Active Tectonics : Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape / Edition 2

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Overview

Active Tectonics is a carefully organized, easily understandable book. Extremely current throughout, this book thoroughly explores the effects of earthquakes and active tectonic systems on humans, geomorphic systems, and Earth's topography. Complete with numerous case studies in a variety of regions, the very latest advances in the field, separate quantitative techniques boxed sections, and a host of pedagogical aids. This comprehensive book focuses on new advances in the technology and new applications to geology and tectonics. Increased material on Quaternary chronology, including lichen chronology and micro stratigraphy of desert varnish. New studies, including research in the Olympic Mountains, Nepal, Australia, Taiwan, the Himalaya, and the New Madrid seismic zone of the central United States. New techniques such as cosmogenic surface-exposure dating, argon and helium geobarometry and geothermometry, regional hyposometric analysis using digital elevation models, geodetic positioning, and coupled geodynamical computer simulations of topographic evolution are covered. Covers a number of regions with case studies including: Alaska; Pacific Northwest; California; The basin and range; Midwest; and East Coast. Ideal for beginning readers in active tectonics, geomorphology and natural hazards. This book may also be of interest to city planners, seismic engineers, and other non-geologists.

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Product Details

Read an Excerpt

Active tectonics is the study of dynamic tectonic processes that shape the landscape and have an impact on human society. Tectonic geomorphology is the part of active tectonics that is concerned with landforms produced by tectonic processes and the application of geomorphic principles to tectonic problems. Tectonic geomorphology increasingly has become one of the principal tools in a variety of applications, including identification of active faults, formation of geologic structures, seismic-hazard assessment, and the study of landscape evolution. Tectonic geomorphology has proven to be useful in these applications because tectonically produced landforms are created and preserved over time intervals ideal for recording landscape change.

This book requires a basic knowledge of geologic principles. It is appropriate for upper-division undergraduate students, graduate students, and others who work in the ,fields of geology, geomorphology, and earthquake studies. In universities, this book is appropriate for classes in active tectonics, tectonic geomorphology, earthquake geology, and geomorphology.

The field of active tectonics has expanded rapidly during the past decade or so, but it remains at the cutting edge of geologic research. Space-based positioning, analysis of digital topography, and new dating techniques are bringing a whole new class of information to studies of the dynamic Earth. Advances in topics such as buried reverse faulting, active fold growth, earthquake recurrence, climate change, isostasy, and long-term landscape evolution continue to refine and redefine our understanding of tectonic and geomorphic processes.

We hope the readers of this book will find it to be an up-to-date source of information, as well as a solid foundation for understanding future advances in the fields of active tectonics and tectonic geomorphology.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to thank colleagues who reviewed all or parts of the first or second editions of this book: Ronald L. Bruhn, University of Utah; Randel T. Cox. University of Memphis; Thomas W. Gardner, Pennsylvania State University; David R. Hickey, Graptolithics; John M. Holbrook, Southeast Missouri State University; William R. Lettis, Lettis & Associates, Inc.; Nancy Lindsley-Griffin, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; George W Moore, Oregon State University; Karl J. Mueller, University of Colorado; Gomaa I. Omar, University of Pennsylvania; Frank Pazzaglia, Lehigh University; John B. Ritter, Wittenberg University; William A. Smith, Western Michigan University; Steven N. Ward, University of California, Santa Cruz; and John C. Weber, Grand Valley State University.

The authors are also pleased to acknowledge the assistance of the editors. Assistance from Ellie Dzuro (word processing), Dave Crouch (computer illustration), and Amy Selting (production assistance) is also greatly appreciated.

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Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with Summary and References Cited.)

1. Introduction to Active Tectonics: Emphasizing Earthquakes.

Active Tectonics. Global Tectonic. Earthquakes and Related Phenomena. Magnitude and Intensity of Earthquakes. Seismic Waves. Material Amplification. Directivity. Active Fault Zones. Estimation of Seismic Risk. Effects of Earthquakes. Earthquakes Caused by Human Activity. The Earthquake Cycle. Predicting Ground Motion.

2. Landforms, Tectonic Geomorphology, and Quaternary Chronology.

Tectonic Geomorphology. Geomorphic Concepts. Tectonic Geomorphology and Faulting. Pleistocene and Holocene Chronology.

3. Geodesy.

Introduction. Principles of Geodesy. Geodetic Techniques. Applications.

