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Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs / Edition 8

Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs / Edition 8

by Ruth E. Cook

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ISBN-10: 0132596784

ISBN-13: 9780132596787

Pub. Date: 08/11/2011

Publisher: Pearson

A practical, activity-based approach to early childhood special education built on a foundation of theory and research.

This comprehensive text on early childhood special education emphasizes a developmental focus over a disability focus. The authors believe that children are more alike than different in their developmental


A practical, activity-based approach to early childhood special education built on a foundation of theory and research.

This comprehensive text on early childhood special education emphasizes a developmental focus over a disability focus. The authors believe that children are more alike than different in their developmental processes and avoid the negative impact of labeling children with disability categorical names. The authors have produced a book that offers educators a practical and effective guide to finding learning opportunities within daily curriculum activities and routine. The current edition maintains the focus on inclusive, family-centered, real-world approaches that are also theoretically based. The text also provides ample detail related to specific intervention strategies that enhance teachers’ ability to work with young children with special needs and their families. Readable and practical, the illustrations of techniques and strategies throughout make this text a valuable resource long after students leave their formal education.

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Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Educating Young Children with Special Needs: The Challenge

Viewing the Child with Special Needs as a Child First

Inclusion of Young Children with Special Needs in Community-Based Settings

Philosophy of This Text

Early Childhood Special Education: An Evolving Field

Pioneering Influences

Casa dei Bambini

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Recognition of the Role of Early Experiences

Project Head Start: A Breakthrough


Impact of Early Intervention

Early Intervention for Children with Disabilities

Relationship-Focused Models of Early Intervention

Changing Policies: The Enabling Impact of Public Pressure and Legislation

Development of Professional Groups

The Power of Private Citizens

The First Chance Program

Public Law 94-142: The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975

Public Law 99-457: The Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986

Public Law 101-476: The Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1990

Public Law 102-119: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1991

Public Law 105-17: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997

Public Law 108-446: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004

Public Law 101-336: The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

Evolving Trends in Early Childhood Special Education

Family-Centered Services

Community-Based Inclusive Services

Interdisciplinary Collaboration

Culturally Responsive Practices

Coordinated, Comprehensive Services

Evidence-Based Practices

Routines-Based or Embedded Interventions

Standards-Based Curriculum

Child Outcomes

Recognition and Response

Building on Recommended Practices

Collaboration Between Early Childhood Education and Early Childhood Special Education Professionals

A Cautionary Note

Service Delivery

Child-Focused Approaches

Caregiver-Focused Approaches

Services for Infants and Toddlers

Services for Preschoolers

Meeting Young Children’s Needs in Inclusive Settings

Unique Challenges Involved in Supporting Early Childhood Inclusion

Redefining the Role of the Early Childhood Special Educator

The Case for Specific Training Related to Inclusion Support


Discussion Topics and Activities

Chapter 2: In Partnership with Families

A Personal Perspective on Raising a Child with Developmental Challenges

Emotional Supports for Families with Children Who Have Special Needs

Basic Needs

Failure to Consider Basic Needs

The Need for Emotional Support

Parental Reactions; Dealing with Grief and Other Feeling States

Shock, Disbelief, and Denial

Anger and Resentment


Depression and Discouragement

Adaptation and Adjustment

A Father’s Perspective


The Family as a System

Extended Family and Sibling Needs and Reactions


Parents as Team Members

Family Outcomes

Options for Family Involvement

A Continuum

What Fathers Say About Their Involvement

Home-Based Intervention Programs

Additional Important Considerations When Making Home Visits

Supporting and Partnering with Parents in Early Intervention Programs

Conferences with Parents

Involving Parents in Group Meetings

Working with Culturally Diverse Families

Cultural Models and Child-Rearing Practices

Language Differences

Parents’ Expectations of the Preschool Curricula

Working with Special Family Populations

Parents with Developmental Disabilities

Teen Parents

Foster Caregivers

Understanding the Impact of Poverty



Chapter 3: Developing Individualized Intervention Plans and Programs and Monitoring Progress

The Individualized Family Service Plan Process for Infants, Toddlers, and Their Families

The IFSP Process

Participants in Initial and Annual IFSP Meetings

Identifying Family Concerns, Priorities, and Resources

The IFSP Document

Developing Outcome Statements

Service Coordination

Who Can Become Service Coordinators?

