Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach / Edition 5

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Overview

Helps students understand how culture impacts development in adolescence and emerging adulthood.

Grounded in a global cultural perspective (within and outside of the US), this text enriches the discussion with historical context and an interdisciplinary approach, including studies from fields such as anthropology and sociology, in addition to the compelling psychological research on adolescent development. This book also takes into account the period of “emerging adulthood” (ages 18-25), a term coined by the author, and an area of study for which Arnett is a leading expert.

Arnett continues the fifth edition with new and updated studies, both U.S. and international. With Pearson’s MyDevelopmentLab Video Series and Powerpoints embedded with video, students can experience a true cross-cultural experience.

A better teaching and learning experience

This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience— for you and your students. Here’s how:

  • Personalize Learning – The new MyDevelopmentLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals.
  • Improve Critical Thinking - Students learn to think critically about the influence of culture on development with pedagogical features such as Culture Focus boxes and Historical Focus boxes.
  • Engage Students – Arnett engages students with cross cultural research and examples throughout. MyVirtualTeen, an interactive simulation, allows students to apply the concepts they are learning to their own "virtual teen."
  • Explore Research – “Research Focus” provides students with a firm grasp of various research methods and helps them see the impact that methods can have on research findings.
  • Support Instructors – This program provides instructors with unbeatable resources, including video embedded PowerPoints and the new MyDevelopmentLab that includes cross-cultural videos and MyVirtualTeen, an interactive simulation that allows you to raise a child from birth to age 18. An easy to use Instructor’s Manual, a robust test bank, and an online test generator (MyTest) are also available. All of these materials may be packaged with the text upon request.

Note: MyDevelopmentLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MyDevelopmentLab, please visit: www.mydevelopmentlab.com or you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MyDevelopmentlab (at no additional cost): ValuePack ISBN-10: 0205911854/ ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205911851.

Click here for a short walkthrough video on MyVirtualTeen! http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL51B144F17A36FF25&feature=plcp

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

“There is a lot of information that gives breadth and depth to the content. In addition, the focus on cultural diversity far exceeds any other text on adolescent development.”

- Rob Weisskirch, California State University- Monterey Bay

“The greatest strength of this text is the focus on varying cultural lenses and the use of updated research studies and frameworks to help guide students in understanding multiple perspectives of adolescent development.”

- William Jared DuPree, University of Houston Clear Lake

“The cross-cultural emphasis is essential! It's the reason I chose the book over others at first. Emerging adulthood is really essential.”

- Mary Vandendorpe, Lewis University

“The way that the material is presented really resonates with the students and they really review it well at the end of the semester. This is a wonderful text for college students”

- Paige Curran, Emmanuel College

It is the best book out there for cultural issues. It is engaging, well-written and my students like it.”

- Janet Gebelt, Westfield State University

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205892495
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 8/28/2012
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 580
  • Sales rank: 43,057
  • Product dimensions: 8.90 (w) x 10.70 (h) x 0.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Jeffrey Jensen Arnett is Research Associate Professor at the University of Maryland. He has also taught at the University of Virginia, Oglethorpe University, and the University of Missouri. He was educated at Michigan State University (undergraduate), the University of Virginia (graduate school), and the University of Chicago (postdoctoral studies). His research interests are in risk behavior in adolescence (especially cigarette smoking), media use in adolescence (especially music), and a wide range of topics in emerging adulthood. He is editor of the Journal of Adolescent Research and the Routledge International Encyclopedia of Adolescence. In addition, he is on the editorial boards of Identity, Journal of Youth & Adolescence, and Youth & Society. His book Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from the Late Teens Through the Twenties was recently published by Oxford University Press. He lives in University Park, Maryland, with his wife Lene Jensen and their three-year-old twins, Paris and Miles.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

Adolescence is a fascinating time of life, and for most instructors it is an enjoyable topic to teach. For many students taking the course, it is the time of life they have just completed or are now passing through. Learning about development during this period is a journey of self-discovery for them, in part. Students who are many years beyond this period often enjoy reflecting back on who they were then, and they come away with a new understanding of their past and present selves. What students learn from a course on adolescence often confirms their own intuitions and experiences, and sometimes contradicts or expands what they thought they knew. When it works well, a course on adolescence can change not only how students understand themselves, but also how they understand others and how they think about the world around them. For instructors, the possibility the course offers for students' growth of understanding is often stimulating. My goal in writing this textbook has been to assist instructors and students in making illuminating connections of understanding on this dynamic and complex age period.