4. Geomorphic Indices of Active Tectonics.

Introduction. Hypsometric Curve and Hypsometric Integral. Drainage Basic Asymmetry. Stream Length-Gradient Index (SL). Mountain-Front Sinuosity (Smf). Ratio of Valley-Floor Width to Valley Height (Vf). Alluvial Fans and Tectonic Activity at Mountain Fronts. Relic Mountain Fronts. Classification of Relative Tectonic Activity.

5. Active Tectonics and Rivers.

Introduction. Fluvial Responses to Tectonic Modification. Models of Tectonic Adjustment.

6. Active Tectonics and Coastlines.

Introduction. Coastal Landforms. Coseismic Deformation. Coastal Geomorphology and Sea Level. Long-Term Uplift. Deformation of Coastal Terraces. Lake Shorelines. Dating Coastal Landforms. Coastal Tectonics and Time Scale.

7. Active Folding and Earthquakes.

Introduction. Fold-and-Thrust Belts. Flexural-Slip Faults. Folding and Strike-Slip Faulting. Tectonic Geomorphology of Active Folds. Case Study: Wheeler Ridge Anticline. Case Study: Ventura Avenue Anticline.

8. Paleoseismology and Earthquake Prediction.

Paleoseismology. Evidence for Paleoearthquakes. Fault-Zone Segmentation. Case Study: Segmentation and Paleoseismicity of the Wasatch Fault Zone, Utah. Models of Earthquake Recurrence. Case Study: Twelve Centuries of Earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault. Conditional Probabilities for Future Earthquakes. Earthquake Prediction. Earthquake-Hazard Reduction. Adjustments to Earthquake Activity.

9. Mountain Building.

Introduction. Models of Landscape and Mountain Development. Dynamics of Orogenesis. Linkages in a Feedback-Rich Orogenic Systems. Landscape Evolution.

Appendix A.

Glossary.

Index.

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Preface

Active tectonics is the study of dynamic tectonic processes that shape the landscape and have an impact on human society. Tectonic geomorphology is the part of active tectonics that is concerned with landforms produced by tectonic processes and the application of geomorphic principles to tectonic problems. Tectonic geomorphology increasingly has become one of the principal tools in a variety of applications, including identification of active faults, formation of geologic structures, seismic-hazard assessment, and the study of landscape evolution. Tectonic geomorphology has proven to be useful in these applications because tectonically produced landforms are created and preserved over time intervals ideal for recording landscape change.

This book requires a basic knowledge of geologic principles. It is appropriate for upper-division undergraduate students, graduate students, and others who work in the ,fields of geology, geomorphology, and earthquake studies. In universities, this book is appropriate for classes in active tectonics, tectonic geomorphology, earthquake geology, and geomorphology.

The field of active tectonics has expanded rapidly during the past decade or so, but it remains at the cutting edge of geologic research. Space-based positioning, analysis of digital topography, and new dating techniques are bringing a whole new class of information to studies of the dynamic Earth. Advances in topics such as buried reverse faulting, active fold growth, earthquake recurrence, climate change, isostasy, and long-term landscape evolution continue to refine and redefine our understanding of tectonic and geomorphic processes.

We hope the readers of this book will find it to be an up-to-date source of information, as well as a solid foundation for understanding future advances in the fields of active tectonics and tectonic geomorphology.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to thank colleagues who reviewed all or parts of the first or second editions of this book: Ronald L. Bruhn, University of Utah; Randel T. Cox. University of Memphis; Thomas W. Gardner, Pennsylvania State University; David R. Hickey, Graptolithics; John M. Holbrook, Southeast Missouri State University; William R. Lettis, Lettis & Associates, Inc.; Nancy Lindsley-Griffin, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; George W Moore, Oregon State University; Karl J. Mueller, University of Colorado; Gomaa I. Omar, University of Pennsylvania; Frank Pazzaglia, Lehigh University; John B. Ritter, Wittenberg University; William A. Smith, Western Michigan University; Steven N. Ward, University of California, Santa Cruz; and John C. Weber, Grand Valley State University.

The authors are also pleased to acknowledge the assistance of the editors. Assistance from Ellie Dzuro (word processing), Dave Crouch (computer illustration), and Amy Selting (production assistance) is also greatly appreciated.

Read More Show Less

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