Models of Service Coordination

Promoting Essential Interagency Collaboration

Developing Individualized Education Programs for Preschoolers

The Interdisciplinary IEP Team Meeting Process

Considering Darren

Background Information

Required Contents of the IEP

Purposes and Limitations of the IEP

Considerations Beyond the IEP

Writing Program Objectives (Benchmarks)

Basics of Writing Behavioral Objectives

Guidelines for Choosing and Writing Behavioral Objectives

Becoming a Skilled Observer

Observing How Children Perform a Task

Considering the Special Challenges When English Is the Child’s Second Language

Realizing Environmental Influences on Child Performance

Recognizing the Interrelationship of Skills

Guidelines for Successful Observation

The Portfolio and Its Use with Young Children

Types of Observation Samples

Recording Children’s Progress

Linking Assessment to Curriculum

Facilitating Transitions

Steps in Transition to Center-Based or Public School Services

The Role of the Early Childhood Special Educator in Facilitating Transitions


Chapter 4: Designing Instructional Programs



Choosing a Curriculum

Considering Children with Special Needs

Philosophy of This Text

General Instructional Strategies


Applied Behavior Analysis

Social Mediation of Experience

Adult–Child Communication Strategies


Play as an Important Teaching Context

Arranging the Physical Environment to Maximize Learning

The Physical Environment

Grouping Children

Sound and Lighting

Visual Materials

Special Considerations for Infants and Toddlers

Creating a Positive Social-Emotional Environment

Anticipate Children’s Questions

Encourage Children with Specific Positive Feedback

Provide Opportunities for Self-Efficacy and Decision Making

Designing the Teaching-Learning Environment: Universal Design for Learning

Embedding Teaching and Learning Opportunities

Scheduled Plans Promote Desired Consistency in Routines

Providing a Variety of Activities to Accomplish Any One Outcome or Objective

Terminal Objective

Individual (En Route) Objectives

The Activity: Bathing a Doll

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Each Activity

Using an Activity to Achieve More Than One Objective


Chapter 5: Considerations for Teaching Children with Specific Disabilities

Getting Started: Gathering Information About the Child

Learn from the Family

Collaborate Among Team Members

Plan and Conduct Observations

Suggestions for Teaching Children with Specific Disabilities

Health Impairments

Hearing Loss

Difficulties in Learning

Physical Disabilities

Visual Impairments

Autism Spectrum Disorders

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

Teaching Children with Severe and Multiple Disabilities

Provide Opportunities for Children to Make Choices

Ecological Inventory and Discrepancy Analysis

Analyze a Child’s Lack of Response

Principle of Partial Participation

Prompting and Fading Procedures

Errorless Learning

Communication Strategies

Tips for Promoting Children’s Participation in the Classroom


Chapter 6: Promoting Emotional and Social Development

Becoming Emotionally Secure


Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development

Greenspan’s Model of Affective Development

Building a Healthy Environment

Structure and Consistency



Constructive Consequences

Logical Connections


Avoiding Frustration

Building Emotional Literacy

Promoting Appropriate Behavior Modeling

Facilitating Social Skills

Use of Environmental Structuring

Use of Typical Peers as Medicators of Social Skills

Encouraging Developmental Play Behavior

The Importance of Play

Development of Social Interaction Skills Through Play

The Nature of Play

Helping Children with Emotional and Behavioral Challenges

Individual Temperament

Children Who Lack Self-Control

A Word About Medication: Caution

Children Who Are Reluctant to Participate

Use of Reinforcement

Give Credit Where Credit Is Due

Ignore Minor Disruptive Behaviors

Minimize the Use of Negative Consequences

Positive Behavior Support

Using Behavioral Analysis to Understand Disruptive Behavior

Designing Positive Behavior Support Plans

Use of Social Stories

Special Considerations for Working with Children Who Have Been Abused and Neglected


Chapter 7: Helping Young Children Develop Motor and Self-Help Skills

The Development of Motor Skills

Sequential Trends of Motor Development

Helping Parents Understand

Reflexive Development

Developing Gross Motor Skills

Developing Fine Motor Skills

Atypical Motor Development

Problems in Muscle Development

Assessment of Motor Abilities

Infants and Toddlers

Severe Motor Impairments

General Considerations for Assessment of All Young Children

Play-Based Assessment

Physical Therapy Intervention

Role of Therapists

Approaches to Therapy

Sensory Integration

Positioning and Handling

Proper Lifting

Adaptive Equipment and Assistive Technology Devices

Development of Adaptive Behavior Skills

Use of Task Analysis




Adapting the Environment

The Classroom or Center

The Home

Movement Skills and Music

Movement Skills and Imagination

Adaptations in Movement Education


Chapter 8: Nurturing Communication Skills

The Subskills of Language

Content, Use, and Form






Contribution of Social Interaction Theory to Understanding Early Communication Development

Stages of Development of Communication Skills in Young Children

Prelinguistic Communication

The Onset of Language

Combining Words

Necessary Conditions for the Development of Communication Skills

Characteristics That Can Interfere with Language Development

Characteristics That Can Interfere with the Production of Speech

Nurturing Speech, Language, and Conceptual Skills

The Important Role of Caregiver–Child Interaction

General Classroom Strategies That Encourage and Support Communication

Beginning Where the Child Is

Conversing with the Child

Choosing What to Talk About


Developing Pragmatic Skills

Expanding Skills

Communication Interventions for Young Children with Intensive Needs

Communicating with Children Who Have Severe Disabilities

Techniques for Teaching Expressive Communicative Behaviors: “Output Strategies”

Identifying Behaviors That Can Be Used Communicatively

Teaching Communicative Behaviors: Creating Opportunity and Need for Communication

Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems

Steps in Developing an AAC System

Classroom Strategies That Facilitate Augmentative Communication Skills

Using the Picture Exchange Communication System

Working with Children with Hearing Loss

Specific Strategies for Working with Children with Hearing Loss

Facilitating Comprehension of Speech

Hearing Aids

Cochlear Implants: Amazing Advances in Technology

Supporting Spoken English

Children with Intermittent Hearing Losses

Working with Children with Visual Impairments

Working with Children with Autism

Use of Behavior Analysis Approaches with ASD

Working with Children with Severe Motor Disabilities

Working with Children with Language Differences

Learning a New Language

Stages of Second Language Learning

Dual Language Learning and Home Language Maintenance

Collaborative Consultation with Speech-Language Specialists


Chapter 9: Encouraging the Development of Cognitive Skills and Literacy

What Is Cognition?

Basic Cognitive Processes



Development of Cognitive Skills

The Developmental Theory of Piaget

Demonstration of Cognitive Skills Through the Developmental Stage of Children’s Play

Simple Manipulation

Exploratory Play

Functional Play

Symbolic Play

Facilitating the Development of Cognitive Skills in Infants and Toddlers


Means–End Behavior

Trial-and Error Exploration

Object Permanence

Deferred Imitation

Facilitating the Development of Cognitive Skills in Preschoolers

Symbolic Representation

Problem Solving

Working with Children Who Have Cognitive Disabilities

Characteristics of Children with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

Adapting Instruction

Facilitating Cognitive and Information-Processing Subskills Related to Academic Achievement

Facilitating Children’s Engagement

Structuring Learning Experiences

Emergent Math and Science

Classification, Seriation, and Concept Development Facilitating Classification

Problem Solving in a Montessori Classroom

Facilitating Seriation

Facilitating Concept Development

Development of Literacy

The Precursors of Reading and Writing

Relationship Between Oral Language and Literacy

The Nature of School Language

Cultural Differences in Early Language and Literacy Experiences

Differences in Children’s Early Use of Narratives

Cultural Difference in Early Caregiver–Infant Interaction

Cultural Differences in Uses of Print

Teaching Strategies That Facilitate Emergent Literacy Skills

Whole-Language Versus Phonological Approaches to the Development of Literacy

Teaching Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Developing Sight Word Vocabulary


Chapter 10: Teaming: Collaboration, Problem Solving, and Consultation

Collaboration, Problem Solving, and Shared Decision Making

Communication Strategies: The Key to Successful Teaming

Problem Solving and Conflict Resolution

Dealing with Conflict: Perspective Taking and the Process of Conflict Resolution

Problem-Solving Case Study: Paulo

Models for Supporting Children with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings

No Support

Use of One-to-One Assistant

Staff Inservice Models

Itinerant Consultation Model of Inclusion Support

Responsibilities of the Inclusion Support Specialist in an Itinerant Consultant Role

Unique Collaborative Challenges for Inclusion Specialists

A Note on Disability Specialists and Therapists in Itinerant Service Delivery Roles

Specific Support Strategies Provided by Itinerants

Coteaching Approaches to Inclusion Support

Coteaching Defined

Challenge of Coteaching

Components of Effective Coteaching

The IEP: The Key to Successful Inclusion

Communication and Collaboration in Coteaching Models

Problem Solving and Conflict Resolution in Coteaching Models

Administrative Issues

Stages of the Coteaching Relationship

Effective Teaming with Interdisciplinary Specialists

Working with Paraprofessionals

Who Are the Paraprofessionals?

Designing and Defining Jobs

Communicating Expectations

Discovering and Using Special Skills and Talents

Defining the Teacher’s Responsibilities to Paraprofessionals

Being an Appropriate Role Model

Allowing for Sufficient Planning Time

Providing Constructive Feedback: Coaching and Mentoring the Paraprofessional

Paraprofessionals as One-to-One Assistants

Supervision of One-to-One Assistant in Inclusive Settings

Guidelines for Use of One-to-One Assistants

Evaluating Paraprofessional Services

Using Self-Evaluations

Teacher-Initiated Evaluations of the Paraprofessional

Paraprofessional’s Evaluation of the Teacher

Preventing Paraprofessional Burnout


Appendix A: Chart of Typical Development

Appendix B: Find Your Child’s Speech and Hearing Age

Appendix C: Reflexes, Reactions, and Implications

Appendix D: Referral Signals Checklist

Appendix E: Competencies for Trainees in Early Childhood Special Education

Appendix F: Building Collaborative Relationships and Conflict Resolution: Effective Communication Strategies

Appendix G: Strategies for Helping Children with Specific Disabilities Participate in Inclusive Settings

Appendix H: Common Sequence of Training Steps Used in Milieu Approaches

Appendix I: Inclusion Support Itinerant Procedures

Appendix J: Web Sites Related to Young Children with Special Needs and Their Families

Appendix K: Periodicals Relevant to Early Childhood Special Education



Name Index

Subject Index

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