This is a first edition textbook so it may be useful to outline the features that distinguish it from existing textbooks. I wrote this book with the intention of presenting a fresh conception of the field of adolescence—a conception reflecting what I believe to be the most promising and exciting new currents. There are four essential features of the conception that guided this book: (1) a focus on the cultural basis of development; (2) an extension of the age period covered to include "emerging adulthood" (roughly ages 18 to 25),as well as adolescence; (3) an emphasis on historical context; and (4) an interdisciplinary approach to theories and research.

The Cultural Approach

In teaching courses on adolescence, from large lecture classes to small seminars, I have always brought a considerable amount of research from other cultures into the classroom. My education as a postdoctoral student at the Committee on Human Development at the University of Chicago included a substantial focus on anthropology. Learning to take a cultural approach to development greatly expanded and deepened my own understanding of adolescence, and I have seen the cultural approach work this way for my students as well. Through an awareness of the diversity of cultural practices, customs, and beliefs about adolescence, we expand our knowledge of the range of developmental possibilities. We also gain a greater understanding of adolescent development in our own culture by learning to see it as only one of many possible paths.

Taking a cultural approach to development means infusing discussion of every aspect of development with a cultural perspective. I present the essentials of the cultural approach in the first chapter, and it serves as a theme throughout the book. Each chapter also includes a Cultural Focus box in which an aspect of development in a specific culture is explored indepth—for example, adolescents' family relationships in India, Germany's apprenticeship program, and media use among young people in Nepal.

My hope is that students will learn not only that adolescent development can be different depending on the culture, but also how to think culturally—that is, how to analyze all aspects of adolescent development for their cultural basis. This includes learning how to critique research for the extent to which it does or does not take the cultural basis of development into account. I provide this kind of critique at numerous points throughout the book.

Emerging Adulthood

Not only is adolescence an inherently fascinating period of life, but we are also currently in an especially interesting historical moment with respect to this period. One distinguishing feature of adolescence in our time is that it begins far earlier than it did a century ago, because puberty begins for most people in industrialized countries at a much younger age. Yet, if we measure the end of adolescence in terms of taking on adult roles such as marriage, parenthood, and stable full-time work, then adolescence also ends much later than it has in the past because many people postpone these transitions until at least the mid-twenties. My own research over the past few years has focused on development among young Americans from their late teens through their mid-twenties, including Asian Americans, African Americans, Latinos, and Whites. I have concluded on the basis of this research that this period is neither adolescence nor adulthood, nor even "young adulthood." In my view, the transition to adulthood has become so prolonged that it constitutes a separate period of the life course in industrialized societies lasting about as long as adolescence.

Thus, a second distinguishing feature of the conception guiding this textbook is that the age period covered includes not only adolescence but also "emerging adulthood"—the period extending from the late teens through the mid-twenties. In a recent paper in American Psychologist (Arnett, 2000a), I presented a theory of emerging adulthood, conceptualizing it as a period characterized by instability and by exploration of possible life directions in love, work, and worldviews. I describe this theory in some detail in the first chapter of this book, and use it as the framework for discussing emerging adulthood in the chapters that follow. Since there is not nearly as much research on emerging adulthood as there is on adolescence, the balance of material in each chapter tilts quite strongly toward adolescence. However, each chapter contains material that pertains to emerging adulthood.

The Historical Context

Given the differences between adolescence now and adolescence in the past, knowledge of the historical context of development is crucial to a complete understanding of adolescent development. Students will have a richer understanding of adolescent development if they are able to contrast the lives of young people in the present with the lives of young people in other times. Toward this end, I provide historical material in each chapter. Each chapter also contains a Historical Focus box that focuses on young people's development during a specific historical period—for example, adolescents' family lives during the Great Depression, the "Roaring Twenties" and the rise of youth culture, and work among British adolescents in the 19th century.

The emphasis on the historical context of development is especially important now with the accelerating pace of cultural change that has taken place around the world in recent decades due to the influence of globalization. In economically developing countries, the pace of change in recent decades has been especially dramatic, and young people often find themselves growing up in a culture that is much different than the one their parents experienced in their own adolescence. Globalization is a pervasive influence on the lives of young people today, in ways both promising and troubling, and for this reason I have made it one of the unifying themes of the book.

An Interdisciplinary Approach

The cultural approach and the emphasis on historical context are related to a fourth distinguishing feature of the conception offered in this book—the interdisciplinary approach to theories and research. Psychology and education are naturally represented abundantly because these are the disciplines where the most research on adolescent development takes place. However, I also integrate materials from a wide range of other fields. Much of the theory and research that is the basis for a cultural understanding of adolescence comes from anthropology, so anthropological studies are strongly represented. Students often find this material fascinating because it effectively challenges their assumptions about what they expect adolescence to be like. Interesting and important cultural material on adolescence also comes from sociology, especially with respect to European and Asian societies, and these studies find a place here. History is notably represented for providing the historical perspective discussed above. Other disciplines drawn from include psychiatry, medicine, and family studies.

