Acid and Bases: A Guide to Understanding Acid-Base Disorders

Overview


Acid-base metabolism is of fundamental clinical relevance and is one of the areas least well understood by medical students and physicians. The past 10 years have seen tremendous advances in knowledge regarding the molecular basis for membrane transport. This accessible book discusses in detail the intricacies of acid-base physiology, clearly describing how transport proteins delicately facilitate the movement of ions across the cell membranes and preserve the acid-base balance. This information permits an ...
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Overview


Acid-base metabolism is of fundamental clinical relevance and is one of the areas least well understood by medical students and physicians. The past 10 years have seen tremendous advances in knowledge regarding the molecular basis for membrane transport. This accessible book discusses in detail the intricacies of acid-base physiology, clearly describing how transport proteins delicately facilitate the movement of ions across the cell membranes and preserve the acid-base balance. This information permits an understanding of the physiologic basis for acid-base disorders not previously possible.

This book contains black-and-white illustrations.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780195075731
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • Publication date: 2/11/1993
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 168
  • Product dimensions: 5.44 (w) x 8.25 (h) x 0.38 (d)

Table of Contents

1 A Brief Historical Overview: To Abstract Concept and Back Again 3
2 ...of Water, Hydrogen, Hydrogen Ion, and pH 6
3 Why Is pH Important in Biologic Systems? 10
4 The Cell Membrane and Transport Proteins 15
The Lipid Bilayer 16
Ion Channels 20
The Nernst Equation 21
Transport Proteins "Pumps" 22
5 Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, and the "Trigger Twins" Calcium and Hydrogen 24
The Role of the Sodium Gradient 25
The Functions Served by Ion Transport 26
The "Trigger Twins," Calcium and Hydrogen 27
6 Getting the H[superscript +] Out of the Cell: The Proton Pump and the Na[superscript +]-H[superscript +] Exchanger 29
Proton Translocating ATPase 34
Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter 36
Transmembrane Signalling 37
The Role of Carbonic Anhydrase 40
Basolateral Bicarbonate Exchange 41
7 The Milieu Interieur 43
8 Metabolic Acid Production: Metabolic Cycles 47
9 Renal Acid Secretion and the Trail of Ammonia 52
Acid Secretion Along the Nephron 54
"New Bicarbonate for Old" 59
The Renal Secretion of Ammonia 61
A Note on Evolution and Purpose 64
10 Clinical Disorders of Acid Base Balance 66
Definitions of Acidosis and Alkalosis 66
Biochemical Responses 68
The Yin and Yang of Acid Base Disorders 70
11 Metabolic Acidosis: A Bird's Eye View 87
Impaired Renal Acid Excretion 89
The Anion Gap 97
Lactic Acid Overproduction 99
Ketoacid Overproduction 106
Metabolic Acidosis Secondary to Extrarenal Base Loss 111
12 Metabolic Alkalosis: With or Without Chloride 113
Factors Which Impair the Ability of the Kidney to Excrete Bicarbonate 114
Chloride-Responsive Metabolic Alkalosis 114
Chloride-Resistant Metabolic Alkalosis 120
13 Respiratory Disorders of Acid-Base Balance: The Wind Section 123
Epilogue 131
Appendixes 133
Bibliography 141
Index 147
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