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Praised for providing an engaging balance of thoughtful examples and explanatory discussion, best-selling author Walter Savitch explains concepts and techniques in a straightforward style using understandable language and code enhanced by a suite of pedagogical tools. Absolute C++ is appropriate for both introductory and intermediate C++ programmers.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132989923
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 3/6/2012
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Sales rank: 794,652
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Meet the Author

Walter Savitch is Professor Emeritus of Computer Science at the University of California at San Diego. He received his PhD in mathematics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1969. Since that time he has been on the faculty of the University of California in San Diego (UCSD). He served as director of the UCSD Interdisciplinary PhD program in Cognitive Science for over ten years. He has served as a visiting researcher at the Computer Science departments of the University of Washington in Seattle and and at the University of Colorado in Boulder, and has been a visiting scholar at the Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica in Amsterdam.
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Table of Contents

Contents

Chapter 1 C++ Basics 1

1.1 Introduction to C++ 2

Origins of the C++ Language 2

C++ and Object-Oriented Programming 3

The Character of C++ 3

C++ Terminology 4

A Sample C++ Program 4

1.2 Variables, Expressions, and Assignment Statements 6

Identifiers 6

Variables 8

Assignment Statements 10

Pitfall: Uninitialized Variables 12

Tip: Use Meaningful Names 13

More Assignment Statements 13

Assignment Compatibility 14

Literals 15

Escape Sequences 17

Naming Constants 17

Arithmetic Operators and Expressions 19

Integer and Floating-Point Division 21

Pitfall: Division with Whole Numbers 22

Type Casting 22

Increment and Decrement Operators 25

Pitfall: Order of Evaluation 27

1.3 Console Input/Output 28

Output Using cout 28

New Lines in Output 29

Tip: End Each Program with \n or endl 30

Formatting for Numbers with a Decimal Point 31

Output with cerr 32

Input Using cin 32

Tip: Line Breaks in I/O 34

1.4 Program Style 34

Comments 35

1.5 Libraries and Namespaces 35

Libraries and include Directives 36

Namespaces 36

Pitfall: Problems with Library Names 37

Chapter Summary: 38

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 39

Programming Projects 40

Chapter 2 Flow of Control 43

2.1 Boolean Expressions 44

Building Boolean Expressions 44

Pitfall: Strings of Inequalities 45

Evaluating Boolean Expressions 46

Precedence Rules 48

Pitfall: Integer Values Can Be Used as Boolean Values 52

2.2 Branching Mechanisms 54

if-else Statements 54

Compound Statements 56

Pitfall: Using = in Place of == 57

Omitting the else 59

Nested Statements 59

Multiway if-else Statement 59

The switch Statement 60

Pitfall: Forgetting a break in a switch Statement 63

Tip: Use switch Statements for Menus 63

Enumeration Types 64

The Conditional Operator 64

2.3 Loops 65

The while and do-while Statements 66

Increment and Decrement Operators Revisited 68

The Comma Operator 70

The for Statement 72

Tip: Repeat-N-Times Loops 74

Pitfall: Extra Semicolon in a for Statement 75

Pitfall: Infinite Loops 75

The break and continue Statements 78

Nested Loops 81

2.4 Introduction to File Input

Reading From a Text File Using ifstream

Chapter Summary 81

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 82

Programming Projects 87

Chapter 3 Function Basics 91

3.1 Predefined Functions 92

Predefined Functions That Return a Value 92

Predefined void Functions 97

A Random Number Generator 99

3.2 Programmer-Defined Functions 103

Defining Functions That Return a Value 103

Alternate Form for Function Declarations 106

Pitfall: Arguments in the Wrong Order 107

Pitfall: Use of the Terms Parameter and Argument 107

Functions Calling Functions 107

Example: A Rounding Function 107

Functions That Return a Boolean Value 110

Defining void Functions 111

return Statements in void Functions 113

Preconditions and Postconditions 113

main Is a Function 115

Recursive Functions 116

3.3 Scope Rules 117

Local Variables 117

Procedural Abstraction 120

Global Constants and Global Variables 121

Blocks 124

Nested Scopes 124

Tip: Use Function Calls in Branching and Loop Statements 125

Variables Declared in a for Loop 125

Chapter Summary 126

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 126

Programming Projects 130

Chapter 4 Parameters and Overloading 137

4.1 Parameters 138

Call-by-Value Parameters 138

