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Get amazing Photoshop-level performance from Elements using this project-based guide.
Get amazing Photoshop-level performance from Elements using this project-based guide.
Most professional photographers capture images in the Raw format rather than the JPEG format. The Raw format offers greater flexibility in achieving different visual outcomes while ensuring a high-quality finished result. The JPEG file format can offer great quality so long as only minor editing is required after the image has been captured. A JPEG captured in-camera should be considered as a print-ready file while a Camera Raw file is unprocessed data that can be edited extensively in Photoshop Elements. Most professional photographers have switched from JPEG capture to using the Camera Raw format for the following reasons:
1. Extended dynamic range (great for combating the photographer's worst enemy – subjects where the lighting contrast is high).
2. Higher bit depth: having access to 12, 14 or even 16 bits per channel instead of 8 results in higher quality if you have to 'fix' the image after capture.
3. Flexible editing (why worry about the correct camera settings before you shoot when you can set them after?). The processing that is normally done by the camera (white balance, saturation, sharpening, etc.) can be carried out in Photoshop Elements after you have returned from your shoot.
Editing JPEGs in Adobe Camera Raw
For photographers who are choosing to work with JPEG images rather than using Raw images, the Adobe Camera Raw (ACR) space still offers an advantage over the main editing space of Photoshop Elements for quick and easy editing. Adobe Camera Raw can be considered as the 'Quick Fix' space for professionals and keen amateur photographers alike. You can open JPEG images in ACR from the Edit space of Photoshop Elements to take advantage of the powerful tools in this editing space. Just go to File > Open As (Windows) or File > Open (Mac). Browse to the JPEG you want to open and then in the Open As menu choose the Camera Raw option. When the JPEG opens in Camera Raw you can utilize simple controls to optimize and enhance the color and tonality of your images. It is important to remember, however, that JPEGs are saved by the camera at a lower 'bit depth' to Raw images so they are less able to withstand extreme adjustments before the quality becomes compromised. JPEG files also offer the photographer less chance of being able to recover highlights that were slightly overexposed in-camera.
Adobe Camera Raw – A non-destructive workspace
Adobe Camera Raw is a completely non-destructive workspace. Any changes that you make to your image in ACR can be completely undone, allowing the file you are working on to be returned to its original state (as recorded by the camera). Even if you crop your image in ACR, the pixels are never discarded – just temporarily hidden from view. Photoshop Elements simply records any change made in ACR as a list of processing instructions (XMP metadata) that is used to modify the preview. Every time a Raw image is displayed in ACR these processing instructions are applied to the image. Changes can only be permanently made to the actual pixels of the image file if the images are saved from the main editing space or processed (File > Process Multiple Files). When the user clicks 'Done' in the main editing space, Photoshop Elements will remember the changes you have made to the image. The changes are stored in a 'central cache' or memory bank that is, in turn, saved on your computer's hard drive. Adobe Camera Raw refers to this central cache to remember how you last processed the Raw file the next time you open it. If you want another computer running Photoshop Elements to be able to preview these changes you can hit the Save Image button in the ACR dialog and save your Raw file as a DNG file. Any changes you made in ACR will now be written directly to the file as well as the central cache.
Camera Raw defaults and image settings
You can choose to return to the Default preview (the original preview) at any time by clicking on the button in the top right-hand corner of the Basic tab in the ACR dialog and selecting Camera Raw Defaults from the drop-down menu. If you choose Image Settings in this menu the preview will revert to the version that started the current editing session. This will include any changes you made to the image the last time the Raw file was opened in ACR.
Done, Cancel or Open Image
Choosing Done in the bottom right-hand corner of the ACR dialog will save any changes you have made to either the file (JPEGs and DNGs) or an .xmp file (Propriety Raw file) and close or 'dismiss' the ACR dialog. If you choose Cancel the ACR space will close without modifying the previews, while choosing Open Image will open the selected image or images, with all of the changes you made in ACR, into the Edit space of Photoshop Elements. In addition to opening the image in the Edit space, this action also saves the ACR processing instructions to the central cache, so that the next time you open one of these images in ACR it looks just like it did when you clicked the Open Image button. Opening images into the Full Edit space will allow you to access all of the familiar features of the Edit workspace to continue the editing process.
