Acquisition and Coding of Digital Color

Overview

In this book the authors identify the basic concepts and recent advances in the acquisition, perception, coding and rendering of color. The fundamental aspects related to the science of colorimetry in relation to physiology (the human visual system) are addressed, as are constancy and color appearance. It also addresses the more technical aspects related to sensors and the color management screen. Particular attention is paid to the notion of color rendering in computer graphics. Beyond color, the authors also ...

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Overview

In this book the authors identify the basic concepts and recent advances in the acquisition, perception, coding and rendering of color. The fundamental aspects related to the science of colorimetry in relation to physiology (the human visual system) are addressed, as are constancy and color appearance. It also addresses the more technical aspects related to sensors and the color management screen. Particular attention is paid to the notion of color rendering in computer graphics. Beyond color, the authors also look at coding, compression, protection and quality of color images and videos.
Individual chapters focus on the LMS specification, color constancy, color appearance models, rendering in synthetic image generation, image sensor technologies, image compression, and quality and secure color imaging. Ideal for researchers, engineers, Master’s and PhD students, Digital Color: Acquisition, Perception, Encoding and Rendering offers a state of the art on all the scientific and technical issues raised by the different stages of the digital color process – acquisition, analysis and processing.

Contents

1. Colorimetry and Physiology – The LMS Specification, Françoise Viénot and Jean Le Rohellec.
2. Color Constancy, Jean-Christophe Burie, Majed Chambah and Sylvie Treuillet.
3. Color Appearance Models, Christine Fernandez-Maloigne and Alain Trémeau.
4. Rendering and Computer Graphics, Bernard Péroche, Samuel Delepoulle and Christophe Renaud.
5. Image Sensor Technology, François Berry and Omar Ait Aider.
6. From the Sensor to Color Images, Olivier Losson and Eric Dinet.
7. Color and Image Compression, Abdelhakim Saadane, Mohamed-Chaker Larabi and Christophe Charrier.
8. Protection of Color Images, William Puech, Alain Trémeau and Philippe Carré.
9. Quality Assessment Approaches, Mohamed-Chaker Larabi, Abdelhakim Saadane and Christophe Charrier.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781848213463
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 5/1/2012
  • Series: ISTE Series, #612
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 314
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

Foreword Pierre Bonton xi

Chapter 1 Colorimetry and Physiology - The LMS Specification Françoise Viénot Jean Le Rohellec 1

1.1 Physiological basis 2

1.1.1 The photoreceptors 2

1.1.2 Retinal organization 4

1.1.3 Physiological modeling of visual attributes related to color 8

1.2 The XYZ colorimetry: the benchmark model of CIE 9

1.3 LMS colorimetry 11

1.3.1 LMS fundamentals 11

1.3.2 Application of LMS colorimetry 15

1.3.3 Color discrimination 20

1.4 Colors in their context 22

1.4.1 CIECAM02 23

1.4.2 Chromatic adaptation 23

1.4.3 Partitioning of the perceptual space by the elementary hues 24

1.5 Conclusion 25

1.6 Bibliography 25

Chapter 2 Color Constancy Jean-Christophe Burie Majed Chambah Sylvie Treuillet 29

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Theoretical preliminaries and problems 30

2.2.1 Concept of illuminant 30

2.2.2 Concept of objects' reflectance 32

2.2.3 Problem of color constancy 33

2.3 Color constancy models 34

2.3.1 Model of the human visual system 34

2.3.2 Von Kries diagonal model 34

2.3.3 Land theory 36

2.4 Color correction algorithms 37

2.4.1 Gray world 38

2.4.2 Retinex theory 40

2.4.3 Gamut conversion 43

2.4.4 Probabilistic methods 45

2.4.5 Method based on neural networks 49

2.4.6 ACE: automatic color equalization 51

2.4.7 Methods combining several approaches 52

2.5 Comparison of color constancy algorithms 54

2.5.1 Algorithms evaluation 55

2.5.2 Examples of applications with specific patterns 58

2.6 Conclusion 59

2.7 Bibliography 59

Chapter 3 Color Appearance Models Christine Fernandez-Maloigne Alain Trémeau 65

3.1 Introduction 65

3.2 The two perceptual phenomena of color appearance 67

3.3 The main components of a CAM 73

3.3.1 Chromatic adaptation models 75

3.3.2 The perceptual attributes 77

3.3.3 General architecture of CAMs standardized by the CIE 78

3.4 The CIECAM02 81

3.4.1 Input data 81

3.4.2 The chromatic adaptation transform 83

3.4.3 The appearance attributes 85

3.5 Conclusion 89

3.6 Bibliography 90

Chapter 4 Rendering and Computer Graphics Bernard Péroche Samuel Delepoulle Christophe Renaud 93