A First Look at Call-by-Reference Parameters 141

Call-by-Reference Mechanism in Detail 143

Constant Reference Parameters 145

Example: The swapValues Function 146

Tip: Think of Actions, Not Code 147

Mixed Parameter Lists 148

Tip: What Kind of Parameter to Use 149

Pitfall: Inadvertent Local Variables 151

Tip: Choosing Formal Parameter Names 153

Example: Buying Pizza 153

4.2 Overloading and Default Arguments 156

Introduction to Overloading 156

Pitfall: Automatic Type Conversion and Overloading 159

Rules for Resolving Overloading 160

Example: Revised Pizza-Buying Program 162

Default Arguments 164

4.3 Testing and Debugging Functions 166

The assert Macro 166

Stubs and Drivers 167

Chapter Summary 170

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 171

Programming Projects 172

Chapter 5 Arrays 177

5.1 Introduction to Arrays 178

Declaring and Referencing Arrays 178

Tip: Use for Loops with Arrays 181

Pitfall: Array Indexes Always Start with Zero 181

Tip: Use a Defined Constant for the Size of an Array 181

Arrays in Memory 182

Pitfall: Array Index Out of Range 184

Initializing Arrays 184

5.2 Arrays in Functions 187

Indexed Variables as Function Arguments 187

Entire Arrays as Function Arguments 188

The const Parameter Modifier 192

Pitfall: Inconsistent Use of const Parameters 193

Functions That Return an Array 194

Example: Production Graph 194

5.3 Programming with Arrays 200

Partially Filled Arrays 200

Tip: Do Not Skimp on Formal Parameters 200

Example: Searching an Array 203

Example: Sorting an Array 205

5.3 Multidimensional Arrays 210

Multidimensional Array Basics 210

Multidimensional Array Parameters 212

Example: Two-Dimensional Grading Program 213

Chapter Summary 218

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 219

Programming projects 223

Chapter 6 Structures and Classes 231

6.1 Structures 232

Structure Types 234

Pitfall: Forgetting a Semicolon in a Structure Definition 238

Structures as Function Arguments 238

Tip: Use Hierarchical Structures 239

Initializing Structures 242

6.2 Classes 244

Defining Classes and Member Functions 244

Encapsulation 250

Public and Private Members 251

Accessor and Mutator Functions 255

Tip: Separate Interface and Implementation 257

Tip: A Test for Encapsulation 258

Structures versus Classes 259

Tip: Thinking Objects 261

Chapter Summary 261

Answers to Self-Tesr Exercises 262

Programming Projects 264

Chapter 7 Constructors and Other Tools 267

7.1 Constructors 268

Constructor Definitions 268

Pitfall: Constructors with No Arguments 273

Explicit Constructor Calls 275

Tip: Always Include a Default Constructor 275

Example: BankAccount Class 278

Class Type Member Variables 285

7.2 More Tools 288

The const Parameter Modifier 288

Pitfall: Inconsistent Use of const 290

Inline Functions 295

Static Members 297

Nested and Local Class Definitions 300

7.3 Vectors—A Preview of the Standard Template
Library 301

Vector Basics 301

Pitfall: Using Square Brackets beyond the Vector Size 303

Tip: Vector Assignment Is Well Behaved 305

Efficiency Issues 305

Chapter Summary 307

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 307

Programming Projects 309

Chapter 8 Operator Overloading, Friends, and References 315

8.1 Basic Operator Overloading 316

Overloading Basics 317

Tip: A Constructor Can Return an Object 322

Returning by const Value 323

Tip: Returning Member Variables of a Class Type 326

Overloading Unary Operators 327

Overloading as Member Functions 328

Tip: A Class Has Access to All Its Objects 330

Overloading Function Application ( ) 331

Pitfall: Overloading &&, , and the Comma Operator 331

8.2 Friend Functions and Automatic Type Conversion 332

Constructors for Automatic Type Conversion 332

Pitfall: Member Operators and Automatic Type Conversion 333

Friend Functions 334

Friend Classes 336

Pitfall: Compilers without Friends 338

8.3 References and More Overloaded Operators 339

References 339

Pitfall: Returning a Reference to Certain Member Variables 341

Overloading >> and << 341

Tip: What Mode of Returned Value to Use 348

The Assignment Operator 350

Overloading the Increment and Decrement Operators 351

Overloading the Array Operator [ ] 354

Overloading Based on L-Value versus R-Value 356

Chapter Summary 356

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 356

Programming Projects 359

Chapter 9 Strings 363

9.1 An Array Type for Strings 364

C-String Values and C-String Variables 365

Pitfall: Using = and == with C-strings 369

Other Functions in 370

Example: Command-Line Arguments 373

C-String Input and Output 375

9.2 Character Manipulation Tools 378

Character I/O 378

The Member Functions get and put 379

Example: Checking Input Using a Newline Function 381

Pitfall: Unexpected '\n' in Input 383

