      installing    74, 86
     and Pentium      for power Fast ATA fast page-mode (FPM) DRAM    260
Fast SCSI-2, 209
FAT16 file FAT32 file system
     vs. 32-bit      and disk      vs. FAT16, 174
     overview    174
     and Windows 95, 415
FATs. See file allocation tables (FATs)
fax speeds    297
FDISK utility
     and partitions    171-72
     role in Windows 95, 415
     and very large hard disk drives    201
fiber-optic file allocation tables (FATs)
See also
FAT32 file system
     16- bit    173, 174, 415
     creating    172
     FAT16 vs. FILE32, 174
     how they      overview    172
file extensions    472-73
filenames
     displaying      glossary      long    416-17
     MS- DOS    381
     Windows 95, 416-17
files
     copying    474
     cutting    474
     finding    475-76
     moving    473-74
     pasting    474
     sorting    473
     Windows 95 management improvements    470
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)    297, 511, 614
fires    539
firmware. See BIOS
first computers    2
fixed disks    153. See alsohard disk drives
flash BIOS    100, 101
flashlights    344
flash ROM    100
flat-panel displays. SeeLCD screens
flip-flop floppy disk drives
     A drive vs. B drive    148, 167
     background    146
     benefits of using    146
     cables for    151
     and CMOS      connecting to data bus    147-48
     connecting to power    86, 148, 149
     controllers      defined    33
     disk capacity    147
     disk sizes    146, 147
     failure    149, 152
     glossary      hybrid    150
     installing    147-49
     as I/O devices    33
floppy disk drives(continued)
     maintaining    150, 532
     multiple    147, 148
     overview    146-49
     power connection    148
     replacing    152
     troubleshooting    150-52
floppy disks
     bootable    168, 177, 344, 372, 460
     copying in windows 95   479
     formatting in windows 95   478
     viewing properties    479-80
flux reversals    154
FM (frequency modulation) encoding    154
folders
     defined    435
     finding    475-76
     moving    473-74
     sorting    473
fonts    271, 391
formatting
     disks    172, 478
     floppy disks in windows 95   478
     high-level. See high-level formatting
     low-level. See low-level formatting
     overview    172
form factor    66, 614
FPM (fast page-mode) DRAM    260
fragmentation    hard disk    175, 176, 614
frequency modulation (FM)    154
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)    297, 511, 614
full-motion fuses    328

G
games. See computer games
gateways    507, 614
GDI.EXE file    375, 391
GDI (Graphical Device Interface)    407, 415
General Protection Faults (GPFs)    407-8, 614
ghosting    283
gigabyte (GB)    13
Gopher    510
.gov domains    512
GPFs (General Protection Faults)    407-8, 614
Graphical Device Interface (GDI)    407, 415
graphical user interface
See
GUI (graphical user interface)
graphics adapters. Seedisplay adapters
graphics greater than (>) symbol    381, 614
grounds    334-35, 537
ground wire    319, 321, 322
GUI (graphical user interface)
     glossary      and video      and Windows 95, 413, 414-15

H
handheld computers. Seeportable computers
handshaking    298-99, 614
hard disk drives
     actuator      advanced      assigning drive letters    167
     background    153-54, 196
     and binary      vs. CD-ROM      CHS values    159
     data transfer      defined    33
     defragmentation    175, 176, 612
     and disk      EIDE. See Enhanced IDE (EIDE) hard disk drives
     enabling 32-bit file access    205-6
     ESDI    160
     external    520
     failure    176
     and FM encoding    154
hard disk drives(continued)
     geometry    156-59, 165
     glossary      IDE. See IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics)
hard disk drives
     IDE/EIDE    162, 166
     improving      installing    162-63, 359-61, 427
     as I/O devices    33
     larger than 4 GB    169
     larger than 8.4 GB    200-201
     limitations      and Logical Block Addressing    199
     logical vs.      low-level      maintaining    176-79, 532
     maximum number      and MFM encoding    154
     and multiple block read feature    205
     number of      number of      number of sectors per cluster    173
     number of sectors per track    158, 159
     overview    153
     partitioning from windows 95   415, 480
     partitioning using FDISK utility    169-72, 415, 480
     physical      platters    154
     for portable      read/write      repairing    177
     SCSI. See SCSI (Small Computer System
Interface)
     secondary    163
     ST-506, 160, 161, 162
     troubleshooting    177-79
     tuning cache    463-64
     types of    160-61
     U- DMA    162, 168
     user types    165
     viewing properties    479-80
hardware
See also
input devices; input/output
(I/O) devices; output devices
     adding to windows 95   459
     data flow      device drivers. Seedevice drivers
     glossary      input/output      input overview    29
     and I/O addresses    232-34
     minimum requirements for running
Windows 3. x    389-90
     modems
See
modems (MOdulator/DEModulator)
     output overview    32
     power supplies    35, 80-86
     preventive      processing      requirements for windows 95   421
     for supporting      surge suppressors    35, 88, 620
     switch boxes    35, 620
     system cases    36, 94-95, 346
     uninterruptible power supplies    36, 88-89
hardware Hayes-compatible HDI (Head to Disk Interference)    156
heads, hard disk drive    157, 159
Head to Disk Interference (HDI)    156
heaps    375, 376, 391, 407
heat sinks
     installing    74
     and microprocessors    61
     and Pentium help desk    560-61
hemostats    344
hertz    80
Hewlett-Packard
     and bidirectional communication
     Printer-Control Language (PCL)    271
hexadecimal notation
     vs. binary      in Microsoft      overview    133-34
     shorthand    134
high-level high memory area (HMA)    138, 614
High Sierra high-voltage HIMEM.SYS HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT Registry key    446
HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG Registry key    447
HKEY_CURRENT_USER Registry key    446
HKEY_DYN_DATA Registry key    447
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE Registry key    446
HKEY_USERS Registry key    447
HMA (high memory area)    138, 614
Hollerith    Dr. Herman    3
horizontal refresh rate (HRR)    249, 615
host    496, 511, 520, 614
hot wires    318, 319, 321, 322
HRR (horizontal refresh rate)    249, 615
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)    615
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)    511, 615