Thumbnails and previews of DNG files when not using Photoshop Elements
When using Photoshop Elements Organizer (Windows) or Bridge (Mac) you will probably not be surprised to find that you can see thumbnails and previews of all of your DNG Raw files before you open them in Photoshop Elements. If, however, you are using the Windows or Macintosh operating systems you may not see any thumbnail views or previews for these Raw files. Windows Vista users can download and install a 'DNG Codec' from the Adobe Labs website (labs.adobe.com) if they wish to view thumbnails when using the computer operating system to navigate and choose images instead of their Adobe software. Macintosh users are advised to keep their Preview and iPhoto Applications up to date if they are experiencing any problems viewing thumbnails and previews. Users of Windows XP will need to install the Microsoft RAW Image Thumbnailer and Viewer before they can view Raw images outside of the Adobe Photoshop Elements software.
A fast and efficient workspace for editing multiple Raw files
It is possible to open multiple images into the ACR dialog at the same time (just shift-click a range of Raw images in the Organizer workspace and choose 'Edit with Photoshop Elements Editor' or Open As > Camera Raw as outlined on page 4). If your computer's operating system does not recognize the Raw file format then drag the images on to the Photoshop Elements shortcut.
Note > Opening multiple images in ACR is less draining on your computer's working memory than opening the same number of images in the Edit workspace. Your computer just has to deal with the pixels that are on the screen rather than multiple megapixels of the files.
Managing your screen real-estate
Thumbnails of all the open files are displayed on the left side of the dialog – just click one of the thumbnails to display a large preview of the image. This column of thumbnails can be temporarily hidden from view by dragging the central divider to the left to increase the working area in the middle of the dialog. In the top-right corner of the dialog you can see a histogram that relates to the color and tone of the image you are viewing. This histogram is like the one you can access on the LCD screen of most good-quality cameras. This histogram has useful information about the color and tonality of your image. The beauty of the ACR space is that this is by far and away the best place to optimize the histogram to make each and every photograph you edit appear at its absolute best so that the world recognizes you for the wonderful photographer that you are. Click on the tiny icon just to the left of this histogram so that the ACR dialog goes full-screen. Professional photographers spend a lot of time in this dialog so make the most of this feature and give yourself some elbow room!
Checking exposure in Adobe Camera Raw
Above the histogram there are two triangles. These are the Shadow and Highlight clipping warning controls. The term 'clipping' is used by Adobe when the pixels in the red, green or blue channels, the three channels that make up an RGB image, are registering either level 0 or level 255 in one or more of the three channels. When there are pixels in the image that are registering level 0 in all three channels then the pixels in the image preview will appear as absolute black and the Shadow clipping warning triangle (the one on the left) will turn white. When there are pixels in the image that are registering level 255 in all three channels then the pixels in the image preview will appear as absolute white. The Highlight clipping warning triangle on the right will again appear white when this happens. When a shadow or highlight in the image is made up of pixels that are all level 0 or 255 then the surfaces will not have any detail. Shadows or highlights that do not have any surface texture or detail are referred to as being 'clipped' and this is usually regarded as a flaw by photographers, whose goal is generally to preserve as much detail as possible. Clipping may occur due to overexposure or underexposure in-camera or due to excessive contrast in the scene that was photographed. It is not uncommon for wedding photographers, for instance, to experience problems of clipping when photographing the bride and groom in sunny locations. They may review their images only to find that neither the bride's white dress nor the groom's dark suit has any detail. I often refer to level 0 and level 255 as the goal posts between which photographers must aim to squeeze all of their tonal information.
Activating the clipping warning in the image preview
If staring at the color of tiny triangles does not give you a lot of feedback about what is actually happening with the shadows and highlights within your image then try clicking the clipping warning triangles. Notice how the shadows or highlights in your image preview that are clipped are replaced with the color blue (for clipped shadows) or red (for clipped highlights). Click on either triangle to leave the warning on so that you can move your mouse cursor away and still retain warnings within the preview image.
1. Adjusting exposure in Adobe Camera Raw
In the Basic tabbed panel (below the histogram) is an Exposure slider. This slider can be used to control the brightest pixels in the image file. Moving the slider to the left will lower the exposure and quite often pixels in the image that were shown to be clipping can be brought back behind the 255 goal post so that the highlight tones are now filled with tone and texture. Notice in the image above how with a one stop (-1.00) lowering of exposure the fuel tank on the motorcycle is no longer clipped and the clipping warning triangle turns black. The highlights have effectively been restored to this image. This is usually only possible with files that were captured using the Raw file format or processed as a JPEG in-camera using a dynamic range optimizer setting if available. It may not always be possible to save overexposed highlights but Raw shooters may have one or two extra stops of highlight headroom compared to JPEG shooters. The image is now a little dark due to the one stop exposure adjustment but this can be fixed later using the Brightness slider.
