The Academic Writer: A Brief Guide / Edition 2

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Overview

Written in Lisa Ede's accessible, supportive style, The Academic Writer is an affordable, brief guide to the essentials of academic writing and research. By framing reading and writing situations in terms of the writer, reader, text, and medium, Ede helps students think rhetorically and make effective choices. The text provides abundant coverage of reading, including a new chapter—"Reading on Page and Screen"—that helps students match device to purpose, and a second chapter of strategies for active and critical reading. It emphasizes analysis and synthesis, key skills required to master the moves of academic writing. And it provides advice on writing in the disciplines as well as numerous student models. With its updated coverage of research and its attention to visuals and design, The Academic Writer is the perfect introduction to college writing—at a great price.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780312603199
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 12/27/2010
  • Edition description: Second Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 448
  • Sales rank: 281,427
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Lisa Ede is professor of English at Oregon State University, where she has taught since 1980. She has published a number of books and articles collaboratively with Andrea A. Lunsford, including Singular Texts/Plural Authors: Perspectives on Collaborative Writing and Audience Addressed/Audience Invoked: The Role of Audience in Composition Theory and Pedagogy, which won the CCCC’s Braddock Award in 1985. Ede is also a recipient of the prestigious Shaughnessy Award. Among her other publications are Situating Composition: Composition Studies and the Politics of Location, and Essays on Classical Rhetoric and Modern Discourse (with Andrea A. Lunsford and Robert J. Connors). In addition, for Bedford/St. Martin’s, Ede is the editor of On Writing Research: The Braddock Essays, 1975-1998, and editor, with Andrea Lunsford, of Selected Essays of Robert J. Connors.

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Table of Contents

Contents

Preface for Instructors  ix

PART I

Writing Matters: Writing and Rhetoric in the Twenty-First Century

1. Rethinking Writing: A Rhetorical Process for Composing Texts  1

Understanding the Impact of Communication Technologies on Writing  3

Writing and Rhetoric  6

Composing — and Designing — Texts  7

Developing Rhetorical Sensitivity  12

NOTE FOR MULTILINGUAL WRITERS  13

NOTE FOR MULTILINGUAL WRITERS  16

For Thought, Discussion, and Writing  17

2. Rethinking Reading: Reading on Page and Screen   18

QUIZ: READING ON PAGE OR SCREEN  20

Understanding the Impact of Communication Technologies on Reading  21

Reading and Rhetoric  25

NOTE FOR MULTILINGUAL WRITERS  30

Analyzing Your Experiences and Preferences as a Reader  30

Reading Rhetorically in a Time of Transition  30

For Thought, Discussion, and Writing  32

3. Academic Writing: Committing to the Process  34

Managing the Writing Process  37

Identifying Composing Styles  39

GUIDELINES FOR ANALYZING YOUR COMPOSING STYLE  41

Composing Styles: Advantages and Disadvantages  41

NOTE FOR MULTILINGUAL WRITERS  43

Analyzing Your Composing Process  43

QUIZ: ANALYZING YOUR COMPOSING PROCESS 44

Writing Communities  47

Finding a Community  47

Working Collaboratively  48

GUIDELINES FOR GROUP WORK  49

For Thought, Discussion, and Writing  50

4. Analyzing Rhetorical Situations  52

Learning to Analyze Your Rhetorical Situation  52

NOTE FOR MULTILINGUAL WRITERS  53

QUESTIONS FOR ANALYZING YOUR RHETORICAL SITUATION  54

Using Your Rhetorical Analysis to Guide Your Writing  56

Setting Preliminary Goals  56

Mirlandra Ebert’s Analysis  57

Alia Sands’s Analysis  59

Alia Sands, "A Separate Education"  61

Using Aristotle’s Three Appeals  65

Brandon Barrett’s Analysis  66

Brandon Barrett, "The All-Purpose Answer"  68

Analyzing Textual Conventions  69

CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE ACADEMIC ESSAY  72

Observing a Professional Writer at Work: Comparing and Contrasting

Textual Conventions  73

NOTE FOR MULTILINGUAL WRITERS  84

Using Textual Conventions  84

For Thought, Discussion, and Writing  85

PART II

Writing in College

5. Analyzing and Synthesizing Texts  90

Understanding the Centrality of Reading to Academic Writing  90

Considering Analysis and Synthesis in the Context of the Academic Community  91

Understanding Your Audience  91

Hope Leman, "The Role of Journalists in American Society: A Comparison of the ‘Mirror’ and ‘Flashlight’ Models"  94