The integration of materials across disciplines means drawing on a variety of research methods. The reader will find many different research methods represented here from questionnaires and interviews to ethnographic research and biological measurements. Each chapter contains a Research Focus box, in which the methods used in a specific study are described in detail.

Chapter Topics

My goal of presenting a fresh conception of young people's development has resulted in chapters on topics not represented as strongly in most other textbooks. Most textbooks include a discussion of moral development, but this textbook has a chapter on cultural beliefs (Chapter 4), including moral development, religious beliefs, political beliefs, and a discussion of individualistic and collectivistic beliefs in various cultures. This chapter provides a strong basis for a cultural understanding of adolescent development, because it emphasizes how the judgments we make about how adolescents should think and act are almost always rooted in cultural beliefs.

While most textbooks also include a discussion of gender issues at various points, and some include a separate chapter on gender, this textbook includes a chapter on gender (Chapter 5) that focuses on cultural variations and historical changes in gender roles, in addition to discussions of gender issues throughout .the book. Gender is a key defining guideline for life in every culture, and the vivid examples of gender roles and expectations in non-Western cultures should help students become more aware of how gender acts as a defining guideline for young people's development in their own culture as well.

This textbook also has an entire chapter on work (Chapter 11) , which is central to the lives of adolescents in developing countries because a high proportion of them are not in school. In industrialized societies, the transition from school to work is an important part of emerging adulthood, and this transition receives special attention in this chapter. An entire chapter on media is included (Chapter 12) with sections on computer games and the Internet. In most societies today, media are a prominent part of young people's lives, but this is a topic that receives surprisingly little attention in most textbooks. Finally, this textbook closes with a chapter on adolescence and emerging adulthood in the 21st century, in which the futures awaiting young people around the world are considered. In this chapter, we take a sweeping tour of the future prospects facing young people in every part of the world, and we see once more how dramatically different the lives of young people in different cultures can be.

One chapter found in most other textbooks but not in this one is a chapter on theories. In my view, having a separate chapter on theories gives students a misleading impression of the purpose and function of theories in the scientific enterprise. Theories and research are intrinsically related, with good theories inspiring research and good research leading to changes and innovations in theories. Presenting theories separately turns theory chapters into a kind of "Theory Museum," separate and sealed off from research. Instead, I present theoretical material throughout the book, always in relation to the research the theory has been based on and has inspired.

Each chapter contains a number of critical thinking questions under the heading Thinking Critically. Critical thinking has become a popular term in academic circles and it has been subject to a variety of definitions, so I should explain how I used the term here. The purpose of the critical thinking questions was to inspire students to a higher level of analysis and reflection about the ideas and information in the chapters—higher, that is, than they would be likely to achieve simply by reading the chapter. With the critical thinking questions I sought to encourage students to connect ideas across chapters, to consider hypothetical questions, and to apply the chapter materials to their own lives. Often, the questions have no "right answer." Although they are mainly intended to assist students in attaining a high level of thinking as they read, they may also serve as lively material for class discussion.

Supplements to the Textbook

The supplements for this textbook have been prepared by Dr. Kimberly Schonert-Reichl and her graduate students in the Department of Education at the University of British Columbia. Kim is a respected scholar on adolescence who had years of experience as a high school teacher before becoming a professor, and she has made fruitful use of her skills as both a scholar and a teacher in preparing the Instructor's Resource Manual. I have worked with her in choosing the topics for the Manual so that it would complement the textbook.

The Instructor's Resource Manual with Tests and Web site (www.prenhall.com/arnett) was prepared carefully and thoroughly by Kimberly Schonert-Reichl, Helen Novak, and Sandra Jarvis Selinger under Kim's direction, and special care has been taken to ensure that the items are clear and accurate.

