Active Sensors for Local Planning in Mobile Robotics

Active Sensors for Local Planning in Mobile Robotics

by Penny Probert Smith, Penelope Probert Smith
     
 

ISBN-10: 9810246811

ISBN-13: 9789810246815

Pub. Date: 02/28/2002

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company, Incorporated

This book describes recent work on active sensors for mobile robots. An active sensor interacts with its surroundings to supply data on demand for a particular function, gathering and abstracting information according to need rather than acting as a generic data gatherer. Details of the physical operation are hidden.The book deals mainly with active range sensors,…  See more details below

Overview

This book describes recent work on active sensors for mobile robots. An active sensor interacts with its surroundings to supply data on demand for a particular function, gathering and abstracting information according to need rather than acting as a generic data gatherer. Details of the physical operation are hidden.The book deals mainly with active range sensors, which provide rapid information for local planning, describing extraction of two-dimensional features such as lines, corners and cylinders to reconstruct a plan of a building. It is structured according to the physical principles of the sensors, since to a large extent these determine the function of the sensors and the methods of processing. Recent work using sonar, optoelectronic sensors and radar is described. Sections on vision and on sensor management develop the idea of software adaptation for efficient operation in a changing environment.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9789810246815
Publisher:
World Scientific Publishing Company, Incorporated
Publication date:
02/28/2002
Series:
Series in Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Pages:
317
Product dimensions:
5.70(w) x 8.60(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents

Preface
Ch. 1Introduction3
1.1Architectures for Planning and Perception3
1.2Range Sensing Technologies8
1.3Planning Demands9
Ch. 2The Mapping and Localisation Problem13
2.1Simultaneous Localisation and Map Building13
Ch. 3Perception at Millimetre Wavelengths21
3.1Sensor Operation22
3.2The Sensor24
3.3Antenna Properties25
3.4Altering Aperture Shape29
3.5Target Properties33
3.6Attenuation in the Transmission Medium37
3.7Summary39
Ch. 4Advanced Sonar: Principles of Operation and Interpretation41
4.1Single Return Sonar41
4.2Advanced Sonar: The Sonar Signature47
4.3Acquiring the Sonar Signature51
4.4Summary60
Ch. 5Smooth and Rough Target Modelling: Examples in Mapping and Texture Classification61
5.1Power Received by the Transducer61
5.2Smooth Surface Model62
5.3Rough Surface Planar Models68
5.4Mapping Heterogeneous Environments72
5.5Texture: Classifying Surfaces72
5.6Summary77
Ch. 6Sonar Systems: A Biological Perspective79
6.1Introduction79
6.2Echo Formation81
6.3Monaural Sensing86
6.4Multi-Aural Sensing88
6.5Summary109
Ch. 7Map Building from Range Data Using Mathematical Morphology111
7.1Introduction111
7.2Basics of Sonar Sensing114
7.3Processing of the Sonar Data115
7.4Experimental Verification125
7.5Discussion and Conclusions133
Ch. 8Millimetre Wave Radar for Robotics137
8.1Background137
8.2When to Use Millimetre Wave Radar138
8.3Millimetre Wave Radar Principles140
8.4Review of Work Done in the Field151
8.5Airborne Radar Systems156
8.6Waypoint Navigation Process159
8.7Summary162
Ch. 9Optoelectronic Range Sensors165
9.1Introduction165
9.2Range-Finders165
9.3Radiometric Design166
9.4Ranging Sensors177
9.5Scanning Range-Finders186
Ch. 10AMCW Lidar Range Acquisition193
10.1Introduction193
10.2Critical Lidar Design Factors195
10.3Performance Limits - Noise197
10.4AMCW Lidar Modules198
10.5Causes of, and Remedies for, Range Errors200
10.6Correct Calibration Procedures208
10.7Possible Scanning Speed212
10.83D Range/Amplitude Scanning - Results217
10.9Summary219
Ch. 11Extracting Lines and Curves from Optoelectronic Range Data223
11.1The Optoelectronic Sensors224
11.2Feature Extraction and Processing227
11.3Conclusions238
11.4Acknowledgments238
Ch. 12Active Vision for Mobile Robot Navigation239
12.1Vision for Mobile Robots239
12.2Scene Features244
12.3Fixation251
12.4Localisation and Map-Building254
12.5Continuous Feature Tracking259
12.6A Fixation Strategy for Localisation261
12.7Steering Control and Context-Based Navigation266
12.8Summary269
Ch. 13Strategies for Active Sensor Management271
13.1Introduction271
13.2Simple Signal Processing Tools275
13.3Reconfigurable Sensors and Signal Processing Tools278
13.4A Sensor-Centred Image Segmentation Algorithm282
13.5Signal Processing Tool Selection Strategies284
13.6Dynamic Signal Processing Tool Scheduling287
13.7Conclusions289
Bibliography291
App. A: Contact Details of Authors307
Index311

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