I
IBM
     as chipmaker    63
     and ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)    223-24
     origin of    3
     and PC-DOS    370
IBM PCs
     AT computers    81, 82-84, 97, 223
     early memory      early microprocessors    53
     PS/2 computers    224-25, 259
     XT computers    153
icons    389, 434, 615
ICs (integrated circuits)    44, 615
See also microprocessors
IDE (Integrated Development Environment)    210
IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics)
hard disk drives    166, 168
     and CD-ROM      glossary      installing    162, 163, 164-67, 168, 360-61
     limitations      overview    160
     primary and secondary controllers    189
     and Windows 95, 470
IEEE 1284 IFSHLP.SYS IFS (Installable File System)    414
impact printers    272-75
inductors    331, 332
Industry Standard Architecture (ISA)    223-24, 615
information transfer protocols    297-98
.INI files    393-94, 408
ink-jet printers    275-76, 533-34
input. See alsoinput devices
     in databases    28
     defined    27
     examples of devices    27, 29
     in games    28
     relationship to processing out output    26
     in spreadsheets    28
     in word processors    28
input devices    29
See also
CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory) drives; keyboards; mouse
input/output (I/O) devices    33
See also
floppy disk drives; hard disk drives
Installable File System (IFS)    414
installing
     CD-ROM drives    189, 191-93
     CPUs    354-55
     device drivers    111
     disk caching    401-2
     EIDE hard disk drives    201-4
     expansion      fans    74, 86
     floppy disk      hard disk installing (continued)
     heat sinks    74
     IDE hard disk drives    360-61
     modems    294-95
     motherboards    362-64
     network interface cards (NICs)    501
     printers in windows 95   460
     RAM chips    123, 353-54
     SIMMs    128-30, 353
     Windows 3.x    390-91
     Windows 95, 422-25, 426, 428-29
instruction insulators    defined    317
integrated circuits (ICs)    44, 615
See also
microprocessors
Integrated Development Environment (IDE)    210
Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE)
See
IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics)
hard disk drives
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)    285, 291-92
Intel
     4004 microprocessor    44
     8008 microprocessor    44
     8080 microprocessor    44
     8086 microprocessor    51, 53, 71, 125
     8088 microprocessor    47, 48, 51-52, 53, 71, 125, 235, 256
     80286 microprocessor    54-55, 71, 125, 223, 236, 374
     80386 microprocessor    56-57
     80386DX microprocessor    71, 125
     80386SX microprocessor    56, 71
     80486 microprocessor    58-61, 60, 125
     80486DX microprocessor    59, 71
     80486SX microprocessor    59, 71
     and Accelerated Graphics Port    229-30
     Celeron processors    66-67
     chips for portable computers    519
     CPU upgrade      history of      Pentium microprocessors    61-69, 71, 125, 127
     rivals of    51, 63
interlacing    252
internal internal International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 190, 615
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)    296
Internet
     connecting      defined    285
     glossary      list of services    510-12
     overview    510
     resources for computer technicians    545-46
Internet Protocol (IP)    285, 615
Internet Protocol (IP) addresses    285, 511, 615
Internet Internet service providers (ISPs)    285, 511, 512, 615
interrupt requests (IRQs). See also ports
     and 8088      and 80286      conflicts    406
     glossary      list of typical IRQ assignments    237
     overview    235-37
     setting    238
I/O addresses. See also ports
     characteristics      glossary      and interrupt      list of assigned      overlap problems    234
     overview    232-33
     setting    234
I/O cards    151-52
I/O devices. See input/output (I/O) devices
IO.DOS file    425
IO.SYS file
     in MS-DOS    372
     in Windows 95, 414, 425, 430, 436-37, 454
IP (Internet Protocol)    285, 615
IP (Internet Protocol) addresses    285, 511, 615
IPX/SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange/
Sequenced Packet Exchange)    506, 615
IRQs (interrupt requests)    235-38, 406, 615
ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)    223-24, 615
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)    285, 291-92, 615
ISO 9660 ISO (International Organization for Standardization)    190, 615
isochronous data transfer    230
ISP (Internet service provider)    285, 511, 512, 615
ITU (International Telecommunications Union)    296

J
jumpers    162, 163

K
Kermit protocol    290, 298
keyboards
     cables for    307
     glossary      as input      for portable      preventive kilobyte (KB)    13, 615
kilohertz    80
KRNL386.EXE