The putback, peek, and ignore Member Functions 384

Character-Manipulating Functions 387

Pitfall: toupper and tolower Return int Values 389

9.3 The Standard Class string 390

Introduction to the Standard Class string 391

I/O with the Class string 394

Tip: More Versions of getline 397

Pitfall: Mixing cin >> variable; and getline 398

String Processing with the Class string 399

Example: Palindrome Testing 403

Converting between string Objects and C-Strings 407

Chapter Summary 407

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 408

Programming Projects 412

Chapter 10 Pointers and Dynamic Arrays 419

10.1 Pointers 420

Pointer Variables 421

Basic Memory Management 429

Pitfall: Dangling Pointers 432

Dynamic Variables and Automatic Variables 432

Tip: Define Pointer Types 433

Pitfall: Pointers as Call-by-Value Parameters 435

Uses for Pointers 437

10.2 Dynamic Arrays 438

Array Variables and Pointer Variables 438

Creating and Using Dynamic Arrays 439

Example: A Function That Returns an Array 443

Pointer Arithmetic 445

Multidimensional Dynamic Arrays 446

10.3 Classes, Pointers, and Dynamic Arrays 449

The -> Operator 449

The this Pointer 450

Overloading the Assignment Operator 451

Example: A Class for Partially Filled Arrays 453

Destructors 462

Copy Constructors 463

Chapter Summary 467

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 468

Programming Projects 470

Chapter 11 Separate Compilation and Namespaces 473

11.1 Separate Compilation 474

Encapsulation Reviewed 475

Header Files and Implementation Files 476

Example: DigitalTime Class 484

Tip: Reusable Components 485

Using #ifndef 485

Tip: Defining Other Libraries 488

11.2 Namespaces 489

Namespaces and using Directives 489

Creating a Namespace 491

Using Declarations 494

Qualifying Names 496

Tip: Choosing a Name for a Namespace 498

Example: A Class Definition in a Namespace 498

Unnamed Namespaces 499

Pitfall: Confusing the Global Namespace and the Unnamed Namespace 506

Tip: Unnamed Namespaces Replace the static Qualifier 507

Tip: Hiding Helping Functions 507

Nested Namespaces 508

Tip: What Namespace Specification Should You Use? 508

Chapter Summary 511

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 512

Programming Projects 513

Chapter 12 Streams and File I/O 519

12.1 I/O Streams 521

File I/O 521

Pitfall: Restrictions on Stream Variables 526

Appending to a File 526

Tip: Another Syntax for Opening a File 528

Tip: Check That a File Was Opened Successfully 530

Character I/O 532

Checking for the End of a File 533

12.2 Tools for Stream I/O 537

File Names as Input 537

Formatting Output with Stream Functions 538

Manipulators 542

Saving Flag Settings 543

More Output Stream Member Functions 544

Example: Cleaning Up a File Format 546

Example: Editing a Text File 548

12.3 Stream Hierarchies: A Preview of Inheritance 551

Inheritance among Stream Classes 551

Example: Another newLine Function 553

Parsing Strings with the stringstream Class

12.4 Random Access to Files 557

Chapter Summary 559

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 559

Programming Projects 562

Chapter 13 Recursion 571

13.1 Recursive void Functions 573

Example: Vertical Numbers 573

Tracing a Recursive Call 576

A Closer Look at Recursion 579

Pitfall: Infinite Recursion 580

Stacks for Recursion 582

Pitfall: Stack Overflow 583

Recursion versus Iteration 584

13.2 Recursive Functions That Return a Value 585

General Form for a Recursive Function That Returns a Value 585

Example: Another Powers Function 586

Mutual Recursion

13.3 Thinking Recursively 591

Recursive Design Techniques 591

Binary Search 592

Coding 594

Checking The Recursion 598

Efficiency 598

Chapter Summary 600

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 601

Programming Projects 605

Chapter 14 Inheritance 609

14.1 Inheritance Basics 610

Derived Classes 610

Constructors in Derived Classes 620

Pitfall: Use of Private Member Variables from the Base Class 622

Pitfall: Private Member Functions Are Effectively Not Inherited 624

The protected Qualifier 624

Redefinition of Member Functions 627

Redefining versus Overloading 628

Access to a Redefined Base Function 630

Functions That Are Not Inherited 631

14.2 Programming with Inheritance 632

Assignment Operators and Copy Constructors in Derived Classes 632

Destructors in Derived Classes 633

Example: Partially Filled Array with Backup 634

Pitfall: Same Object on Both Sides of the Assignment Operator 643

Example: Alternate Implementation of PFArrayDBak 643

Tip: A Class Has Access to Private Members of All Objects of the Class 646

Tip: “Is a” versus “Has a” 646

Protected and Private Inheritance 647

Multiple Inheritance 648

Chapter Summary 649

