Acid Rain: Its Causes and Its Effects on Inland Waters

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The causes and consequences of acid rain are subjects of widespread concern and controversy. However the effects of acid deposition on the chemistry of lakes and streams, and on the survival of fish and other aquatic life, have been greatly clarified by the results of a recent Anglo-Scandinavian surface waters research program. This book presents a concise, nonspecialist account of the results and their implications by the director of the program. Based on studies conducted throughout the United Kingdom and ...

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Overview

The causes and consequences of acid rain are subjects of widespread concern and controversy. However the effects of acid deposition on the chemistry of lakes and streams, and on the survival of fish and other aquatic life, have been greatly clarified by the results of a recent Anglo-Scandinavian surface waters research program. This book presents a concise, nonspecialist account of the results and their implications by the director of the program. Based on studies conducted throughout the United Kingdom and northern Europe, the book includes chapters on emissions, transport, and deposition of acid pollution; hydrochemical studies in catchments; catchment process studies; catchment manipulation experiments; the role of hydrology and soil chemistry; palaeolimnological studies; the toxic effects of acidification on fish and other aquatic life; and catchment modelling studies. The highly interdisciplinary nature of the research should appeal to a wide range of scientists and to policy-makers interested in acid rain and its consequences. It is also aimed at postgraduates and third-year undergraduate students in the environmental sciences.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780198583448
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • Publication date: 9/1/1992
  • Series: Science, Technology, and Society Series , #8
  • Pages: 148
  • Product dimensions: 6.44 (w) x 9.50 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Meet the Author

Imperial College, London
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Table of Contents

List of plates
1 The search for answers to key questions 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 The nature of the problem 1
1.3 The Surface Waters Acidification Programme 2
1.4 References 6
2 The emission, transport, and chemical transformation of acid pollutants in the atmosphere 7
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Emissions 7
2.3 Transport and chemical transformation of acidifying gases 13
2.4 References 17
3 Acid deposition in the UK and Europe 18
3.1 Introduction 18
3.2 Acid deposition in the UK 18
3.3 Modelling and measurement of acid deposition over Europe 24
3.4 Critical loads and target levels for acid deposition 26
3.5 References 28
4 The role of hydrology in determining the chemistry of surface waters 29
4.1 Mechanisms of water transport through soils 29
4.2 Hydrochemical changes in experimental catchments 30
4.3 References 38
5 The role of soils in the acidification of surface waters 40
5.1 Some notes on soil structure and chemistry 40
5.2 Soil formation by weathering of rocks and minerals 43
5.3 Measurements of weathering rates 45
5.4 Soil-water interactions 47
5.5 References 58
6 Comparative catchment studies 59
6.1 The measurements and their interpretation 59
6.2 Main conclusions for each catchment 67
6.3 References 68
7 The history of lake acidification as reconstructed from palaeolimnological evidence 69
7.1 Introduction and overview 69
7.2 The research strategy 72
7.3 Long-term acidification 73
7.4 Changes post AD 1800 at sites with high and low acid deposition 75
7.5 The causes of lake acidification 77
7.6 Evidence of recent recovery in lake-water chemistry 80
7.7 References 82
8 The effects of acidification on fish and other aquatic life 84
8.1 Fishery status of lakes and streams in relation to water chemistry 84
8.2 The effect of acidic episodes on fish mortalities 89
8.3 Studies of fish mortalities in laboratory experiments 92
8.4 Effects on other aquatic biota 95
8.5 The physiology of ion regulation and salt balance in fishes 97
8.6 References 99
9 Models of acidification of surface waters 100
9.1 Introduction 100
9.2 The MAGIC model 100
9.3 The Birkenes model 107
9.4 The Imperial College model 109
9.5 General conclusions 111
9.6 References 112
10 Manipulation experiments on catchments 114
10.1 Introduction 114
10.2 The Sogndal acidification experiment 114
10.3 The Risdalsheia acid exclusion experiment 115
10.4 The Loch Fleet liming project 116
10.5 References 118
Appendix: Main conclusions of the Surface Waters Acidification Programme 119
Index 123
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