L
L1 cache. SeeLevel 1 (L1) cache
L2 cache. SeeLevel 2 (L2) cache
landing zones    157, 159
landscape LANs (local area networks)
     benefits      communication    505-6
     and Ethernet    505-6
     extending    507
     glossary      overview    495
LANtastic    499
laptop computers    58, 515
See also
portable computers
laser printers
     how they      mechanics of printing    279-81
     overview    277
     power supply    279
     preventive      primary components    277-79
I3 fuser rollers    280
I3 laser    280
I3 photosensitive I3 primary corona    280
I3 toner cartridges    280
I3 transfer      resolution    281
     troubleshooting    282-83
     and uninterruptible power supplies    89
LBA (Logical Block Addressing)    199, 202-3
LCD screens    517-18
LCHS (logical cylinders, heads, and sectors)    200
Level 1 (L1) Level 2 (L2) LIF (low-insertion-force) linear motors    155-56
line conditioning    89, 326
links    494, 495, 506, 510, 616
lithium ion (Li-Ion) batteries    522-23
LOADHIGH local area networks. SeeLANs (local area networks)
local buses
     glossary      PCI bus    227-28
     VESA local bus (VLB) standard    226-27
LOCK command    442
lockup problems    405-6
logging on    285, 616
Logical Block Addressing (LBA)    199, 202-3
logical drives    167, 169
See also
partitioning hard disk drives
logical unit numbers (LUNs)    215
long filenames    416-17, 470
lookup tables (LUTs)    257, 259
lowercase. Seecase sensitivity
low-insertion force (LIF) sockets    71
low-level LPT ports    239-40, 241, 271, 304-6, 616
LUNs (logical unit numbers)    215
LUTs (lookup tables)    257, 259

M
machine code    46
magazines    computer    547
magnetic mailing lists    510, 616
Mainboard. See motherboards
mainframe maintenance    preventive
     annual    535
     cleaning    530-31
     daily    534
     dot-matrix      floppy disk      hard disk      ink-jet printers    533-34
     keyboards    533
     laser printers    534
     monitors    254-55, 531-32
     monthly    535
     pointing      printers    533-34
     schedule      semi-annual    535
     weekly    534
mapping    memory    135-40
Mauchly    John W., 4
Maxtor Corporation    160
MCA (Micro Channel Architecture)    224-25, 616
MDA (Monochrome Display Adapter)    256, 257, 616
MDRAM (Multibank DRAM)    261
mean time between failures (MTBF)    531, 617
megabyte (MB)    13, 616
megahertz (MHz)    80, 616
MEM.COM file    140-41
MEM command    140-41, 387
MEM.EXE file    387
memory. See alsorandom access memory (RAM); read-only memory (ROM); video memory
     access speed    122-23, 352, 609
     adding to portable computers    519-20
     allocating    135-40
     and bus cycles    122
     for cache    130-32
     as computer processing component    31
     controllers      defined    31, 120
     expanded (EMS)    137
     extended (XMS)    136, 375, 613
     and General Protection Faults    407
     glossary      and Microsoft      and MS-DOS      optimizing in MS- DOS    386-87
     overview    47
     printer    271
     random access (RAM)    47
     and real vs. protected modes    54-55, 56
     requirements for windows 95   421
     and SCSI      upgrading    350-54
     volatile vs. nonvolatile    120
memory bus. Seeaddress bus
memory mapping    135-40
MFM (modified frequency modulation)
Micro Channel Architecture (MCA)    224-25, 616
Micron Network Protocols (MNP)    300, 301
microphones    29, 616
microprocessors. See also Intel
     8- bit    52
     16- bit    51
     32- bit    56
     and chip microprocessors (continued)
     defined    40
     and fans    61, 62, 86
     gauging performance and capabilities    51-61
     glossary      handling    73
     and heat      history of    44
     how they      ICs (integrated circuits)    44, 615
     instruction      manufacturers      math problem      and memory      packaging    52, 55, 57, 67, 71, 73-74
     parts of    45
     for portable      P-ratings    62
     and real vs. protected mode    54-55
     replacing and upgrading    70-74
     superscalar      transistors Microsoft Certified Product Specialist (MCPS)    509
Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE)    509
Microsoft Microsoft Windows
See also
Windows 3.x; Windows 95
     and 32-bit file access    205-6
     386 enhanced      and CD-ROM      development      and Intel      and memory    136, 137
     operating      protected      runtime version    375
     standard MIDI connectors    189
.mil domains    512
mini-connectors    85, 616
MKDIR command    382, 442
MMX technology    65
MNP (Micron Network Protocols)    300, 301
modems (MOdulator/DEModulator)
     56-Kbps    301-2
     and analog vs. digital communication    287-88
     communication      defined    33, 285
     glossary      handshaking    298-99
     Hayes-compatible    302
     installing    294-95
     internal vs. external    291, 294-95
     as I/O devices    33
     list of AT      multifunction    293-94
     overview    284
     for portable computers. SeePC Card bus
     and serial vs. parallel communication    287
     settings    defined    285
     speed factor    295-96
     telephone line basics    293
     vs. terminal      terminology    284-86
     troubleshooting    303
     USB    291
modified frequency modulation (MFM)    154
Molex connectors    85, 86, 616
monitors
See also
displays, portable computer
     adjusting      bandwidth    251
     basic operation    248-51
     cleaning    254
     CRTs    248, 250, 612
     defined    32
     degaussing    253, 254
     dot pitch    251
     glossary      how they      image formation    249-50
     interlacing    252
     maintaining    254-55, 531-32
     multifrequency    249
monitors (continued)
     as output      overview    248
     picture area    251
     power-saving      refresh rates    249-50
     repairing    254
     screen resolution    250, 256, 258, 259, 262
     and screen      selecting    263
     sizes of    251
     troubleshooting    255, 264-65
     tuning display    252-54
     turning on and off    254
     and uninterruptible power supplies    88
     ventilating    254
Monochrome Display Adapter (MDA)    256, 257
Morse code    12
motherboards
     and AT-style      AT vs. ATX    81, 97
     ATX advantages    81, 84
     and chip      as computer processing component    30
     and CPU    30, 41, 354, 355
     defined    30
     expansion      glossary      installing    362-64
     and memory      overview    41, 96
     purchasing      repairing vs. replacing    97
     replacing    71, 97, 362-64
     and ROM BIOS    100-115
     upgrading Motorola    51, 68-69
mouse. See alsopointing devices
     glossary      as input      preventive      VMOUSE.VXD virtual driver    455
MPC standards    194
MSCDEX.EXE MSD.EXE file    141
MS-DOS
     boot process    379-80
     and CD-ROM      and CMOS      command switches    381
     configuring    383-84
     and disk      drive pointers    381
     entering      getting help    383
     lists of      and long      and memory    135, 136, 137, 138, 139,
140-41, 386-87
     optimizing    383-87
     overview    370
     real mode. Seereal mode
     terminology    380-81
     versions      and virtual 8086 mode    376
MS-DOS applications
     incompatibilities with windows 95   485-87
     and memory      running from MSDOS.DOS MS-DOS mode    486-87
MS-DOS prompt    381
MS-DOS Protected Mode Interface (DPMI)    136, 413, 612
MSDOS.SYS file
     in MS-DOS    372
     in Windows 95, 414, 425, 430, 432, 437-40, 454
MTBF (mean time between failures)    531, 617
Multibank DRAM (MDRAM)    261
multifrequency multifunction multimedia multimeters    320, 321-22, 344
multiple block reads    205
multiSync multitasking    56, 389, 617
multithreading    63