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 649

Programming Projects 651

Chapter 15 Polymorphism and Virtual Functions 657

15.1 Virtual Function Basics 658

Late Binding 658

Virtual Functions in C++ 659

Tip: The Virtual Property Is Inherited 666

Tip: When to Use a Virtual Function 666

Pitfall: Omitting the Definition of a Virtual Member Function 667

Abstract Classes and Pure Virtual Functions 667

Example: An Abstract Class 669

15.2 Pointers and Virtual Functions 671

Virtual Functions and Extended Type Compatibility 671

Pitfall: The Slicing Problem 675

Tip: Make Destructors Virtual 676

Downcasting and Upcasting 677

How C++ Implements Virtual Functions 678

Chapter Summary 680

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 681

Programming Projects 682

Chapter 16 Templates 687

16.1 Function Templates 688

Syntax for Function Templates 690

Pitfall: Compiler Complications 693

Tip: How to Define Templates 694

Example: A Generic Sorting Function 695

Pitfall: Using a Template with an Inappropriate Type 700

16.1 Class Templates 702

Syntax for Class Templates 703

Example: An Array Template Class 707

The vector and basic_string Templates 713

16.3 Templates and Inheritance 713

Example: Template Class for a Partially Filled Array with Backup 714

Chapter Summary 720

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 720

Programming Projects 723

Chapter 17 Linked Data Structures 725

17.1 Nodes and Linked Lists 727

Nodes 727

Linked Lists 732

Inserting a Node at the Head of a List 734

Pitfall: Losing Nodes 737

Inserting and Removing Nodes Inside a List 737

Pitfall: Using the Assignment Operator with Dynamic Data Structures 741

Searching a Linked List 742

Doubly Linked Lists 744

Adding a Node to a Doubly Linked List 746

Deleting a Node from a Doubly Linked List 748

Example: A Generic Sorting Template Version of Linked List Tools 753

17.2 Linked List Applications 757

Example: A Stack Template Class 757

Example: A Queue Template Class 764

Tip: A Comment on Namespaces 767

Friend Classes and Similar Alternatives 768

Example: Hash Tables with Chaining 771

Efficiency of Hash Tables 777

Example: A Set Template Class 778

Efficiency of Sets Using Linked Lists 784

17.3 Iterators 785

Pointers as Iterators 786

Iterator Classes 786

Example: An Iterator Class 788

17.4 Trees 974

Tree Properties 795

Example: A Tree Template Class 797

Chapter Summary 802

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 803

Programming Projects 812

Chapter 18 Exception Handling 819

18.1 Exception Handling Basics 821

A Toy Example of Exception Handling 821

Defining Your Own Exception Classes 830

Multiple Throws and Catches 830

Pitfall: Catch the More Specific Exception First 834

Tip: Exception Classes Can Be Trivial 835

Throwing an Exception in a Function 835

Exception Specification 837

Pitfall: Exception Specification in Derived Classes 839

18.2 Programming Techniques for Exception Handling 840

When to Throw an Exception 841

Pitfall: Uncaught Exceptions 842

Pitfall: Nested try-catch Blocks 843

Pitfall: Overuse of Exceptions 843

Exception Class Hierarchies 844

Testing for Available Memory 844

Rethrowing an Exception 845

Chapter Summary 845

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 845

Programming Projects 847

Chapter 19 Standard Template Library 851

19.1 Iterators 853

Iterator Basics 853

Pitfall: Compiler Problems 858

Kinds of Iterators 859

Constant and Mutable Iterators 862

Reverse Iterators 864

Other Kinds of Iterators 865

19.2 Containers 866

Sequential Containers 866

Pitfall: Iterators and Removing Elements 872

Tip: Type Definitions in Containers 872

The Container Adapters stack and queue 872

Pitfall: Underlying Containers 873

The Associative Containers set and map 876

Efficiency 881

19.3 Generic Algorithms 883

Running Times and Big-O Notation 884

Container Access Running Times 888

Nonmodifying Sequence Algorithms 889

Modifying Sequence Algorithms 894

Set Algorithms 895

Sorting Algorithms 897

Chapter Summary 897

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 898

Programming Projects 900

Chapter 20 Patterns and UML 907

20.1 Patterns 908

Adapter Pattern 909

The Model-View-Controller Pattern 909

Example: A Sorting Pattern 911

Efficiency of the Sorting Pattern 917

Tip: Pragmatics and Patterns 918

Pattern Formalism 919

UML 919

History of UML 920

UML Class Diagrams 920

Class Interactions 921

Chapter Summary 921

Answers to Self-Test Exercises 922

Programming Projects 923

Appendix 1 C++ Keywords 927

Appendix 2 Precedence of Operators 929

Appendix 3 The ASCII Character Set 931

Appendix 4 Some Library Functions 933

Appendix 5 Old and New Header Files 941

Index 945

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