Understanding How Analysis Works  96

Establishing a Purpose for Your Analysis  97

Developing an Appropriate Method for Your Analysis  98

Understanding the Relationship between Analysis and Argument  98

QUESTIONS FOR DEVELOPING AN APPROPRIATE METHOD FOR ANALYSIS  99

Analyzing Academic Arguments  100

Determining the Question at Issue  101

STASIS QUESTIONS  101

Amitai Etzioni, "Less Privacy Is Good for Us (and You)"  102

Identifying an Author’s Position on a Question  106

Using Aristotle’s Three Appeals  106

QUESTIONS FOR CRITICAL READING AND ANALYSIS  107

Recognizing Fallacies  110

GUIDELINES FOR IDENTIFYING FALLACIES 111

Putting Theory into Practice I: Academic Analysis in Action  114

Stevon Roberts, "The Price of Public Safety"  115

Understanding How Synthesis Works  120

QUESTIONS FOR SYNTHESIZING TEXTS   122

Putting Theory into Practice II: Academic Synthesis in Action  122

Amy Edwards, "Digital and Online Technologies: Friend or Foe?"  124

For Thought, Discussion, and Writing  128

6. Making and Supporting Claims  130

Understanding — and Designing — Academic Arguments  130

Exploring Aristotle’s Three Appeals  132

Understanding the Role of Values and Beliefs in Argument  133

GUIDELINES FOR ANALYZING YOUR OWN VALUES AND BELIEFS  135

NOTE FOR MULTILINGUAL WRITERS  136

Mastering the Essential Moves in Academic Writing  137

Determining Whether a Claim Can Be Argued  137

Developing a Working Thesis  138

GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING AN ARGUABLE CLAIM  139

Providing Good Reasons and Supporting Them with Evidence  141

Acknowledging Possible Counterarguments  142

QUESTIONS FOR EVALUATING EVIDENCE  143

Framing Your Argument as Part of the Scholarly Conversation  145

Using Visuals to Strengthen Your Argument  148

Composing an Academic Argument: A Case Study of

One Student’s Writing Process  152

GUIDELINES FOR USING VISUALS IN ACADEMIC WRITING  153

Daniel Stiepleman’s Annotation of the Public Service Announcement  154

Daniel’s Cluster  155

Daniel’s Discovery Draft  155

Daniel’s Journal Entry  156

Daniel’s Rhetorical Analysis  157

Daniel’s Plan for His Essay  158

Daniel’s First Draft  159

Daniel’s Second Draft with Peer Comments  161

Daniel’s Responses to Peer Comment  163

Daniel’s Final Draft  164

Daniel Stiepleman, "Literacy in America: Reading between the Lines"  165

For Thought, Discussion, and Writing  168

7. Doing Research: Joining the Scholarly Conversation  170

QUESTIONS FOR ANALYZING YOUR RHETORICAL SITUATION AS A RESEARCHER  171

EXPLORING   172

Choosing a Topic  173

Considering Multiple Perspectives  174

Finding a Focus  174

Looking at a Variety of Source Types  175

Reference Sources  176

A Note about Wikipedia  176

Books  176

Periodicals  177

Blogs  177

Government Documents  177

Moving from Exploring to Gathering  178

GATHERING   178

Searching with Keywords  179

Choosing a Word or Phrase  179

QUESTIONS TO ASK AS YOU BRAINSTORM KEYWORDS  180

Choosing a Research Tool  182

Reviewing Results  182

Using Common Research Tools  183

Using Article (or Periodical) Databases  185

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER WHEN USING ARTICLE DATABASES  184