N
nanosecond (ns)    122, 617
National Electrical Code (NEC)    536
National NEC (corporation) 249
needlenose NetBIOS/NetBEUI (networked basic input/output system/NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface)    506, 617
.net domains    512
NetWare    499
network interface cards (NICs)    33, 500-502, 617
network operating system (NOS)    499
network protocols    506-7
networks
     basic requirements    494
     bus topology    498, 505, 610
     cabling    502-5
     communications    494, 495
     connections    494, 495
     glossary      interface cards (NICs)    33, 500-502
     local area. SeeLANs (local area networks)
     maintaining    508
     operating      peer-to-peer    496, 618
     programs for technician certification    509
     protocols    506-7
     ring topology    498-99
     and SCSI    212
     server    496
     services    494, 495
     star topology    497
     token ring    498-99, 506
     topologies    497-99
     troubleshooting    508
     types of    496
     wide area    496, 622
neutral wire    318, 319, 321, 322
Newman, Max    4
newsgroups    545
NextGen    63
nibbles    13
nickel cadmium (NiCad) batteries    522
nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries    522
noise, electrical    211
nonvolatile See also read-only memory (ROM)
NOS (network operating system)    499
notation. Seebinary system; decimal notation; hexadecimal notation
notebook See alsoportable computers
Novell
     DR- DOS    370
     NetWare    499
     network certification null-modem numbering systems. Seebinary system; decimal notation; hexadecimal notation
nut drivers    344

O
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)    537
odd parity    290
offline    285, 617
offline readers    285, 617
ohms
     defined    317
     glossary      measuring      and Ohm’s Ohm’s Law    317-18
online    285, 617
online technical operating systems
     carrying on disk    345
     defined    370
     glossary operating systems(continued)
     MS-DOS. See MS-DOS
     and Windows 3.1, 373-76, 388-408
     Windows 95. SeeWindows 95
     Windows 98, 376, 411, 417, 418, 427
     Windows 2000, 377
     Windows NT    377
.org domains    512
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)    537
Out of memorymessages    400
output
     in databases    28
     defined    27
     examples of devices    27, 32
     in games    28
     relationship to input and processing    26
     in spreadsheets    28
     in word processors    28
output devices    32. See also monitors; printers

