Accounting & Auditing Research: Tools & Strategies / Edition 8

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The 8th Edition of Accounting & Auditing Research: Tools & Strategies by Thomas R. Weirich, Thomas C. Pearson, and Natalie Tatiana Churyk builds upon previous issues with a continued focus on accounting curriculum, including Intermediate Accounting, Government and Non-Profit Accounting, Tax, Advanced Accounting, and Accounting Theory. It also focuses on how to perform accounting, auditing, tax, and business research in an ever changing accounting and auditing landscape. Furthermore, the text provides information, insights, and more research opportunities to develop effective skills in research and analysis.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118027073
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 9/3/2013
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 8
  • Pages: 272
  • Sales rank: 187,899
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Thomas R. Weirich, Ph.D., CPA, is currently the Jerry & Felicia Campbell Endowed Professor at Central Michigan University and was also a former chair of its School of Accounting. He earned a Doctorate in Accountancy from the University of Missouri-Columbia, as well as an M.B.A. and B.S. degrees from Northern Illinois University. He has served on special assignment as the Academic Accounting Fellow to the Office of Chief Accountant at the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission in Washington, D.C. He has completed a Faculty in Residence position with Arthur Andersen, LLP in their Business Fraud & Investigative Services Division whereby he participated in various fraud and background investigations. He also served as a consultant to the Public Oversight Board’s Panel on Audit Effectiveness, and as an expert witness for the SEC and other organizations. Dr. Weirich was recently appointed by the Governor of the State of Michigan to serve on the Michigan State Board of Accountancy. Dr. Weirich has public accounting experience with an international firm as well as with a local firm.

Professor Weirich has written numerous articles in professional journals and assisted others, such as by serving on the Editorial Advisory Board to the Journal of Accountancy. He has extensive national, state, and local committee experience including a member of the American Accounting Association’s Education Committee and the SEC Liaison Committee. He has completed assignments on the AICPA’s SEC Regulation’s Committee and on the AICPA’s Technical Standards Subcommittee-Ethics, the Board of Examiners’ Auditing Subcommittee and Content Committee that aid in the development of the CPA Examination. He also served on the AICPA’s Pre-Certification Executive Education Committee, the Michigan’s Association of CPAs’ CPE Committee, Fraud Task Force, and the Environmental Issues Committee. He is currently serving on the National Association of State Boards of Accountancy—CPA Licensing Examinations Committee. Dr. Weirich has also served eleven years on the Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, City Commission and as mayor of the city. Professor Weirich has been the recipient of the School of Accounting/Beta Alpha Psi’s Outstanding Teacher Award, Ameritech/SBC Teaching Award, the College of Business Dean’s Teaching Award, the Michigan Association of Governing Boards’ Distinguished Faculty Award and the Michigan Association of CPAs’ Distinguished Achievement in Accounting Education Award.

Thomas C. Pearson, LL.M., J.D., CPA is a Professor of Accounting at the University of Hawaii at Manoa and former Director of its School of Accountancy. He has earned two Masters of Letters of Law in taxation, the first from the University of Denver and the second from New York University. He has a Doctorate of Jurisprudence and M.B.A. from Vanderbilt University, and an A.B. from Dartmouth College. Professor Pearson has previously taught at the University of Wyoming and National Taiwan University. Professor Pearson has previously worked at Hospital Corporation of America.

Professor Pearson has published numerous articles, mostly in professional publications such as Taxes and the Tax Advisor. He has also published in leading academic publications such as Accounting Horizons, Journal of Accounting Education, and Journal of the American Taxation Association. as well as in prestigious law reviews such as the Stanford Journal of Law, Business and Finance. Professor Pearson has received numerous teaching awards including the University of Hawaii’s Board of Regents Teaching Excellence Award and the Outstanding Achievement in Education Award by the Hawaii Society of CPAs. He has served as President of the Shidler College of Business Faculty Senate and on numerous university committees. He has also served on Hawaii’s Tax Review Commission and is involved in several professional organizations.

