Acid Gas Injection and Carbon Dioxide Sequestration / Edition 1

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Overview

Provides a complete treatment on two of the hottest topics in the energy sector – acid gas injection and carbon dioxide sequestration

This book provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of two techniques that are rapidly increasing in importance and usage in the natural gas and petroleum industry — acid gas injection and carbon dioxide sequestration. The author, a well-known and respected authority on both processes, presents the theory of the technology, then discusses practical applications the engineer working in the field can implement.

Both hot-button issues in the industry, these processes will help companies in the energy industry "go green," by creating a safer, cleaner environment. These techniques also create a more efficient and profitable process in the plant, cutting waste and making operations more streamlined.

This outstanding new reference includes:

  • Uses of acid gas injection, the method of choice for disposing of small quantities of acid gas
  • Coverage of technologies for working towards a zero-emission process in natural gas production
  • A practical discussion of carbon dioxide sequestration, an emerging new topic, often described as one of the possible solutions for reversing global warming
  • Problems and solutions for students at the graduate level and industry course participants
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"Intended as a reference for engineers, this work presents theory, technological reference and practical instruction for scientists working on acid gas injection and carbon dioxide sequestration in the natural gas and petroleum industry. An expert level text, this work includes numerous formulas, charts, graphs and equations and is intended to help engineers plan and implement these green technologies in the field. Carroll is a chemical engineer and the director of the Geostorage Process Engineering program for a major natural gas company." (SciTech Book News, December 2010)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470625934
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 6/8/2010
  • Series: Wiley-Scrivener Series , #18
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 277
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

John J. Carroll, PhD, PEng is the Director, Geostorage Process Engineering for Gas Liquids Engineering, Ltd. in Calgary, Canada. He joined Gas Liquids Engineering after three years with Honeywell Hi-Spec Solution in London, Canada, and, previous to that, Dr. Carroll was a Research Associate and Lecturer at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. Dr. Carroll holds bachelor and doctoral degrees in chemical engineering from the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, and is a registered professional engineer in the provinces of Alberta and New Brunswick in Canada. His fist book, Natural Gas Hydrates: A Guide for Engineers, is now in its second edition, and he is the author or co-author of 50 technical publications and about 40 technical presentations.

