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The Standard Model is a unified model of the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions. It is formed from Electroweak Theory and an SU(3) color gauge theory of the strong interaction called Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Each part is separately renormalizable, as is the combined theory. This ad hoc theory of all known interactions except gravitation has been remarkably successful in accounting for the experimental data at energies currently accessible at accelerators. There are a number of phenomena that are not understood within the framework of the Standard Model such as dark matter and dark energy, some CP violation phenomena, and the spin dependence observed in certain experiments. There is also an appreciation of the ad hoc nature of the unification of the strong and electroweak sectors. They are “just glued together”. An overall symmetry encompassing both sectors (broken as it would be) would be more reassuring and more elegant. However the theory works, and appears to work well, for most particle physics phenomena.
Superstring theory has become a seriously considered alternative to the Standard Model. It appears to offer a finite theoretical framework without divergences. It offers the hope of a rational grand unification. It is mathematically interesting and elegant. However, it has almost no experimental support. It predicts many particles that remain to be found. It requires additional dimensions that are not evidenced. It does not have a demonstrable, satisfactory “low energy limit” that resembles the Standard Model. It has the problem of too many possibilities: after thirty years of effort one cannot point to a Superstring theory and say it is THE Superstring theory. Considering that far more theoretical effort has been expended on Superstring theory by more theorists then on any other theory of physics, its physical justification, its nature, and its contact with experiment is still not well understood.
In the hope of developing a sound theory that clearly makes contact with known experimental data, that has a direct connection to the Standard Model, that is finite (no divergences), and that can be directly extended to encompass gravitation, we have developed a two-tier formulation of the Standard Model and its variants. It is admittedly far more modest in its scope than Superstring theory. Yet it allows us to have a finite theory - a major goal of Superstring theory - and to address cosmological issues by its easy unification with two-tier quantum gravity (next chapter) - also a finite theory without divergences.
Thus we have a theory that accounts for all known interactions and yet incrementally extends known successful theories - in a significant way. With (perhaps) the exception of General Relativity, the growth of particle physics theory in this century has been largely incremental.
The nature of the mechanism that two-tier quantum field theory uses to avoid divergences has the important feature that it does not depend on “magic cancellations”, does not depend on details of the symmetries, and does not depend on details of the form of the theories. Thus all the variations and extensions of the Standard Model have an equivalent two-tier version that is finite. This feature gives the theorist the flexibility to modify and extend the two-tier Standard Model without worrying about the introduction of new divergences.The other major advantage is that the theory is very much like the world we see at current energies - four dimensions and no large number of new particles. It leaves open the door for new interactions and new particles IF they are found at higher energies. Thus it is not a showstopper. Nor is it a prediction of a vast desert extending to the highest energies. It gives a finite, unified theory with an “Open Door” policy for the future.
Posted August 9, 2003
This book introduces a new type of Quantum Field Theory called 'Two Tier QFT' that has no divergences, and thus allows a finite quantum field theory of the Standard Model and Gravitation to be created. It is written like a textbook and goes through the mathematical details thoroughly. It is at the level of a graduate QFT course. But the theory is new and highly original research. Some tidbits: black holes must have a minimal mass - ultra-microscopic black holes are not possible. Maybe that is why they are not created in high energy/cosmic ray experiments. Also massive vector mesons do not create divergences so that the Higgs mechanism is not needed to create a renormalizable electroweak theory. I found this to be a very interesting book that might make QFT a viable alternative to the current monopoly of Superstring theory. I highly recommend it.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.