P
packets    289, 291, 299, 617
paging memory    470
palmtop computers    516. See alsoportable computers
paper, printer    270, 271
paper trays    270
parallel See alsoLPT ports
parity    122, 290-91, 352
parity bit    122, 290-91, 617
partitioning hard disk drives
     background    169
     and FATs    172, 415, 480
     how to do      loss of key      primary vs. active partition    171
     primary vs. extended partitions    169-70
     steps in      using FDISK      when to use    169
     from Windows 95, 415, 480
path    381, 617
PATH command    442
PC Card bus    516, 520
PC- DOS    370. See also MS-DOS
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) bus    227-28
PCL (Hewlett-Packard Printer-Control Language)    271
PCMCIA cards (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association). SeePC Card bus
PDAs (personal digital assistants)
See
portable computers
peer-to-peer Pentium microprocessors
     choice of      and data-flow      and dynamic      and instruction      and MMX technology    65
     on-board      Series I    61-64
     Series II    65-66
     Series III    68
     and superscalar      U pipeline vs. V pipeline    63
Pentium Pro Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) standard, 227-28
peripherals. See also printers
     defined    32
     glossary      sharing on permanent swap file    399, 400
persistence    249, 618
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA). SeePC Card bus
personal computers
See
computers; hardware; IBM PCs
personal digital assistants (PDAs)
See
portable computers
PGA (pin grid array)    55, 57, 67, 519
PGA (Professional Graphics Adapter)    258, 618
Phoenix BIOS    103, 104-8
phosphor    248
physical .PIF files    404, 461
pin grid array (PGA)    55, 57, 67, 519
PIO (Programmed Inut/Output) modes    197, 199, 204
pixels    249, 250, 251, 257, 618
plastic leadless chip carrier (PLCC)    55, 57
plastic quad flat pack (PQFP) CPU mounts    58
platters
     CD    188
     hard disk    154
PLCC (plastic leadless chip carrier)    55, 57
pliers    343
plotters    32, 618
Plug and Play
     and CMOS    109
     and expansion      and PC Card      and Registry    111
     and SCSI    209
     and Windows 95, 456, 459, 460
     and Windows 95 installation    423-24, 435
pointing devices
     mouse    29, 455, 533, 617
     for portable      preventive polarity    320, 323
portable computers
     background    58, 514
     batteries      CD-ROM drives      display options    517-18
     docking stations    515
     hard disk drives for    520
     hardware    517-23
     keyboards      laptop computers    515
     memory in    519-20
     notebook      palmtop computers    516
     personal digital assistants (PDAs)    514
     pointing devices for    521
     power management    523-24
portable computers(continued)
     processors      removable media for    521
     subnotebook      swappable drives for    521
     trackballs      types of    514-16
     Zip drives portrait ports
     COM    239-41, 295, 306-7, 611
     defined    239
     glossary      LPT    239-40, 241, 271, 304-6, 616
     for printers    271, 272
     Windows 95 POST. See power-on self test (POST)
POST cards    115, 344
PostScript    271
POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service)    285, 291
power
     alternating current (AC)    318-19, 321, 322
     defined    317
     direct current (DC)    320, 323
     glossary      overview    316-17
     portable computer issues    523-24
     safety issues    336-37, 537-38
     terminology    316-17
     testing    321-23
power failures    87
power-on self test (POST)
     beep codes    113-14
     determining memory values    123
     diagnostic expansion cards    115
     error codes    114
     first test    112-13
     overview    112
     second test    113-14
     stages of    112-14
     troubleshooting errors after beep    113-14
Power PC power sags    87
power spikes    35, 87, 88, 326
power strips    88
power supplies
     AT-style connections to motherboard    82-84
     AT vs. ATX      ATX-style connections to motherboard    81, 84, 97
     complete      connections to peripheral hardware    85
     and DC power    320, 322
     defined    35
     and floppy disk drives    148
     glossary      laser printer    279
     for laser      mini-connectors    85, 616
     Molex connectors    85, 86, 616
     need for      overview    80
     problems      safety considerations    538
     sizes of    81
     switching network components    326
     and system      testing    324-27
     troubleshooting    87-89, 324, 325-26
     types of      wattage ratings    82
power surges    87, 88, 326
See also
electrostatic discharge (ESD)
PQFP (plastic quad flat pack) CPU mounts    58
preventive maintenance
     annual    535
     cleaning    530-31
     daily    534
     dot-matrix      floppy disk      hard disk      ink-jet printers    533-34
     keyboards    533
preventive maintenance(continued)
     laser printers    534
     monitors    254-55, 531-32
     monthly    535
     pointing      printers    533-34
     schedule      semi-annual    535
     weekly    534
primary hard disk drive partition    169, 170
printer cables    304-6
Printer-Control Language (PCL)    271
printer drivers    279, 408
printers
     consumables      cost factors    271, 276
     daisy-wheel    275
     defined    32
     dot-matrix    273-74
     duplexing    272
     duty cycles    271
     glossary      graphics      impact    272-75
     ink-jet    275-76
     installing in windows 95   460
     and memory    271
     as output      overview    270-72
     paper capacity    270
     portrait vs. landscape orientation    272
     ports    271, 272
     preventive      printer-language      resolution    270, 271, 281
     terminology    271
     thermal    275
     transparency      troubleshooting    282-83
     wax-transfer    275
     Windows 95 Printers Print Troubleshooter    487-88
processing. See also CPU
     in databases    28
     defined    27
     in games    28
     relationship to input and output    26
     in spreadsheets    28
     in word processors    28
Professional Graphics Adapter (PGA)    258
PROGMAN.INI file,
Windows 3. x    393-94, 398
Program Information Files (PIF)    404
Programmed Inut/Output (PIO)
prompt, command    381, 618
PROMPT command    382, 442
properties    435, 475
protected mode
     glossary      vs. real      and virtual      and Windows    374-75, 413, 414
protocols
     ASCII protocol    297
     defined    285
     FTP    297, 511, 614
     glossary      for information      IP    285, 615
     modem    290, 297-98
     network    506-7
     TCP/ IP    285, 506, 511, 620
proxy servers    285
PS/2 computers    224-25, 259
PS/2 connectors    309
punched cards    3

