A History of Israel: From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time / Edition 3

A History of Israel: From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time / Edition 3

by Howard M. Sachar

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ISBN-10: 0375711325

ISBN-13: 9780375711329

Pub. Date: 05/15/2007

Publisher: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group

Second Edition, Revised and Expanded


Second Edition, Revised and Expanded

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Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group
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6.07(w) x 9.15(h) x 2.29(d)

Table of Contents

Preface     xxi
The Rise of Jewish Nationalism     3
Acculturation and Historical Memory     3
Forerunners of Zionism     6
European Nationalism and Russian Upheaval     10
Palestine as Refuge and Renaissance     13
The Chovevei Zion     16
The Beginning of the Return     18
The Link with the Land     18
Palestine and European Consciousness     20
The "Old Settlement"     22
The "Old Settlement" Stirs     24
The First Aliyah     26
"The Well-known Benefactor"     30
The Bridgehead Widens     32
Herzl and the Rise of Political Zionism     36
The Complete European     36
Der Judenstaat     38
From Theorist to Activist: The Zionist Congress     41
The Kaiser and the Sultan     47
The British Connection     52
Achad HaAm, Easterners, and the Democratic Fraction     56
A Final Diplomatic Effort and the "Uganda" Crisis     59
Herzl: A Last Assessment     63
The Growth of the Yishuv     65
Zionism after Herzl     65
The Growth of Zionist Parties     67
Labor Zionism     69
The Second Aliyah     71
The Conquest of Labor     74
The Collective Settlement     77
The Guild of Watchmen     80
The Conquest of Hebrew     82
The Yishuv Strives for Political Identity     85
The Balfour Declaration     89
Palestine Jewry and the War     89
The Middle East and British War Policy     92
The Origins of the Anglo-Zionist Alliance     96
A Crucial Intermediary     99
The Quid Pro Quo of Jewish Friendship     101
A Declaration Is Issued     105
The Jewish Legion and the Liberation of the Yishuv     112
The Establishment of The Mandate     116
A Definition of Frontiers     116
High and Early Hopes in the Holy Land     117
The End of the Military Regime, The Reformulation of the Mandate     122
The "Constitution" of the Mandate     129
The Operation of the Mandate     132
The Roots of Self-Government     134
Building the Jewish National Home     138
The Revival of the Zionist Organization     138
The Contest for American Zionism, The Struggle for Land and Funds      140
Immigrants and Ideologies     144
A New Utopia on the Soil     147
The Voice of Chalutziut     152
The Growth of Urban Settlement, The Struggle for Labor Unity     154
The Creation of the Jewish Agency     160
The Seeds of Arab - Jewish Confrontation     163
Arabs and Jews Before the Mandate     163
The Arabs of Palestine     167
A Failure of Perception, A Renewal of Violence     171
The Aftermath of Violence     174
Polarization and a Failure of Definition     178
The Revisionist Answer     183
The Fifth Aliyah, The Growth of the Capitalist Sector     188
The Growth of Zionism     190
Britain Repudiates the Jewish National Home     195
The Intrusion of the Axis     195
The Seeds of Arab Revolt     196
The Arab Revolt Begins     199
The Peel Commission     201
The Peel Report and Its Reception     204
Partition in the Balance     208
The Arab Revolt Is Renewed     210
The Growth of Jewish Self-Defense     213
Britain Retreats from Partition     217
The London Round Table Conference     219
The White Paper of 1939     222
Palestine in World War II     227
An Oscillation of British Fortunes     227
A Lonely Ally     229
Tragedy and Rescue     236
Anglo-Zionist Diplomacy During the War     240
The Rise of Jewish Militancy     243
The Yishuv Repudiates the Mandate     249
The War Ends: Jewish and British Appraisals     249
The United States and the Refugee Question     254
The Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry     258
Jewish Extremism Intensified     264
The Illegal Immigration     267
Britain's Final Effort: The Morrison-Grady Plan and the London Discussions     270
The Birth of Israel     279
The Palestine Issue Reaches the United Nations     279
The UNSCOP Reports     283
The United States Makes a Commitment     287
The Vote for Partition     292
The Response to Partition     295
Partition in Jeopardy     301
The Jews Force the Issue     304
The Birth of Israel     309
The War of Independence     315
The Arab States Prepare for Invasion     315
The Jews Face Invasion     317
Israel's Survival in the Balance     319
The Battle for Jerusalem     324
The First United Nations Truce     327
Territorial and Demographic Changes     330
Bernadotte Makes a Proposal     336
The Battle for the Negev     339
The Final Campaign of the Palestine War     342
Negotiations for an Armistice     347
The Growth of the Israeli Republic     354
The Framework of Government     354
Legislature and Executive     357
