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The Philosophical Commentary takes its starting point from the words attributed to Jesus Christ in Luke 14:23, “And the lord said unto the servant, Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be full.” Bayle contends that the word compel cannot mean “force.” From this perspective, he constructs his doctrine of toleration based on the singular importance of conscience. His point is not that coercion usually is ineffective in matters of faith but that, even when effective, it is wrong because it ignores the indispensability of the free conscience.
Bayle’s book was translated into English in 1708. The Liberty Fund edition reprints that translation, carefully checked against the French and corrected, with an introduction and annotations designed to make Bayle’s arguments accessible to the twenty-first-century reader.
Pierre Bayle (16471706), Protestant philosopher and critic, was born in France. In 1675 he became professor of philosophy at Sedan until forced into exile in Rotterdam in 1681, where he published works on religion with a liberal and tolerant tendency. He was dismissed from his position at the Huguenot refugees academy in 1693 following the accusation that he was an agent of France and an enemy of Protestantism. In 1696 he completed his major work, the Dictionnaire historique et critique.
John Kilcullen is a Senior Research Fellow in Humanities at Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia.
Chandran Kukathas is Chair in Political Theory atThe London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London.
Knud Haakonssen is Professor of Intellectual History and Director of the Centre for Intellectual History at the University of Sussex, England.
A Note on the Present Translation xxiii
Abbreviations Used in Referring to Bayle’sWorks xxv
The Contents of the Whole Work 7
A PHILOSOPHICAL COMMENTARY
on These Words of the Gospel, Luke 14.23,
“Compel Them to Come In, That My House May Be Full” 1
The Language of the Translation 575
Obsolete or UnusualWords or Meanings 576
Bayle’s Use of Logic 579
Religious and Philosophical Controversies 582
Faith and Heresy 583
Trinity and Incarnation 584
Grace, Original Sin, Predestination 585
The Eucharist 589
Church and State 589
The Rule of Faith 591
Reason the Fundamental Rule 593
The Bible 594
Philosophical Controversies 595
Alterations to the 1708 Translation 596