Metasearch and Federated Search  184

Library Catalogs  184

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER WHEN USING LIBRARY CATALOGS  186

Search Engines  187

Refining Your Searches  188

Getting the Full Text  189

GUIDELINES FOR GETTING THE FULL TEXT OF ARTICLES  188

Using Digital Workflows  190

Retrieving Content  190

Staying Organized  191

Using Database Tools  191

Using Citation Managers  192

Using Cloud Storage  192

Conducting Field Research  193

Conducting Interviews  193

Conducting Surveys  193

GUIDELINES FOR CONDUCTING INTERVIEWS  194

Conducting Observations  194

GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNING AND USING SURVEYS  195

Ethical Considerations  196

GUIDELINES FOR CONDUCTING OBSERVATIONS   197

EVALUATING   198

Evaluating for Relevance  199

Evaluating for Quality  199

Evaluating Different Types of Sources  199

Recognizing Digital Sources  200

Using Checklists  201

Understanding Peer Review  201

A FRAMEWORK FOR EVALUATING SOURCES  202

CREATING  206

Using Sources: Synthesizing Information and Ideas  207

The Importance of Reading Critically  207

Putting Things Together  208

ALLETTA BRENNER"S SYNTHESIS CHART  208

Using Sources: Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing  209

GUIDELINES FOR DETERMINING WHEN TO QUOTE, PARAPHRASE, OR SUMMARIZE   210

A Note about Citations  212

Quoting Accurately  212

Paraphrasing Effectively  214

Summarizing  215

A Note about Plagiarism  216

GUIDELINES FOR AVOIDING PLAGIARISM 217

NOTE FOR MULTILINGUAL WRITERS  218

Using Appropriate Citation Styles and Formatting  218

Understanding Your Rights as a Content Creator  219

Isn’t There More to Say Here on Writing?  219

Sample Research Essay Using MLA Documentation Style  220

Alletta Brenner, "Sweatshop U.S.A.: Human Trafficking in the

American Garment-Manufacturing Industry"  221

For Thought, Discussion, and Writing  231

8. Writing in the Disciplines: Making Choices as You Write  233

Thinking Rhetorically about Writing in the Disciplines  233

QUESTIONS FOR ANALYZING WRITING IN THE DISCIPLINES  235

Writing in the Humanities   236

Sample Student Essay in the Humanities  236

Elizabeth Ridlington, "Lincoln’s Presidency and Public Opinion"  237

Writing in the Natural and Applied Sciences  239

Sample Student Essay in the Natural and Applied Sciences  240

Tara Gupta, "Field Measurements of Photosynthesis and Transpiration Rates in Dwarf Snapdragon (Chaenorrhinum minus Lange): An Investigation of Water Stress Adaptations" 241