A Bicephalous Judiciary     360
Crises of Israeli Democracy     362
An Entanglement of Parties     362
Government by Coalition     366
The Bureaucracy     369
Demagoguery     371
Religion and State     376
The Arab Minority: Citizenship and Military Government     382
The Arab Minority: Land and Economy     386
Communal Structure in an Alien Society     389
Ingathering and the Struggle for Economic Survival     395
The Gates Open     395
The Oriental Immigration     396
The Shock of Absorption     403
Efforts to Disperse and Feed a Population     405
The Crisis of the Israeli Economy     409
The Role of the Public Sector     411
The Immigration Resumes, The Roots of Social Crisis     415
The North African Malaise     419
The Economy Revives     424
The Search for Peace and Security     429
The Realities of Israel's Foreign Policy     429
The Palestine Conciliation Commission, The Status of Jerusalem     430
The Arab Refugees: The Fate of Abandoned Property     436
The Arab Refugees: Repatriation versus Resettlement     439
A Flickering of Border Violence     443
Demilitarized Zones and Fedayeen     445
The Dynamics of Arab Belligerency     450
The Mechanics of Arab Belligerency     453
Israel Looks to the West     458
The Quest for Soviet Friendship     461
A Crisis of Conscience: To Negotiate with Germany     464
The Treaty of Luxembourg and Shilumim     466
The Balance Sheet     470
Sinai and Suez     472
Nasser Casts a Shadow     472
Israel in Isolation     475
Dayan Creates a Fighting Force     479
The Search for an Ally     482
Nasser Issues a Challenge     485
Israel Is Brought into the Picture     489
Operation Kadesh Is Launched     493
"The Separation of Combatants"     497
Operation Kadesh Is Completed     499
A World in Outrage     503
Israel Holds Out for Safeguards     507
A Formula Is Devised     510
Years of Economic and Social Growth     515
The Emergence of a Nation     515
The Conquest of Land and Water     517
The Desert Unlocked, The Seas Opened     522
The "Takeoff" Point     528
The Arab Minority     532
Israeli Jewry's "Other Half"     538
A Decade of Political and Diplomatic Achievement     543
The Crisis of the Political Establishment: The Lavon Affair     543
The Aftermath: A Reconstruction of Parties     547
The Eichmann Trial     552
The Courtship of Germany     559
Weapons and Diplomacy     562
Israel, France, and the European Economic Community     567
Israel and the Developing Nations     572
The Israeli-African Honeymoon     575
Cultural and Ideological Currents     580
The Rise of an Arab Intelligentsia     580
The Growth of a Majority Culture: Education and Science     583
The Search for Identity and Style     588
Literature of the Soul: The "Jewish" Generation     590
"The Palmach Generation"-And After     593
The Crisis of Conscience     595
The Confrontation with Orthodoxy in Israel     598
Who Is a Jew?     602
The Struggle for Flexibility Within Orthodoxy     608
The Quest for Spiritual Alternatives     611
The Six-Day War     615
A Fluctuation of Nasser's Fortunes     615
A Syrian Tiger Is Loosed     617
Moscow Rides the Tiger     620
Nasser Returns to Gaza and Sharm es-Sheikh     622
A Blockade Reimposed     625
Diplomatic Agony, Political Crisis     628
A Massing of Arab Strength     632
The Sources of Israeli Military Power     635
The Decision to Attack     638
An Aerial Thunderbolt, A Mailed Fist     639
A Confusion of Arab Purposes     642
The World in Shock     645
Israel Conquers Sinai     647
"Jerusalem the Golden"     650
Retribution on the Golan Heights     655
A Diplomatic Consolidation     661
Israel as Empire      667
A Regime of Improvisation: Jerusalem     667
The West Bank     669
Israel Waits for a "Phone Call"     673
Israel Tightens Its Grip     677
The Rise of Arab Guerrilla Resistance     682
The Economic Impact of Israeli Occupation     686
The War of Attrition     689
The Soviets Enlarge Their Presence     693
The Mutation of Arab Guerrilla Resistance     697
The Rise of Prosperity     702
Israel's Administered "Common Market"     704
Conflicting Visions of Israel's Territorial Future     708
Israel and World Jewry     714
A Mobilization of the Diaspora     714
Israel Reformulates Zionism     718
The Crisis of American Zionism     721
The Diaspora Pays Its Dues     724
The Reconstruction of the Jewish Agency     728
The "Jews of Silence"     731
The Upheaval of Soviet Jewry     735
The War of the Day of Judgment     740
The Politics of Complacency     740
A Reevaluation of Military Posture     744
Sadat Reaches a Decision     746
Sadat Completes His Preparations     749
A Failure of Israeli Intelligence     752
Avalanche Out of the North     755
A Tidal Wave Across the Canal     759
A Reevaluation of Priorities     762
A Competition of Patrons     766
Stabilization and Counterattack     770
A Reversal of Fortunes in the South     774
The Soviets in Panic     778
Israel Cedes a Corridor     784
Aftermath of an Earthquake     788
Israel in Isolation Again     788
Shuttle Diplomacy and First-Stage Disengagement     792
A Political Changing of the Guard     801
The Costs of an Indeterminate Victory     806