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Table of Contents

Preface

Acknowledgement

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Acid Gas 2

1.1.1 Hydrogen Sulfide 3

1.1.2 Carbon Dioxide 4

1.2 Anthropogenic CO2 5

1.3 Flue Gas 5

1.3.1 Sulfur Oxides 7

1.3.2 Nitrogen Oxides 8

1.4 Standard Volumes 8

1.4.1 Gas Volumes 8

1.4.2 Liquid Volumes 9

1.5 Sulfur Equivalent 9

1.6 Sweetening Natural Gas 11

1.6.1 Combustion Process Gas 12

1.6.1.1 Post-Combustion 13

1.6.1.2 Pre-Combustion 14

1.7 Acid Gas Injection 14

1.8 Who Uses Acid Gas Injection? 16

1.8.1 Western Canada 16

1.8.2 United States 17

1.8.3 Other Locations 17

1.8.4 CO2 Flooding 18

1.9 In Summary 18

References 18

Appendix 1A Oxides of Nitrogen 20

Appendix 1B Oxides of Sulfur 22

Chapter 2 Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Dioxide 23

2.1 Properties of Carbon Dioxide 25

2.2 Properties of Hydrogen Sulfide 27

2.3 Estimation Techniques for Physical Properties 31

2.3.1 Thermodynamic Properties 31

2.3.1.1 Ideal Gas 31

2.3.1.2 Real Gas 33

2.3.2 Saturated Liquid and Vapor Densities 36

2.3.2.1 Liquids 36

2.3.2.2 Corresponding States 37

2.3.3 Thermodynamic Properties 39

2.3.4 Transport Properties 40

2.3.4.1 Low Pressure Gas 40

2.3.4.2 Gases Under Pressure 41

2.3.4.3 Liquids 42

2.3.5 Viscosity Charts 43

2.4 Properties of Acid Gas Mixtures 44

2.4.1 Thermodynamic Properties 44

2.4.1.1 Corresponding States 45

2.4.2 Transport Properties 47

2.4.3 Word of Caution 48

2.5 Effect of Hydrocarbons 50

2.5.1 Density 50

2.5.2 Viscosity 51

2.6 In Summary 51

References 51

Appendix 2A Transport Properties of Pure Hydrogen Sulfide 53

2A.1 Viscosity 53

2A.1.1 Liquid 53

2.A.1.2 Vapor 54

2A.2 Thermal Conductivity 55

References 57

Appendix 2B Viscosity of Acid Gas Mixtures 59

2B.1.1 Correcting for High Pressure 59

2B.1.2 Carbon Dioxide 59

2B.1.3 Generalization 61

2B.1.4 Mixtures 62

2B.1.5 Final Comments 63

References 63

Appendix 2C Equations of State 64

2C.1.1 Soave-Redlich-Kwong Equation of State 64

2C.1.2 Peng-Robinson Equation of State 64

2C.1.3 The Patel-Teja Equation of State 65

Chapter 3 Non-Aqueous Phase Equilibrium 69

3.1 Overview 69

3.2 Pressure-Temperature Diagrams 70

3.2.1 Pure Components 70

3.2.2 Mixtures 73

3.2.3 Binary Critical Points 76

3.2.4 Effect of Hydrocarbons 77

3.2.4.1 Methane 78

3.2.4.2 Ethane and Propane 79

3.2.4.3 Butane and Heavier 80

3.2.4.4 In Summary 81

3.3 Calculation of Phase Equilibrium 82

3.3.1 Equations of State 82

3.3.2 K-Factor Charts 83

3.4 In Summary 85

References 85

Appendix 3A Some Additional Phase Equilibrium Calculations 86

3A.1.1 Hydrogen Sulfide + Hydrocarbons 86

3A.1.2 Carbon Dioxide + Hydrocarbons 87

3A.1.3 Multicomponent Mixtures 88

References 92

Appendix 3B Accuracy of Equations of State for VLE in Acid Gas Mixtures 96

References 98

Chapter 4 Fluid Phase Equilibria Involving Water 99

4.1 Water Content of Hydrocarbon Gas 100

4.2 Water Content of Acid Gas 101

4.2.1 Carbon Dioxide 102

4.2.2 Hydrogen Sulfide 103

4.2.3 Practical Representation 106

4.2.3.1 In Summary 108

4.3 Estimation Techniques 108

4.3.1 Simple Methods 109

4.3.1.1 Ideal Model 109

4.3.1.2 McKetta-Wehe Chart 109

4.3.1.3 Maddox Correction 110

4.3.1.4 Wichert Correction 110

4.3.1.5 Alami et al 111

4.3.2 Advanced Methods 111

4.3.2.1 AQU Alibrium 111

4.3.2.2 Other Software 112

4.4 Acid Gas Solubility 113

4.4.1 Henry's Law 113

4.4.2 Solubility in Brine 115

4.4.2.1 Carbon Dioxide in NaCl 116

4.4.2.2 Hydrogen Sulfide in NaCl 116

4.4.2.3 Mixtures of Gases 119

4.4.2.4 Effect of pH 119

4.5 In Summary 119

References 120

Appendix 4A Compilation of the Experimental Data for the Water Content of Acid Gas 122