Natalie Tatiana Churyk, Ph.D., CPA, is the Caterpillar Professor of Accountancy at Northern Illinois University. She earned her Doctorate in Accounting with a Finance Cognate from the University of South Carolina. She received her B. S. in Accounting and her M.B.A. with a specialization in Finance from California State University, Long Beach. Dr. Churyk has public accounting experience with a local California firm. She teaches in the undergraduate and M.A.S. programs. In addition to teaching accountancy for NIU, Professor Churyk develops and delivers continuing professional education in Northern Illinois University’s CPA and CIA Review programs. Active with student groups, she is the faculty advisor for the Association of Latino Professionals in Finance and Accounting, the National Association of Black Accountants, and the campus mentor for KPMG’s Future Diversity Leader Program. Professor Churyk has published in professional journals such as the Journal of Accountancy, Strategic Finance, and The CPA Journal. She has various academic publications in journals such as Journal of Business Research and Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research. Professor Churyk has received several teaching awards, including the University-wide Educational Foundation Outstanding Teaching Award for Graduate Assistants. She serves on several state and national committees relating to education, student, and women initiatives, including the American Accounting Association’s Teaching Learning and Curriculum Section and Midwest Steering Committee. She has received research grants from PricewaterhouseCoopers, the Institute of Management Accountants, and her university.