A Crisis of Shuttle Diplomacy     812
Disengagement and Breathing Space     817
Continuing Dangers     825
Rabin's Years of Sufferance     828
The Likud Era Begins     831
Labor's Final Epitaph     831
An Electoral Upheaval     834
Israel Turns to the Right     835
"The Enemy Within"     838
An Accommodation with Egypt     843
Sadat in Quest of Peace     843
A Hegira to Jerusalem     845
The Cold Light of Dawn     848
Retreat and Breakthrough     851
The Frameworks of Agreement     852
Sadat's Equivocation, Carter's Gamble     854
A Pilgrimage to the Middle East     856
Romantic Nationalism and Realpolitik     861
The New Palestinians     861
A Paralysis of Dialogue     863
A Fixation on Settlement     865
The Realities of Settlement     867
A Disaffection from Revisionism     869
Malaise on the Domestic Scene     872
Seizing the Political Offensive: Jerusalem     873
A Visitation to Osiraq     875
Revisionism at the Apogee     881
A Revalidated Political Imprimatur     881
Retribution in Egypt     882
The Religionists Claim Their Price     884
The Nationalists Claim Their Price     887
A Blueprint for "Pragmatic" Settlement     889
Carrot and Stick in Palestine     891
A Fulminance of Jewish Vigilantism     894
Israel in Lebanon     897
A Rolling Thunder from the North     897
Ariel Sharon's Mailed Fist     901
Operation Peace for the Galilee     904
Operation Big Pines     908
The Ugly Israeli      910
The Failed Gamble     911
Sabra and Shatila     913
Assad Vetoes an Accord     916
Menachem Begin's Moment of Truth     918
A Crisis of Israeli Spirit, of Diaspora Loyalty     921
A Sophistication of Majority Culture     921
Confrontation into Kulturkampf?     922
A Brutalization of Civic Rectitude     927
A Waning of Diaspora Patience     929
A Reappraisal of Loyalties     930
The Era of Unity Governments     934
Electioneering on the Economic Brink     934
An End to Adventurism     936
The Struggle for Economic Stabilization     941
Toward a Scientific Society     943
Israel as Armorer     945
Iran-Contra: The Israeli Connection     949
A Redeeming Territorial Moderation     953
The Wages of Immobilism     957
Peres's Diplomatic Gamesmanship     957
A Political Rollover     958
The Storm before the Storm     960
Palestinian Intifada, Israeli Retrenchment     964
A Resurgent Immigration from Eastern Europe     968
The Price of Revived Territorialism     971
An Exhaustion of American Forbearance     974
A Tormented Road to Peace     977
A Firestorm from the Gulf     977
Operation Desert Storm: The Israeli Dimension     979
Operation Desert Storm: Dividends and Debts     981
A Diplomatic Respectability     982
The Madrid Conference-and Beyond     984
Labor's Political Reincarnation     986
Background to a Diplomatic Revolution     989
A Scandinavian Door to Palestine     991
An Experimental Palestinian Empowerment     994
An Erratic Journey toward Normalization     997
A Partner to the East     999
A Deterioration of the Rabin-Peres Legacy     1003
A Post-Rabin Valedictory     1003
Peres's Legacy to Rabin     1004
Rabin's Syrian Legacy     1007
A Belated Flexing of Muscles     1010
An Anti-Oslo Backlash     1012
The Peace Process in Netanyahu's Extremis     1015
An Advent of Clintonian Diplomacy     1018
Clinton as Senior Partner     1020
Ehud Barak's Two Years     1024
A Paralysis of Negotiations, A Deterioration of Likud Governance     1024
"The Most Decorated Soldier"     1027
Barak's Syrian Option     1028
In Pursuit of Hafez al-Assad     1030
Barak's Palestinian Option     1033
Ariel Sharon Takes a Walk     1036
Clinton's Middle Eastern Valedictory     1039
The Reincarnation of Ariel Sharon     1043
The Bulldozer as Prime Minister     1046
Ariel Sharon Organizes a Government     1046
Arafat and Sharon Revert to Type     1047
The George W. Bush Administration: Overture to a Middle East Diplomacy     1051
The Reconquest of Palestine     1054
An Electoral Reconfirmation     1056
Sharon Builds a Fence     1059
Alternate Sponsorships for Peace     1061
The Bulldozer as Statesman     1066
Overture to a Tactical Withdrawal     1066
A Political Reconfiguration     1068
Jewless in Gaza     1071
And for the Rest of Palestine...?     1077
Israel Faces the Twenty-First Century     1080
A Russian Success Story     1080
Economic Liberalization, Technological Innovation     1083
"Constitutional" Liberalization     1086
Stylistic Artistry, Moral Sophistication     1089
Stepchildren of Israel     1090
A Social Disequilibrium     1094
A Mottled Landscape     1098
A Cold Peace, An Existential Threat     1098
Crime and Brutalization     1101
A Burgeoning Kulturkampf     1104
From Kulturkampf to Incipient Civil War     1105
A Diaspora Irredentism     1107
Jerusalem: A Defusable Time Bomb?     1109
A Tale of Two Elections     1111
A Middle Eastern Hour of Decision     1116
The Rockets of Lebanon     1116
Seeking a Diplomatic Breathing Space     1121
The Reckoning     1125
A Lingering Vacuum of Great Power Statesmanship     1127
A Tenuous Horizon     1130
Bibliography     1135
Index     1209

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