References 124

Appendix 4B Comments on the Work of Selleck et al 127

Appendix 4C Density of Brine (NaCl) Solutions 129

Chapter 5 Hydrates 131

5.1 Introduction to Hydrates 131

5.2 Hydrates of Acid Gases 132

5.3 Estimation of Hydrate Forming Conditions 135

5.3.1 Shortcut Methods 135

5.3.2 Rigorous Methods 136

5.4 Mitigation of Hydrate Formation 136

5.4.1 Inhibition with Methanol 136

5.4.2 Water-Reduced Cases 138

5.4.2.1 Carbon Dioxide 139

5.4.2.2 Dehydration 140

5.4.2.3 To Dehydrate or Not to Dehydrate?-That is the Question! 141

5.4.3 Application of Heat 142

5.4.3.1 Line Heaters 142

5.4.3.2 Heat Tracing 142

5.4.3.3 Final Comment 142

5.5 Excess Water 142

5.6 Hydrates and AGI 143

5.7 In Summary 143

References 143

Chapter 6 Compression 145

6.1 Overview 145

6.2 Theoretical Considerations 148

6.3 Compressor Design and Operation 148

6.4 Design Calculations 149

6.4.1 Compression Ratio 150

6.4.2 Ideal Gas 151

6.4.3 Efficiency 157

6.4.4 Ratio of the Heat Capacities 158

6.5 Interstage Coolers 159

6.5.1 Design 160

6.5.2 Pressure Drop 164

6.5.3 Phase Equilibrium 164

6.6 Compression and Water Knockout 167

6.6.1 Additional Cooling 171

6.7 Materials of construction 172

6.8 Advanced design 172

6.8.1 Cascade 172

6.8.2 CO2 Slip 173

6.9 Case studies 174

6.9.1 Wayne-Rosedale 174

6.9.2 Acheson 175

6.9.3 West Pembina 175

6.10 In Summary 175

References 176

Appendix 6A Additional Calculations 177

Chapter 7 Dehydration of Acid Gas 183

7.1 Glycol Dehydration 184

7.1.1 Acid Gas Solubility 185

7.1.2 Desiccant 187

7.2 Molecular Sieves 189

7.2.1 Acid Gas Adsorption 191

7.3 Refrigeration 192

7.3.1 Selection of Inhibitor 193

7.4 Case Studies 194

7.4.1 CO2 Dehydration 194

7.4.2 Acid Gas Dehydration 195

7.4.2.1 Wayne-Rosedale 195

7.4.2.2 Acheson 195

7.5 In Summary 196

References 196

Chapter 8 Pipeline 199

8.1 Pressure Drop 199

8.1.1 Single Phase Flow 199

8.1.1.1 Friction Factor 202

8.1.1.2 Additional Comments 204

8.1.2 Two-Phase Flow 205

8.1.3 Transitional Flow 205

8.2 Temperature Loss 206

8.2.1 Carroll's Method 206

8.3 Guidelines 207

8.4 Metering 208

8.5 Other Considerations 209

8.6 In Summary 210

References 210

Appendix 8A Sample Pipeline Temperature Loss Calculation 211

8A.1 AQU Alibrium 3.0 212

8A.1.1 Acid Gas Properties 212

8A.1.1.1 Conditions 212

8A.1.1.2 Component Fractions 212

8A.1.1.3 Phase properties 212

8A.1.1.4 Warnings 212

Chapter 9 Injection Profiles 215

9.1 Calculation of Injection Profiles 215

9.1.1 Gases 216

9.1.1.1 Ideal Gas 216

9.1.1.2 Real Gas 217

9.1.2 Liquids 220

9.1.3 Supercritical Fluids 221

9.1.4 Friction 221

9.1.5 AGIProfile 221

9.2 Effect of Hydrocarbons 224

9.3 Case Studies 228

9.3.1 Chevron Injection Wells 228

9.3.1.1 West Pembina 229

9.3.1.2 Acheson 230

9.3.2 Anderson Puskwaskau 232

9.4 Other Software 232

9.5 In Summary 232

References 232

Appendix 9A Additional Examples 234

Chapter 10 Selection of Disposal Zone 239

10.1 Containment 239

10.1.1 Reservoir Capacity 240

10.1.2 Caprock 240

10.1.3 Other Wells 241

10.2 Injectivity 241

10.2.1 Liquid Phase 241

10.2.2 Gas Injection 244

10.2.3 Fracturing 245

10.2.4 Horizontal Wells 245

10.3 Interactions With Acid Gas 245

10.4 In Summary 246

References 246

Chapter 11 Health, Safety and The Environment 247

11.1 Hydrogen Sulfide 247

11.1.1 Physiological Properties 248

11.1.2 Regulations 248

11.1.3 Other Considerations 249

11.2 Carbon Dioxide 249

11.2.1 Physiological Properties 249

11.2.2 Climate Change 250

11.2.3 Other Considerations 250

11.3 Emergency Planning 250

11.3.1 Accidental Releases 250

11.3.2 Planning Zones 251

11.3.3 Other Considerations 255

11.3.3.1 Sour vs. Acid Gas 255

11.3.3.2 Wind 256

11.3.3.3 Carbon Dioxide 256

11.3.3.4 Sensitive Areas 256

References 256

Chapter 12 Capital Costs 257

12.1 Compression 257

12.1.1 Reciprocating Compressor 258

12.1.2 Centrifugal 259

12.2 Pipeline 259

12.3 Wells 260

12.4 In Summary 261

References 261

Chapter 13 Additional Topics 263

13.1 Rules of Thumb 263

13.1.1 Physical Properties 263

13.1.2 Water Content 264

13.1.3 Hydrates 264

13.1.4 Compression 264

13.1.5 Pipelines 265

13.1.6 Reservoir 266

13.2 Graphical Summary 266

13.2.1 Pressure-Temperature 266

13.2.2 Water Content 268

13.2.3 Operation 269

13.2.4 Summary 270

13.3 The Three Types of Gas 270

13.3.1 Example Gases 270

Index 275

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