Acoustics / Edition 1

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Overview

This definitive textbook provides students with a comprehensive introduction to acoustics. Beginning with the basic physical ideas, Acoustics balances the fundamentals with engineering aspects, applications and electroacoustics, also covering music, speech and the properties of human hearing. The concepts of acoustics are exposed and applied in:

  • room acoustics
  • sound insulation in buildings
  • noise control
  • underwater sound and ultrasound

Scientifically thorough,
but with mathematics kept to a minimum, Acoustics is the perfect introduction to acoustics for students at any level of mechanical, electrical or civil engineering courses and an accessible resource for architects, musicians or sound engineers requiring a technical understanding of acoustics and their applications.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
'Very explanatory. Ideal for undergraduate students.'Dr Michiel Postema, University of Hull
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780415386791
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • Publication date: 12/28/2006
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 480
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Table of Contents


List of symbols     xi
Introduction     1
What is sound?     2
What is acoustics?     4
Some facts on mechanical vibrations     7
A few examples     7
Complex notation of harmonic vibrations     11
Beats     12
Forced vibrations, impedance     13
Resonance     14
Free vibrations of a simple resonator     18
Electromechanical analogies     19
Power     22
Fourier analysis     23
Transfer function and impulse response     29
A note on non-linear systems     32
Acoustic variables and basic relations     34
Acoustic variables     34
Basic relations in acoustics     37
Wave equations     42
Intensity and energy density of sound waves in fluids     44
The sound pressure level     47
Plane waves, attenuation     48
Solution of the wave equation     48
Harmonic waves     51
A few notes on sound velocity     54
Attenuation of sound     55
Non-linear effects     65
Spherical wave and sound radiation     69
Solution of the wave equation     69
The point source     71
The Doppler effect     74
Directional factor and radiation resistance     76
The dipole     79
The linear array     81
The spherical source     84
Piston in a plane boundary     86
Reflection and refraction     94
Angles of reflection and refraction     94
Sound propagation in the atmosphere     96
Reflection factor and wall impedance     98
Absorption coefficient     103
Standing waves     104
Sound absorption by walls and linings     106
Diffraction and scattering     118
Exact formulation of diffraction problems     120
Diffraction by a rigid sphere     121
Sound transmission through apertures     124
Babinet's principle     132
Multiple scattering, scattering from rough surfaces     134
Sound transmission in pipes and horns     138
Sound attenuation in pipes     138
Basic relations for transmission lines     141
Pipes with discontinuities in cross section     143
Pipes with continuously changing cross section (horns)      150
Higher order wave types     156
Dispersion     162
Sound in closed spaces     166
Normal modes in a one-dimensional space     166
Normal modes in a rectangular room with rigid walls     169
Normal modes in cylindrical and spherical cavities     173
Forced vibrations in a one-dimensional enclosure     174
Forced vibrations in enclosures of any shape     178
Free vibrations     182
Statistical properties of the transfer function     185
Sound waves in isotropic solids     189
Sound waves in unbounded solids     189
Reflection and refraction, Rayleigh wave     194
Waves in plates and bars     197
Music and speech     209
Simple and complex tones, noise     209
Pitch, intervals and scales     211
General remark on the function of musical instruments     214
String instruments     215
Wind instruments     223
The human voice     228
Human hearing     233
Anatomy and function of the ear     234
Psychoacoustic pitch     239
Hearing threshold and auditory sensation area     243
Loudness level and loudness, critical frequency bands     244
Auditory masking     248
Measurement of loudness     249
Spatial hearing     252
Room acoustics     257
Geometric room acoustics     258
Impulse response of a room     261
Diffuse sound field     264
Steady-state energy density and reverberation     268
Sound absorption     271
On the 'acoustics' of auditoria     277
Special rooms for acoustic measurements     280
Building acoustics     283
Characterisation and measurement of airborne sound insulation     284
Airborne sound insulation of compound partitions     287
Airborne sound insulation of single-leaf partitions     289
Airborne sound insulation of double-leaf partitions     296
Structure-borne sound insulation     301
Fundamentals of noise control     309
Noise criteria     310
Basic mechanisms of noise generation     311
Primary noise control     316
Secondary noise control     320
Personal hearing protection     331
Underwater sound and ultrasound     333
Acoustical detection and localisation of objects      333
Sound propagation in sea water     335
Strength of echoes     337
Ambient noise, reverberation     338
Transducer arrays     340
General remarks on ultrasound     342
Generation and detection of ultrasound     343
Diagnostic applications of ultrasound     345
Applications of high intensity ultrasound     349
Generation of high and highest ultrasound frequencies     353
Electroacoustic transducers     359
Piezoelectric transducer     361
Electrostatic transducer     365
Dynamic transducer     368
Magnetic transducer     371
Magnetostrictive transducer     373
The coupling factor     375
Two-port equations and reciprocity relations     377
Microphones     379
Principles of microphones for airborne sound     379
Condensor microphone     382
Piezoelectric microphones     387
Dynamic microphones     389
Carbon microphone     391
Microphone directivity     392
Hydrophones     396
Vibration pickups     396
Microphone calibration      399
Loudspeakers and other electroacoustic sound sources     403
Dynamic loudspeaker     405
Electrostatic or condensor loudspeaker     408
Magnetic loudspeaker     410
Improvement of loudspeaker efficiency     411
Loudspeaker directivity     417
Earphones     419
Sound transmitters for water-borne sound and for ultrasound     421
Electroacoustic systems     426
Stereophony     427
Sound recording     433
Sound reinforcement systems     443
Literature     451
Index     453
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