4.1 Introduction 93

4.2 Reflection and representation models of light sources 94

4.2.1 Concept of luminance 94

4.2.2 Representation of the light sources 94

4.2.3 Reflection and refraction models 96

4.3 Simulation of light propagation 99

4.3.1 Light propagation model: the rendering equation 99

4.3.2 Solution of the rendering equation 101

4.4 Display of results 106

4.4.1 LDR and HDR Images 106

4.4.2 Tone mapping 107

4.4.3 Management of spectral aspects 110

4.4.4 Computer graphics and perception 112

4.5 Conclusion 114

4.6 Bibliography 115

Chapter 5 Image Sensor Technology François Berry Omar Ait Aider 119

5.1 Photodetection principle 119

5.1.1 The photodiode 121

5.1.2 The photoMOS 123

5.2 Imagers 124

5.2.1 CMOS and CCD technologies 124

5.2.2 CCD (charge coupled device) imager principle 126

5.2.3 CMOS imagers principle 133

5.2.4 Photodiode pixel in current mode 135

5.2.5 Photodiode pixel in integration mode 137

5.3 Spectral sensitivity of imagers 138

5.4 Color acquisition systems 138

5.5 Through monochrome camera 139

5.6 Tri-sensor systems 141

5.7 Color camera based on color filter arrays 142

5.7.1 Types of filters 143

5.8 Variants of integrated sensors 144

5.8.1 Backside illuminations: Sony, Omnivision 144

5.8.2 BDJ or buried double junction 145

5.9 Conclusion 146

5.10 Bibliography 147

Chapter 6 From the Sensor to Color Images Olivier Losson Eric Dinet 149

6.1 Introduction 149

6.2 Presentation and formalization of demosaicing 150

6.2.1 Need for demosaicing 151

6.2.2 Formalization 152

6.2.3 Implemented principles 154

6.3 Demosaicing methods 159

6.3.1 Methods based on a spatial analysis 160

6.3.2 Methods based on a frequency analysis 165

6.3.3 Other methods and post-processing 169

6.4 Quality of the estimated image 171

6.4.1 Fidelity criteria of the estimated image 172

6.4.2 Fidelity results and discussion 174

6.5 Color camera calibration 178

6.6 Conclusion 181

6.7 Bibliography 181

Chapter 7 Color and Image Compression Abdelhakim Saadane Mohamed-Chaker Larabi Christophe Charrier 187

7.1 Introduction 187

7.2 Fundamentals of image compression 188

7.2.1 Introduction 188

7.2.2 Color transformation 189

7.2.3 Color sampling formats 190

7.2.4 Redundancy analysis 191

7.2.5 Quantization 193

7.2.6 Distortion metric 196

7.2.7 Conclusion 197

7.3 Compression standards and color 198

7.3.1 Introduction 198

7.3.2 Still image compression standards 199

7.3.3 Video compression standards 206

7.3.4 New trends in compression 209

7.3.5 Conclusion 210

7.4 Color Image Compression 211

7.4.1 Introduction 211

7.4.2 Statistical compression 211

7.4.3 Perception-based compression 214

7.4.4 Conclusion 219

7.5 General conclusion 219

7.6 Bibliography 221

Chapter 8 Protection of Color Images William Puech Alain Trémeau Phillippe Carré 227

8.1 Introduction 227

8.2 Protection and security of digital data 228

8.2.1 Secure transmission and archiving 228

8.2.2 Different types of protection 229

8.2.3 Encryption algorithms 230

8.3 Color image watermarking 238

8.3.1 Watermarking principle of color image 238

8.3.2 Choice of insertion color spaces 241

8.3.3 Fidelity of color image watermarking methods 243

8.3.4 Protection of color palettes 247

8.4 Protection of color images by selective encryption (SE) 248

8.4.1 SE of color images 248

8.4.2 Analysis of an encryption jointly with a JPEG compression 250

8.4.3 SE of regions of interest in color images 254

8.5 Conclusion 257

8.6 Bibliography 258

Chapter 9 Quality Assessment Approaches Mohamed-Chaker Larabi Abdelhakim Saadane Christophe Charrier 265

9.1 Introduction 265

9.1.1 What is quality? 265

9.1.2 Quality vs. fidelity 267

9.1.3 Strong link with the compression 267

9.2 Color fidelity metric 268

9.2.1 ΔE94, ΔE2000 268

9.2.2 s-CIELAB 270

9.3 Subjective assessment of the quality 271

9.3.1 Experimental plans 272

9.3.2 Measurement scales 273

9.3.3 Psychophysical experiments 273

9.3.4 Subjective assessment methods 274

9.3.5 Processing of the results 278

9.4 Objective evaluation of quality 280

9.4.1 Full reference metrics 280

9.4.2 Reduced-reference metrics 284

9.4.3 No-reference metrics 286

9.4.4 Application to video 291

9.5 Performance evaluation of the metrics 295

9.5.1 Test plans of the VQEG group 295

9.5.2 Data preparation 295

9.5.3 Accuracy of the prediction 296

9.5.4 Monotonicity of the prediction 296

9.5.5 Consistency of the prediction 297

9.6 Conclusion 297

9.7 Bibliography 300

List of Authors 307

Index 311

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