Writing in the Social Sciences  245

Sample Student Essay in the Social Sciences  247

Tawnya Redding, "Mood Music: Music Preference and the Risk for

Depression and Suicide in Adolescents"  248

Writing in Business  257

Sample Student Email for Business Writing  258

Michelle Rosowsky and Carina Abernathy, "Taylor Nursery Bid"  259

For Thought, Discussion, and Writing  260

PART III

Practical Strategies for Reading and Writing

9. Strategies for Reading  261

Applying Rhetorical Sensitivity to Your Reading  261

Recognizing the Importance of Genre  262

QUESTIONS TO ASK ABOUT GENRES  265

NOTE FOR MULTILINGUAL WRITERS  266

Becoming a Strong Reader  266

GUIDELINES FOR STRONG READING  267

Developing Critical Reading Skills  270

Previewing  270

QUESTIONS FOR PREVIEWING A TEXT  271

NOTE FOR MULTILINGUAL WRITERS  272

FRANK ROSE, "THE SELFISH MEME"   273

Annotating  272

QUESTIONS FOR ANNOTATING A TEXT  275

Summarizing  277

Analyzing Lines of Argument  278

GUIDELINES FOR SUMMARIZING A TEXT  278 NOTE FOR MULTILINGUAL WRITERS  279

QUESTIONS FOR ANALYZING A TEXT’S ARGUMENT  280

For Thought, Discussion, and Writing  281

10. Strategies for Analyzing Visual Texts   283

GUIDELINES FOR ANALYZING VISUAL TEXTS   284

For Thought, Discussion, and Writing  290

11. Strategies for Invention  292

Discovering Ideas  293

NOTE FOR MULTILINGUAL WRITERS  293

Freewriting  293

Looping  294

Brainstorming  295

GUIDELINES FOR GROUP BRAINSTORMING  296

Clustering  297

Asking the Journalist’s Questions  299

Exploring Ideas  300

Asking the Topical Questions  300

Researching  301

QUESTIONS FOR EXPLORING A TOPIC  302

NOTE FOR MULTILINGUAL WRITERS  304

Writing a Discovery Draft  304

For Thought, Discussion, and Writing  305

12. Strategies for Planning and Drafting  306

Understanding the Process of Planning  306

Establishing a Working Thesis  307

QUESTIONS FOR ESTABLISHING A WORKING THESIS  308

Formulating a Workable Plan  309

NOTE FOR MULTILINGUAL WRITERS  310

Developing Effective Strategies for Drafting  310

Managing the Drafting Process  311

GUIDELINES FOR OVERCOMING WRITER’S BLOCK   312

GUIDELINES FOR DRAFTING ON A COMPUTER  314

Developing and Organizing Your Ideas  315

Using a Thesis Statement  315

Developing Ideas  316

Following Textual Conventions  317

For Thought, Discussion, and Writing  317

13. Strategies for Designing Pages and Screens  319

Looking at Design and the Rhetorical Situation  320

NOTE FOR MULTILINGUAL WRITERS  320

Understanding the Basic Principles of Design  321

GUIDELINES FOR THINKING RHETORICALLY ABOUT DOCUMENT DESIGN  322

Alignment  323

Proximity  324

Repetition  324

Contrast  324

Formatting and Layout  325

Color  325

Fonts and Typefaces  325

GUIDELINES FOR USING COLOR EFFECTIVELY  326

Spacing  327

Pagination  328

Choosing Effective Headings  328

Wording  329

Type Size and Style  329

Positioning  329

Using Visuals Effectively  329

GUIDELINES FOR USING VISUALS EFFECTIVELY  330

ABBEY SCHWARZ< SAMPLE EMAIL REQUESTING PERMISSION  331

Making Effective Decisions about Design: Sample Documents  333

For Thought, Discussion, and Writing  336

14. Strategies for Revision  338

Revising through Re-Vision  338

GUIDELINES FOR REVISING OBJECTIVELY  339

Asking the Big Questions: Revising for Focus, Content, and Organization  340

Examining Your Own Writing  340

QUESTIONS FOR EVALUATING FOCUS, CONTENT, AND ORGANIZATION  341

One Student Writer’s Revision for Focus, Content, and Organization  342

Stevon Roberts, "Identity, Rebooted"  347

Benefiting from Responses to Work in Progress  352

NOTE FOR MULTILINGUAL WRITERS  352

Responses from Friends and Family Members  353

Responses from Classmates  353

GUIDELINES FOR RESPONSES FROM CLASSMATES  354

Responses from Writing Center Tutors  355

Responses from Your Instructor and Others  355

GUIDELINES FOR MEETING WITH A WRITING TUTOR  356

Keeping Your Readers on Track: Revising for Style  356

GUIDELINES FOR USING YOUR INSTRUCTOR’S RESPONSES 357

Achieving Coherence  358

GUIDELINES FOR REVISING FOR COHERENCE  359

Finding an Appropriate Voice  359

Revising for Effective Prose Style  360

GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE PROSE STYLE  362

For Thought, Discussion, and Writing  363

Writers’ References   365

MLA Documentation Guidelines  367

APA Documentation Guidelines  400

Index  423

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