Q
quartz crystals. Seesystem crystal

R
radio frequency interference (RFI)    94
RAID (redundant array of independent disks)    212, 618
RAM. See random access memory (RAM)
RAM count    129
RAMDrive random access memory (RAM)
     access speed    122-23
     adding to portable computers    519-20
     and address      bad chips    406
     banking    125, 126
     configuration    125-26
     count visible at startup    129
     determining usable amount in MS- DOS    140-41
     determining values during POST    123
     and display      extended data out (EDO)    261, 352
     glossary      installing    123, 353-54
     and MS-DOS      optimizing in MS- DOS    386-87
     overview    47, 121-23
     packaging    123
     requirements for windows 95   421
     and system      and voltage    128
rasters    249, 280
read-only memory (ROM)    100, 121
read/write real mode
     device drivers    443, 455
     glossary      and MS-DOS    138
     vs. protected reassembling recordkeeping    557-58
rectifiers    329-30
Recycle Bin    477
reduced instruction set computing (RISC)    64, 619
redundant array of independent disks (RAID)    212
referrals    562
REGEDIT.EXE .REG files    449, 450
registers
     32- bit    56
     and CPU performance    51
     glossary      overview    45
Registry. SeeWindows Registry
REN command    382, 442
repairing computers. See troubleshooting
repeaters    507, 619
replacing resistance
     defined    317
     in Ohm’s      testing    323
resolution
     glossary      printer    270, 271, 281
     screen    250, 256, 258, 259, 262
Resource restoring ring networks    498-99, 619
RISC (reduced instruction set computing)    64, 619
RJ-11 connectors    293, 309
RJ-12 connectors    293, 309
RJ-45 connectors    309, 500
RLL (run-length limited) encoding    154
RMDIR command    382, 442
ROM BIOS    100-115
ROM (read-only memory)
     on add-on      classes of    101
     core chips    101
     glossary      overview    100
     updatable routers    507, 619
RS-232 standard    292, 293
run-length limited (RLL) encoding    154

S
safety
     electrical    336-37, 537-38
     workplace    536, 539
sags, power    87
SASI (Shugart Associates System Interface)    207
SCAM (SCSI configured auto-magically)    210
ScanDisk    178, 422
scanners    29, 619
scanning    29, 619
screen resolution
     improvements    256, 258, 259
     in LCD displays    518
     minimum memory      overview    250
screwdrivers    343
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
     advantages of using    207
     background    207-8
     cables    213, 214, 307
     CD-ROM drives    189, 191
     Common Command Set (CCS)    208
     configuring as bootable drive    215
     future of    212-14
     glossary      hard disk      host adapters    213, 214
     vs. IDE    210, 212
     ideal uses      ID numbering      maximum number of devices    214
     and memory      and noise    211-12
     overview    207
     and Plug and Play    209
     SCAM-enabled    210
     setting ID      single-ended vs. differential-ended devices    211
     software      standards    207-10, 211
     system setup    213-16
SCSI(continued)
     and termination    215-16
     troubleshooting device conflicts    211-12
     and updatable ROM chips    101
     and Windows 95, 470
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) interface
     and CD-ROM scuzzy. See SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
SDRAM (synchronous DRAM)    121
Seagate Technologies    160, 199
search engines    546, 619
secondary secondary hard disk drives    163
SEC (single-edge connector) packaging    66, 67, 71, 73-74
sectors    hard disk
     clustering    173
     and file allocation tables (FATs)    172-76
     per cluster    173
     per track    158, 159
sector translation    157
serial communication    16, 287, 288-89, 619
See also
COM ports
server networks    496, 619
servers    495, 496, 619
Server versions    Windows 2000, 377
Server versions    Windows NT    377
SET command    442
SETUPLOG.TXT SETVER.EXE SGRAM (Synchronous Graphics RAM)    261
shadow RAM    139, 619
SHARE.EXE shielded twisted-pair cable    502-3
short circuits    319
shortcuts    434
Shugart Associates System Interface (SASI)    207
signal transmission
     analog vs.      parallel vs. serial    16
SIMD (single instruction multiple data) stream  processing    65
SIMMs (single inline memory modules)
     30- pin    124, 351
     72- pin    127-28, 351
     handling    128
     installing    128-30, 353
     overview    124
     physical      selecting    351
     troubleshooting      variety of    128
sine waves vs. square waves    326
single-edge connector (SEC) packaging    66, 67, 71, 73-74
single inline memory modules
See
SIMMs (single inline memory modules)
single inline pin packages (SIPPs)    124
SIPPs (single inline pin packages)    124
Small Computer System Interface
See
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
SMARTDRV.EXE SMM (System Memory Management)    59
software
     for computer      data flow      glossary      sharing on      utilities    345
sound cards    and CD-ROM drives    86, 189, 190
spare parts    550, 551, 559
speakerphones    548
speakers    32
speculative speed. See access speed; clock speed;
data transfer rates
SPGA (staggered pin grid array) packaging    57
spikes, power    87, 88, 326
splitters    86
spooling    620
spreadsheets    examples of input, processing, and  output    28
square waves vs. sine waves    326
SRAM (static RAM)    130
ST-506 hard disk drives    160, 161, 162
standardizing computer equipment    560
star networks    497, 620
startup disks    424-25
Startup menu    431-34
static discharge    73
static electricity. Seeelectrostatic discharge (ESD)
static RAM (SRAM)    130
stepper motors    155
subnotebook superscalar Super VGA (SVGA) adapter    258, 259, 260, 620
support calls    560-61
surges, power    87, 88, 326
See also
electrostatic discharge (ESD)
surge suppressors    35, 88, 620
See also
uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs)
SVGA (Super VGA) adapter    258, 259, 260, 620
swap files    376, 399, 400, 406, 462, 465
switch boxes    35, 620
switches    MS- DOS    381
switching network components. Seepower supplies
synchronous Synchronous Graphics RAM (SGRAM)    261
syntax    381, 620
Sysedit program    398
sysops (system operators)    285, 620
system BIOS    100. See alsoROM BIOS
system bus    66, 223, 620. See alsodata bus
system cases. See cases, computer
system clock. See clock, CPU
system crystal    46, 47, 222, 620
SYSTEM.DAT SYSTEM.INI file
     EMMExclude      EMMInclude      and Windows 3. x    205, 391, 394-96
     and Windows 95, 432, 444, 454, 455
system memory    121
See also
random access memory (RAM)
System Monitor    482-84
system resources    monitoring    484-85