Auto and Default
Click on the underlined blue Default option directly above the Exposure slider to return all the adjustments in the Basic tabbed panel back to their default settings or double-click on the slider control to return this single Exposure slider back to its default setting of 0.0. If you click on the Auto setting for the image above you will see that ACR tries to recover some (but not all) of the overexposed highlights using the Recovery slider instead (the one below the Exposure slider). We will look at this alternative approach to recovering highlight detail later in this project.
Set the white point using the Exposure slider
Use the Exposure slider in ACR as a White Point slider. If you are used to using Levels in the main editing space of Photoshop Elements then this slider can be likened to the one under the extreme right-hand side of the histogram. It is used to ensure the brightest pixels in the image are touching, but not pushed beyond, the level 255 goal post.
Set the black point using the Blacks and/or fill Light slider
We can restore the shadow detail in this image using the Fill Light and Blacks sliders (below the Exposure and Recovery sliders). Technically it is the Blacks slider that controls the black point in the image. We could drag this left so that the darkest tones do not clip to black. This approach, however, often leads to blacks with detail but that appear weak and without depth. If you move the Fill Light slider to the right to recover the shadow detail, instead of moving the Blacks slider to the left, the shadows will usually appear to have a lot more depth.
Note > You will notice that no matter how far you move the Fill Light slider to the right you will never be able to make the Shadow clipping warning triangle turn black. The clipping warning will remain blue from the time the slider is moved beyond +20, indicating that the blue channel will remain clipped no matter how far the slider is moved. You will, however, notice that there is no blue clipping warning in the preview image itself. The blue channel is not being clipped because of how dark the shadow tones are but because of how saturated or vibrant some of the leaves are in the background behind the motorcycle.
Excerpted from Adobe Photoshop Elements 10: Maximum Performance by Mark Galer Abhijit Chattaraj Copyright © 2012 by Mark Galer and Abhijit Chattaraj. Excerpted by permission of Focal Press. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.
Part 1: Optimize: Adobe Camera Raw; Basic Retouching; Working Spaces; Gradients & Vignettes; Curves; Black & White; Sharpening; 16 Bits/Channel
Part 2: Enhance: Depth of Field; High Key; Borders; Tilt Shift Effect; Cross Process; High Impact; Glamor Portrait; Tonal Mapping; Faux Holga
Part 3: Composites: Creative Montage; Replacing a Sky; Decisive Moments; Faux Renaissance; Layer Blending; Need for Speed; Preserving Shadows; Displacement; Photomerge; Hair Transplant
Jargon Buster; Shortcuts; Index
Three free videos on companion website plus additional support videos and project images available for sale directly from author Mark Galer.
Mark Galer - in conversation
Author of the best selling Photoshop Essential Skills and Adobe Photoshop Elements Maximum Performance titles talks about his passion for editing digital images.
The famous photographer Ansel Adams was once quoted as saying that if the negative was the music score, then his work in the darkroom was his performance. My own post-production skills were also learned in the darkroom during my own undergraduate studies and I have always considered that post-production is an essential aspect of the holistic process of creating an image. I teach my students that the camera does NOT faithfully record a scene - the camera merely interprets it. Photoshop, however, is capable of rendering an image to appear how we first saw and experienced the scene. Photoshop is capable of restoring the emotional reality as well as altering reality.
As well as optimizing and enhancing images I have also been interested in creating images that explore altered realities. I drew early inspiration from surrealist painters and the British design group Hypnosis who created album cover art in the 70s and 80s. The composites that have featured on all five versions of my Photoshop Essential Skills book were inspired by the artwork from this period. I started creating composites 10 years before Photoshop was released but this type of cut & paste work, utilizing multiple prints, scalpels and copy stands, was an extremely time-consuming process. Photoshop now makes these altered realities easier that ever before and has transformed commercial photography, where compositing is now the 'norm', rather than the exception. I now live, eat and breathe Photoshop, and as a leading international 'Photoshop Guru' my skills are now recognized as some of the best in the world. I suppose I feel lucky that I have been engaged in Photoshop's long development over the last 20 years, and as a result, I have never seen it as a daunting or complex experience to edit an image. My task as a Photoshop teacher is to provide others with the skills so that they can master their craft. My Photoshop books help in this task, by providing an independent learning package for photographers who want to empower their own creativity and take control of the best post-production software currently available.