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Table of Contents

Preface XIII

About the Authors XVII


What is Research? 2

Research Questions 3

Nature of Professional Research 5

Critical Thinking and Effective Communication 6

Economic Consequences of Standards Setting 7

Role of Research in the Accounting Firm 7

Research and the CPA Exam 9

Overview of the Research Process 10

Step One: Identify the Relevant Facts and Issues 11

Step Two: Collect the Evidence 12

Step Three: Analyze the Results and Identify the Alternatives 12

Step Four: Develop a Conclusion 13

Step Five: Communicate the Results 13

Summary 14

Discussion Questions 15

Appendix: Research Focus on the CPA Exam 15


Critical Thinking Skills 19

Levels of Thinking 21

Universal Elements of Reasoning 23

An Example of Using Critical Thinking Skills 23

Effective Writing Skills 26

Writing as a Process 27

Punctuation Primer 29

Improved Writing Skills Required 29

Active Voice 29

Short Sentences 32

Definite, Concrete, Everyday Language 32

Tabular Presentation 33

Limited Jargon and Technical Terms 33

No Multiple Negatives 33

Elements of Plain English 33

Writing Effective Texts, E-mails, and Letters 34

Writing Memos to the File 36

Summary 36

Discussion Questions 37

Exercises 37


The Accounting Environment 41

The SEC and the Standard-Setting Environment 42

Rules-Based Versus Principles-Based Accounting Standards 44

Financial Accounting Standards Board 44

FASB Strives to Simplify Standards 45

Content of Authorities 45

FASB Due Process 47

FASB Conceptual Framework Project 48

Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts Nos. 1–8 49

American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) 49

Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) 50

Other Organizations Influencing Standard Setting 52

U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (U.S. GAAP) 54

The FASB Accounting Standards CodificationTM 56

Using Authoritative Support 59

Reading an Authoritative Pronouncement 59

Accounting Choices have Economic Consequences 60

Summary 61

Discussion Questions 61

Exercises 62


Accounting Research Online 63

Database Research Strategies 64

Step One: Define the Information Needed 64

Step Two: Determine the Sources to Search 64

Step Three: Use Appropriate Search Methods 65

Step Four: View the Results and Manage the Information 65

Step Five: Communicate the Search Results 65

FASB Accounting Standards CodificationTM Research System 65

The Research Process 67

Locating U.S. GAAP Using the Codification 70

Examples Using the Codification 71

SEC Accounting for Public Companies 72

SEC Regulations and Sources 73

The SEC’s Published Views and Interpretations 73

SEC Staff Policy 74

Accessing SEC Filings and Regulations 76

Cases to Practice Accounting Research 76

Summary 77

Discussion Questions 77

Exercises 78

Appendix: CPA Exam–Financial Accounting Simulations 80


International Accounting Environment 85

International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) 87

IASB Authorities 89

IASB Due Process 90

Interpretations Committee Due Process 92

IASB’s Conceptual Framework 92

Principles-Based Accounting Standards 93

IFRS Funding, Regulation, and Enforcement 93

International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

Research 95

IFRS Hierarchy 95

Electronic International Financial Reporting Standards (eIFRS) 95

Summary 100

Discussion Questions 100

Exercises 100


Other Database Research Strategies 103

Step One: Define the Information Needed 103

Step Two: Determine the Sources to Search 104

Step Three: Use Search Techniques and Tools 105

Step Four: View the Results and Manage the Information 105
U.S. Accounting Research Tools 106

Commercial Accounting Databases 106

AICPA’s Reference Sources 108

U.S. Government Accounting Databases 108

GASB’s Government Accounting Research System (GARS) 108

Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board Handbook of Authorities 109

Financial Research Databases 111

Standard & Poor’s (S&P) NetAdvantage 111

Mergent Online 112

Thomson Research 113

Other Financial Databases and Sources 114

Financial Research Challenges 115

Business Research Databases and Tools 116

Article Index Databases 116

International Business Sources 117

Statistical Sources 117

Specialized Research 117

Massive Legal Research Databases 118

LexisNexis 118

LexisNexis Academic 119

Westlaw 121

Other Legal Databases 122

Summary 123

Discussion Questions 123

Exercises 123

Appendix: Website Addresses 125


Tax Research Goals 127

Tax Research Challenges 128

Tax Research Databases 129

Checkpoint 130

Primary Tax Authorities 131

The Code 131

Administrative Authorities (Particularly Treasury Regulations) 133

Judicial Sources of Tax Authority 135

Steps in Conducting Tax Research 138

Step One: Investigate the Facts and Identify the Issues 138

Step Two: Collect the Appropriate Authorities 138

Step Three: Analyze the Research 141

Step Four: Develop the Reasoning and Conclusion 144

Step Five: Communicate the Results 144

Professional Standards for Tax Services 146

Summary 147

Discussion Questions 147

Exercises 147


Assurance Services 151

Consulting Services and Standards 153

Attestation Services and Standards 154

Auditing Standard-Setting Environment 157

Auditing Standard-Setting Process 157

Auditing Standards Board (ASB) 157

Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) 162

International Auditing & Assurance Standards Board (IAASB) 163

AICPA Online Professional Library 165

AICPA Code of Professional Conduct 166

Auditing Standards in the Public Sector 168

Compilation and Review Services 169

Role of Judgment and Professional Skepticism in Accounting and Auditing 170

Economic Consequences 171

Summary 171

Discussion Questions 171

Exercises 172

Appendix: CPA Exam Audit Simulation 173


Method of Conducting Research 175

Step One: Identify the Issues or Problems 177

Step Two: Collect the Evidence 178

Step Three: Analyze the Results and Identify Alternatives 181

Step Four: Develop a Conclusion 182

Step Five: Communicate the Results 183

Lessons Learned for Professional Practice 184

Remain Current in Knowledge and Skills 184

International Complexities in Practice 186

Skills for the CPA and Similar Exams 186

Summary 187

Discussion Questions 187

Exercises 188

Appendix A: Sample Brief Memorandum 189

Appendix B: Abbreviations and Websites for Accounting, Auditing, and Tax 191


Definition of Fraud 227

Types of Fraud 227

The Fraud Triangle 229

Overview of a Financial Statement Fraud Examination 231

Step One: Identify the Issue and Plan the Investigation 233

Step Two: Gather the Evidence and Complete the

Investigation Phase 233

Step Three: Evaluate the Evidence 234

Step Four: Report Findings to Management or Legal Counsel 234

Business Investigations 235

Computer Technology in Fraud Investigations 235

Data-Mining Software 236

Public Databases 240

The Internet 243

Fraud Investigation Regulations 244

Summary 244

Discussion Questions 244

Exercises 245

Index 247

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