Acoustic Microscopy / Edition 2

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Acoustic microscopy offers the possibility of examining the elastic properties of a specimen with spatial resolution comparable with that obtained using a conventional light microscope. This book provides an account of the techniques for both of those who are new to it and wish to find out what they can reasonably expect from it, and for those who are already using it and wish to understand their results better and go on to more advanced work. Examples of its applications that are given include studies of glass-ceramic matrix composites, geological specimens of granodiorite rock, and the matrix secreted from human bone-derived cells- examples which serve to illustrate applications in which the ability to image mechanical properties directly is of tremendous interest. The factors governing the design and operation of an acoustic microscope are described, and an account of theory is given with the specific aim of guiding contrast interpretations and explaining the various methods of quantitative measurement available. Details are provided of the wide range of applications of acoustic microscopy that have been developed in biology and materials.
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Professor Andrew Briggs
Professor of Nanomaterials
Department of Materials
University of Oxford
Dr Oleg Kolosov
Department of Physics
University of Lancaster

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Table of Contents

List of symbols
1 Son et lumiere 1
1.1 Composites 1
1.2 Rocks 5
1.3 Biological matrix 8
1.4 What else? 11
2 Focusing and scanning 13
2.1 Focused acoustic beams 13
2.2 Scanning in transmission 17
2.3 Reflection acoustic microscopy 23
3 Resolution 27
3.1 Diffraction and noise 27
3.2 The coupling fluid 30
3.3 Cryogenic microscopy 36
3.4 Non-linear enhancement of resolution 42
3.5 Aliasing 47
3.6 Does defocusing degrade the resolution? 48
4 Lens design and selection 50
4.1 Interior imaging 50
4.2 Surface imaging 54
4.3 Wanted and unwanted signals 59
5 Electronic circuits for quantitative microscopy 64
5.1 Time and frequency domains 64
5.2 Quasi-monochromatic systems 67
5.3 Very short pulse techniques 73
6 A little elementary acoustics 78
6.1 Scalar theory 78
6.2 Tensor derivation of acoustic waves in solids 82
6.3 Rayleigh waves 87
6.4 Reflection 93
6.5 Materials constants 101
7 Contrast theory 104
7.1 Wave theory of Vz 109
7.2 Ray model of Vz 115
7.3 Tweedledum or Tweedledee? 123
8 Experimental elastic microanalysis 127
8.1 Measurement of the reflectance function 127
8.2 Ray methods 135
8.3 Time-resolved techniques 155
8.4 Phew! 164
9 Biological tissue 165
9.1 A soft option 165
9.2 Cell cultures 165
9.3 Histological sections 179
9.4 Stiff tissue 186
9.5 Bone 200
10 Layered structures 203
10.1 Subsurface imaging 203
10.2 Waves in layers 212
10.3 Near surface imaging 223
10.4 Layers edge on 226
11 Anisotropy 232
11.1 Bulk anisotropy 232
11.2 Waves in anisotropic surfaces 240
11.3 Anisotropic reflectance functions 243
11.4 Cylindrical lens anisotropic Vz 246
11.5 Spherical lens anisotropic Vz 251
11.6 Plastic deformation 257
11.7 Grain boundaries 259
12 Surface cracks and boundaries 260
12.1 Initial observations 260
12.2 Contrast theory of surface cracks 262
12.3 Extension to three dimensions 270
12.4 How fine a crack can you see? 278
12.5 Contrast at boundaries 285
12.6 Time-resolved measurements and crack tip diffraction 288
13 So what happens when you defocus? 295
References 297
Index 317
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