Most of the time I have previsualized the outcome before I start editing an image, so the end point for the editing procedure is dictated by how quickly I can achieve this goal. As I know how to drive the software (I am a self confessed control freak) this usually happens in a matter of minutes rather than hours. Occasionally I may find myself working on an image where I do not have a final outcome in mind - I can see something I like in the original but something needs to happen to elevate it to a folio image. On these occasions I will edit the colour and tonality in Adobe Camera Raw (as this editing space is built for speed). I often see students nudging sliders slowly, waiting for some magic to happen, but I would advocate big and bold sweeps with the controls so you can find the visual breaking point that each slider can inflict upon an image before winding back to the most appropriate setting. As I work with a smart object workflow (where the Raw files are embedded in layers) there is no absolute ending to the edit process. As ACR (Adobe Camera Raw) gets better and better over the coming years I will find myself re-editing a file to access superior demosaicing, sharpening or noise reduction.
My favorite subject
My personal work is now dominated by landscapes. This has not always been the case but now I find shooting landscapes at dawn gives me the most reward. I enjoy planning the best vantage point, at the best time-of-day and I have taken to using mobile apps such as the Photographer's Ephemeris (http://photoephemeris.com/) to help me plan the perfect shoot. Prior to landscapes it was editorial stories that incorporated events or people as the main focus for the story. My final assignment at college was to document the last working coal mine in the Rhondda valley in South Wales and my most in-depth editorial story to date was to document my own 2-year 'round-the-world' charity trip on a motorcycle in the late 1980s (about 20 years before Ewan McGregor's 'long-way-round'). The subjects that are intriguing me most, at the current moment in time, are time-lapse, compositing video and HDR photography (High Dynamic Range). The advent of video on DSLR cameras and portable tablet devices such the iPad has shaken the industry vigorously and I always like to be engaged in change rather than stand back and watch it happen. I am also obsessed with building the best automated actions and making them available on my website http://markgaler.com
Most powerful editing feature in Photoshop
My favorite shortcut would have to be the 'Stamp Visible' shortcut (probably because Adobe has never officially documented it). For a Mac it is Command + Option + Shift + E and for a PC it is Ctrl + Alt + Shift + E. Next to this shortcut it would have to be the shortcuts for changing the blend mode of a layer. As a 'know-it-all' user I don't have to cycle through the layer blend modes looking for the one that might work I can just hit the shortcut for the blend mode that takes me straight through to the mathematical answer that resolves a visual problem or task in hand. I have found the Layer blend modes to be the most under-utilized editing feature for inexperienced users. I find them so useful I devoted a whole chapter to them in my Photoshop Essential Skills book and they are a dominant feature of the Maximum Performance projects for Photoshop Elements users. The essential blend modes are invaluable time savers.
The most powerful new features to arrive in Photoshop in recent years are Adobe Camera Raw 6 for its enhanced noise reduction, creating a post-crop vignette and sharpening controls, Merge to HDR pro (especially its de-ghosting feature) and the new Refine Edge feature in CS5 that makes hair extraction really fast. For Photoshop Elements users who do not have access to some of these features (elements) I explore alternative, and sometimes unique, workflows that allow sophisticated composites and image enhancements. I have to admit to enjoying the challenge of writing a Photoshop Elements book that is aims to show users how to engage in professional quality editing with a piece of software that has a few features (elements) missing. The workflows I create circumnavigate the shortcomings of the Elements concept (budget software with a couple of editing features short of a six-pack!).
My best tip for a Photoshop user wanting to progress to the next level
If you are a photographer and you are looking to become a master of your craft then take a look at either one of my Photoshop Essential Skills or Adobe Photoshop Maximum Performance books. They have been training the best post-production artists for over a decade and have become the textbooks of choice by many colleges around the world. Each title is supported by a comprehensive resource of learning assets (images and videos). With so many tutorial videos (12 hours for CS5 and 10 hours for Elements 10) they are more of a short course or training package rather than just a simple book.