A History of the Popes, 1830-1914

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Could a Pope ever consent to be the subject of a political power? Chadwick presents an analysis of the causes and consequences of the end of the historic Papal State, and the psychological pressures upon old Rome as it came under attack from the Italian Risorgimento; and not only from Italy, but from liberal movements in Germany, France, Spain, and Portugal, as well as Tsarist Russia as it oppressed its Polish subjects. If a united Italy was to be achieved, the State would have to disappear. These pressures caused Popes to resist "the world" rather than to try to influence it, to make the Vatican more of a sanctuary behind high walls, and to preach the more otherworldly aspects of Catholic faith. At the same time they met new moral demands: the rights of the laborer in industry, divorce, and toleration—which they could confront because the Revolution had destroyed the powers of the Catholic kings over their churches. Thus, Chadwick points out, Catholic authority could be far more centralized in Rome.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"...this book will benefit students, scholars and serious readers of ecclesiastical history....This book should remain a standard in the field of papal studies for years to come."—History
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Cambridge University (Emeritus)
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Table of Contents

1 Gregory XVI 1
The Election of 1831 1
Revolution in the Papal States 4
The Five Powers at Rome 9
Lamennais and the Idea of Toleration 12
Bourgeois France and the Church 31
Germany and Marriage 34
The Trier Robe 43
The Sonderbund 44
The Missions 46
The Papal States in Italy 49
Italy for the Italians 51
Mazzini 51
The Neo-Guelfs 53
Gregory XVI's Reputation 57
2 A Liberal Pope, 1846-1848 61
The Conclave of 1846 61
The Amnesty 63
The Pope as Leader of Italy 71
The Refusal to Go to War 77
Pellegrino Rossi 80
The Roman Revolution 82
The Flight of the Pope 83
The Roman Republic 85
The Restoration to Rome 91
3 Catholic Power 95
Louis Napoleon 95
The Austrian Concordat 105
The Pope and Catholic Power 109
Political Reputation 124
4 The Making of Italy 132
The Quarrel Between the Pope and Piedmont 132
Cavour and Religion 135
The Election of 1857 and Its Consequences 139
The Plan to Unite North Italy 141
Garibaldi in the South 148
The Death of Cavour 153
The Search for 'Liberal Priests' 155
5 The Need for a Council 161
Napoleon III and the Church of the 1860s 161
The September Convention 165
The Syllabus of Errors 168
The First Vatican Council 181
6 The Prisoner of the Vatican 215
The Acceptance of the Council 220
Rome as a Lay City 225
The Prisoner in the Vatican 226
The Law of Guarantees 228
The New Bishops 239
The Speeches of Pius IX 243
Conciliation with Italy? 245
Austria 247
The Old Catholics 251
The Kulturkampf in Germany 254
Britain 265
The Deaths of the Pope and the King of Italy 268
7 Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903) 273
The Conclave of 1878 273
The Character of Leo XIII 278
The Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas 281
Leo XIII and Italy 283
The Relationships with the Powers 285
The Ending of the German Kulturkampf 286
The Kulturkampf in Switzerland 288
The Kulturkampf in France 290
Conciliation in Italy? 301
Freemasons 304
Socialism and the Workers' Movement 307
Ketteler 311
Rerum novarum, 1891 312
Democracy? 320
The Press 322
The Death of Leo XIII 330
8 Pope Pius X (1903-1914) 332
The Conclave of 1903 332
The Early Career of Pope Pius X 341
Modernism 346
The Endeavour at Reform of the Church 359
The Reform of Canon Law 359
The Daily Eucharist 361
Music 364
The Daily Office 365
The Ideal of a Priest 365
Reform of the Curia 366
The Cardinals 371
Pius X and France 377
Separation of Church and State in France 391
The Roman Question and Italian Politics 402
9 Nationality and Religion: Tyrol and Poland 406
Tyrol 406
Poland 409
The Uniats 411
Catholicism and Nationalism in Poland 416
The Pole
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