T
Tape Carrier tape drives
     and ATA interface    198
     defined    33
     as earliest PC mass storage    153
     glossary      as I/O devices    33
taskbar    windows 95   476-77
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol)    285, 506, 511, 620
technical support
     obtaining by telephone    547-48
     online    548
     overview    547
     providing by telephone    548, 559, 560-61
technicians. Seecomputer technicians
telecommunications    286, 620
telecom software    286, 620
telephone
SeeIntegrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service)
telephone-line support
     obtaining    547-48
     providing    548, 559, 560-61
telnet    510, 620
temporary temporary swap file    399, 400
terminal terminate-and-stay-resident (TSR) programs    383, 384, 433, 621
terminators    215-16
terminology
     glossary    609-22
     modems    284-86
     MS- DOS    380-81
     power    316-17
     printers    271
TFT (thin film transistor) displays    517-18
thermal printers    275
TIME command    382, 442
.TMP files    402-3
token ring toner cartridges    278, 280
toolbox    343-44, 549, 550-51, 559
topologies    network
     bus    498, 505, 610
     glossary      ring    498-99
     star    497
Torx driver    343
trackballs    521
trackpads    522
trackpoints    521
tracks, hard transformers    327, 330-31
transistors
     in active-matrix LCD displays    517-18
     and CPU performance    51
     in dual-scan LCD displays    517
     glossary      overview    43-44, 330
translation Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)    285, 506, 511, 620
transparencies    printing    283
troubleshooting
     cables    308
     cache    464
     CMOS    178
     connectors    308
     display systems    264-65
     dot-matrix      floppy disks and drives    150-52
     hard disk      ink-jet printers    276
     keeping extra      laser printers    282-83
     modems    303
     monitors    255, 264-65
     networks    508
     overview    551-52
troubleshooting (continued)
     phases of    552-56
     power supplies    87-89, 324, 325-26
     SCSI device      SCSI drives    178
     SIMM installation    129-30
     Windows 3.x    405-8
     Windows 95, 482-90
true-color display cards    260
TrueType TSR (terminate-and-stay-resident) tweezers    343
twisted-pair TYPE command    382, 442

U
UARTs (universal asynchronous
receiver-transmitters)    288-89
U-DMA. See Ultra DMA drives
Ultra DMA UMA (upper memory area)    139
UMB (upper memory blocks)    139, 403
UNDELETE Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)    510, 511
uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs)
     defined    36
     glossary      how to select    88
     and laser      and monitors    89
     overview    88-89
     VA rating    88-89
     what it does    88
universal asynchronous receiver-transmitters (UARTs)    288-89
universal serial bus (USB)    230-31, 291, 309, 621
UNIX operating UNLOCK command    442
unshielded twisted-pair cable    500, 502-3
updatable ROM chips    101
upgrading
     BIOS    100
     computers    348-64
     CPUs    70-71, 354-55
     memory    350-54
     microprocessors    70-74
     network interface      to Windows 95, 422-25
uploading    286, 621
uppercase. Seecase sensitivity
upper memory    135, 386
upper memory area (UMA)    139, 387, 621
upper memory blocks (UMB)    139, 403, 621
UPS. See uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs)
U.S. Robotics    302
USB (universal serial bus)    230-31, 291, 309, 621
Usenet    545, 621
USER.DAT USER.EXE

V
Vcache    402, 414, 462, 470
VCACHE.VXD VCDFSD.VXD VCPI (Virtual Control Program Interface)    140
Vdot standards    296, 300, 301
VER command    382, 442
VERIFY command    442
vertical refresh rate (VRR)    249, 622
VESA. See Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA)
VESA local bus (VLB) standard    226-27
VFAT    416, 470
VFAT.386 VFAT.VXD VGA (Video Graphics Array)    258, 621
video-capture video cards. Seedisplay adapters
video controllers. Seedisplay adapters
Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA)
     local bus (VLB) standard    226-27
     Super VGA (SVGA) standard    258, 259, 260, 620
Video Graphics Array (VGA)    258, 621
video memory
     for LCD displays    518
     minimum requirements    262
     overview    260-61
Video RAM (VRAM)    261
virtual 8086 Virtual Control Program Interface (VCPI)    140, 621
virtual device drivers vs. real-mode drivers    443, 455
virtual disk    creating    400
virtual machines    56, 138, 376, 414
virtual memory
     and 80386      configuring in Windows 3. x    399-400
     vs. disk      glossary      modifying swap file settings    400
     overview    54
     sizing    399
     and Windows 3. x    376
Virtual Memory Manager (VMM)    399-400
virtual real virus-checking viruses    107, 489-90
VLB (VESA local bus) standard    226-27
VMM32.VXD VMM (Virtual Memory Manager)    399-400, 414
VMOUSE.VXD voice coil volatile See alsorandom access memory (RAM)
VOL command    442
voltage. See also high-voltage safety
     in alternating (AC) current    318, 319, 322
     defined    317
     in direct (DC) current    323
     measuring    317, 321-22
     in Ohm’s      in portable computer CPUs    519
voltage(continued)
     testing memory    128
     testing power voltage regulators    327
voltage spikes    87, 88, 326
voltage surges    87, 88, 326
See also
electrostatic discharge (ESD)
volt-ohm meters. See multimeters
volts
     defined    317
     glossary      in Ohm’s VRAM (Video RAM)    261
VRR (Vertical Refresh Rate)    249, 622
VSHARE.VXD .VXD files    443, 454

