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Acoustic Microscopy: Second Edition [NOOK Book]

Overview

Acoustic microscopy enables the elastic properties of materials to be imaged and measured with the resolution of a good microscope. By using frequencies in the microwave regime, it is possible to make the acoustic wavelength comparable with the wavelength of light, and hence to achieve a resolution comparable with an optical microscope. Solids can support both longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves. At surfaces a unique combination of the two known as Raleigh
waves can ...
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Acoustic Microscopy: Second Edition

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Overview

Acoustic microscopy enables the elastic properties of materials to be imaged and measured with the resolution of a good microscope. By using frequencies in the microwave regime, it is possible to make the acoustic wavelength comparable with the wavelength of light, and hence to achieve a resolution comparable with an optical microscope. Solids can support both longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves. At surfaces a unique combination of the two known as Raleigh
waves can propagate, and in many circumstances these dominate the contrast in acoustic microscopy. Following the invention of scanning probe microscopes, it is now possible to use an atomic force microscope to detect the acoustic vibration of a surface with resolution in the nanometre range, thus
beating the diffraction limit by operating in the extreme near-field. This second edition of Acoustic Microscopy has a major new chapter on the technique and applications of acoustically excited probe microscopy.
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Professor Andrew Briggs Professor of Nanomaterials Department of Materials University of Oxford Dr Oleg Kolosov Department of Physics University of Lancaster

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Table of Contents

List of symbols xvi

1 Son et Iumière 1

1.1 Composites

1.2 Rocks 5

1.3 Biological matrix 8

1.4 What else? 11

2 Focusing and scanning 13

2.1 Focused acoustic beams 13

2.2 Scanning in transmission 17

2.3 Reflection acoustic microscopy 22

3 Resolution 26

3.1 Diffraction and noise 26

3.2 The coupling fluid 29

3.3 Cryogenic microscopy 35

3.4 Non-linear enhancement of resolution 41

3.5 Aliasing 45

3.6 Does defocusing degrade the resolution? 46

4 Lens design and selection 48

4.1 Interior imaging 48

4.2 Surface imaging 52

4.3 Wanted and unwanted signals 57

5 Electronic circuits for quantitative microscopy 61

5.1 Time and frequency domains 61

5.2 Quasi-monochromatic systems 64

5.3 Very short pulse techniques 70

6 A little elementary acoustics 74

6.1 Scalar theory 74

6.2 Tensor derivation of acoustic waves in solids 78

6.3 Rayleigh waves 83

6.4 Reflection 89

6.5 Materials constants 97

7 Contrast theory 100

7.1 Wave theory of V(z) 105

7.2 Ray model of V(z) 111

7.3 Tweedledum or Tweedledee? 120

8 Experimental elastic microanalysis 123

8.1 Measurement of the reflectance function 123

8.2 Raymethods 131

8.3 Time-resolved techniques 150

8.4 Phew! 159

9 Biological tissue 160

9.1 A soft option 160

9.2 Cell cultures 160

9.3 Histological sections 174

9.4 Stiff tissue 181

9.5 Bone 194

10 Layered structures 198

10.1 Subsurface imaging 198

10.2 Waves in layers 207

10.3 Near surface imaging 218

10.4 Layers edge on 220

11 Anisotropy 227

11.1 Bulk anisotropy 227

11.2 Waves in anisotropic surfaces 235

11.3 Anisotropic reflectance functions 238

11.4 Cylindrical lens anisotropic V(z) 242

11.5Spherical lens anisotropic V(z) 246

11.6 Plastic deformation 252

11.7 Grain boundaries 254

12 Surface cracks and boundaries 255

12.1 Initial observations 255

12.2 Contrast theory of surface cracks 257

12.3 Extension to three dimensions 266

12.4 How fine a crack can you see? 273

12.5 Contrast at boundaries 280

12.6 Time-resolved measurements and crack tip diffraction 285

13 Acoustically excited probe microscopy 290

13.1 Mechanical diode detection 292

13.2 Experimental UFM implementation 294

13.3 UFM contrast theory 297

13.4 Quantitative measurements of contact stiffness 301

13.5 UFM picture gallery 302

13.6 Image interpretation - effects of adhesion and topography 308

13.7 Superlubricity 311

13.8 Defects below the surface 313

13.9 Time-resolved nanoscale phenomena 315

14 So what happens when you defocus? 322

References 325

Index 347

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