W
WANs (wide area networks)    496, 622
warm boot    380, 622
watts    82
wax-transfer Web browsers    284, 512, 610
webmasters    286
Web sites    510
Western Digital    160
wide area networks (WANs)    496, 622
Wide SCSI    209
wildcards    381, 622
WIN386.EXE Winchester disk drives    153
Window Random Access Memory (WRAM)    261
Windows 3.11. SeeWindows for Workgroups
Windows 3.x
     configuring    392-98
     CONTROL.INI      Control Panel    392
     and dual-boot      features    388-89
     .INI files    393-94
     installing    390-91
Windows 3.x (continued)
     and large hard disk drives    205-6
     list of operating system files    391
     minimum hardware      overview    373-76
     PROGMAN.INI      running MS-DOS      running Setup    390-91, 392
     SYSTEM.INI      troubleshooting    405-8
     upgrading to windows 95   422-25
     virtual memory      vs. Windows 95, 413, 417-18
     WIN.INI file    394, 396-97
Windows 95
     and 32-bit      adding new      adding to newly installed hard disk drive    427
     advantages of using    419
     boot process step-by- step    430-31
     clean installation    426
     and CMOS      configuring    425, 460-62
     copying floppy      creating startup disk    424-25
     and device      Device Manager    456-59
     dual-booting with Windows 3. x    428-29, 433
     dual-booting with Windows NT    429
     features      file management      file structure    415-17, 436-38
     Find feature    475-76
     formatting floppy disks    478
     hardware      how it works    436-65
     incompatibilities of MS-DOS applications    485-87
     installing    422-25, 426
     installing      installing without removing Windows 3. x    428-29
     limitations Windows 95 (continued)
     managing file system    470-80
     memory requirements    421
     MS-DOS mode    461
     as OEM product    426
     optional install method    428
     overview    411, 413
     partitioning hard disk drives    415, 480
     and Plug and Play    456
     printing      properties      Recycle Bin    477
     Registry    417, 444-49
     Resource      Safe mode    432, 433
     Startup menu    431-34
     System Monitor    482-84
     taskbar    476-77
     troubleshooting    482-90
     upgrading from Windows 3. x    422-25
     versions      viewing disk      vs. Windows 3. x    413, 417-18
     vs. Windows 98, 417-18
     and Windows Windows 98, 376, 411, 418, 427
Windows 2000, 172, 411, 499
Windows Explorer
     copying files and folders    474
     copying floppy      cutting files and folders    474
     defined    435
     displaying file extensions    472-73
     dragging-and-dropping files and folders    474
     finding files and folders    475-76
     formatting floppy disks    478
     moving files and folders    473-74
     opening    471
     pasting files and folders    474
     sorting files and folders    473
     viewing disk      in Windows 98, 471
Windows for Windows NT    172, 200, 212, 411, 429, 499
Windows Registry
     accessing    445
     backing up    450-54
     components    446-47
     editing    447-49, 450
     glossary      HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT      HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG      HKEY_CURRENT_USER      HKEY_DYN_DATA      HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE      HKEY_USERS      overview    417, 444
     reasons for    444-45
     restoring    450-54
     using REGEDIT from real-mode MS- DOS    449
WIN.INI file
     and Windows 3. x    394, 396-97
     and Windows 95, 432, 444, 454, 486
wires. See also buses; cables; connectors
     ground wire    319, 321, 322
     hot wires    318, 319, 321, 322
     neutral wire    318, 319, 321, 322
     parallel vs. serial devices    16
     testing    321, 322
word processors    examples of input, processing,
and output    28
words, as units of computer memory    13, 126, 623
workplace
     difficult      safety issues    536, 539
workstations    and peer-to-peer networks    496
Workstation version, Windows 2000, 377
Workstation version, Windows NT    377
World Wide WRAM (Window Random Access Memory)    261
write-back write precompensation    157, 158
write-through

X
XCOPY command    383
Xenon microprocessors    67
XGA (eXtended Graphics Array)    259
Xmodem protocol    290, 298
XMS (extended memory)    136, 375, 613
XMSMMGR.EXE

Y
Yellow Book standar ds    190
Ymodem protocol    290, 298

Z
ZIF (zero-insertion-force) sockets    57, 71, 72-73
Zip drives   167, 521
Zmodem protocol    290, 298

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)