I have also prepared a book of readings to accompany this textbook entitled Readings in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood. The sections in the book of readings parallel the chapters in the textbook so that the two books complement each other. My selections for the book of readings followed a concept similar to the textbook. Consequently, the readings incorporate studies from a variety of cultures, on emerging adulthood as well as adolescence, and draw from a variety of disciplines. Instructors may wish to use the book of readings to supplement the textbook, especially for upper-level undergraduate courses.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Biological Foundations

Chapter 3 Cognitive Foundations

Chapter 4 Cultural Beliefs

Chapter 5 Gender

Chapter 6 The Self

Chapter 7 Family Relationships

Chapter 8 Friends and Peers

Chapter 9 Love and Sexuality

Chapter 10 School

Chapter 11 Work

Chapter 12 Media

Chapter 13 Problems and Resilience

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Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

Adolescence is a fascinating time of life, and for most instructors it is an enjoyable topic to teach. For many students taking the course, it is the time of life they have just completed or are now passing through. Learning about development during this period is a journey of self-discovery for them, in part. Students who are many years beyond this period often enjoy reflecting back on who they were then, and they come away with a new understanding of their past and present selves. What students learn from a course on adolescence often confirms their own intuitions and experiences, and sometimes contradicts or expands what they thought they knew. When it works well, a course on adolescence can change not only how students understand themselves, but also how they understand others and how they think about the world around them. For instructors, the possibility the course offers for students' growth of understanding is often stimulating. My goal in writing this textbook has been to assist instructors and students in making illuminating connections of understanding on this dynamic and complex age period.

This is a first edition textbook so it may be useful to outline the features that distinguish it from existing textbooks. I wrote this book with the intention of presenting a fresh conception of the field of adolescence—a conception reflecting what I believe to be the most promising and exciting new currents. There are four essential features of the conception that guided this book: (1) a focus on the cultural basis of development; (2) an extension of the age period covered to include "emerging adulthood" (roughly ages 18 to25),as well as adolescence; (3) an emphasis on historical context; and (4) an interdisciplinary approach to theories and research.

The Cultural Approach

In teaching courses on adolescence, from large lecture classes to small seminars, I have always brought a considerable amount of research from other cultures into the classroom. My education as a postdoctoral student at the Committee on Human Development at the University of Chicago included a substantial focus on anthropology. Learning to take a cultural approach to development greatly expanded and deepened my own understanding of adolescence, and I have seen the cultural approach work this way for my students as well. Through an awareness of the diversity of cultural practices, customs, and beliefs about adolescence, we expand our knowledge of the range of developmental possibilities. We also gain a greater understanding of adolescent development in our own culture by learning to see it as only one of many possible paths.

Taking a cultural approach to development means infusing discussion of every aspect of development with a cultural perspective. I present the essentials of the cultural approach in the first chapter, and it serves as a theme throughout the book. Each chapter also includes a Cultural Focus box in which an aspect of development in a specific culture is explored indepth—for example, adolescents' family relationships in India, Germany's apprenticeship program, and media use among young people in Nepal.

My hope is that students will learn not only that adolescent development can be different depending on the culture, but also how to think culturally—that is, how to analyze all aspects of adolescent development for their cultural basis. This includes learning how to critique research for the extent to which it does or does not take the cultural basis of development into account. I provide this kind of critique at numerous points throughout the book.

Emerging Adulthood

Not only is adolescence an inherently fascinating period of life, but we are also currently in an especially interesting historical moment with respect to this period. One distinguishing feature of adolescence in our time is that it begins far earlier than it did a century ago, because puberty begins for most people in industrialized countries at a much younger age. Yet, if we measure the end of adolescence in terms of taking on adult roles such as marriage, parenthood, and stable full-time work, then adolescence also ends much later than it has in the past because many people postpone these transitions until at least the mid-twenties. My own research over the past few years has focused on development among young Americans from their late teens through their mid-twenties, including Asian Americans, African Americans, Latinos, and Whites. I have concluded on the basis of this research that this period is neither adolescence nor adulthood, nor even "young adulthood." In my view, the transition to adulthood has become so prolonged that it constitutes a separate period of the life course in industrialized societies lasting about as long as adolescence.

Thus, a second distinguishing feature of the conception guiding this textbook is that the age period covered includes not only adolescence but also "emerging adulthood"—the period extending from the late teens through the mid-twenties. In a recent paper in American Psychologist (Arnett, 2000a), I presented a theory of emerging adulthood, conceptualizing it as a period characterized by instability and by exploration of possible life directions in love, work, and worldviews. I describe this theory in some detail in the first chapter of this book, and use it as the framework for discussing emerging adulthood in the chapters that follow. Since there is not nearly as much research on emerging adulthood as there is on adolescence, the balance of material in each chapter tilts quite strongly toward adolescence. However, each chapter contains material that pertains to emerging adulthood.

The Historical Context

Given the differences between adolescence now and adolescence in the past, knowledge of the historical context of development is crucial to a complete understanding of adolescent development. Students will have a richer understanding of adolescent development if they are able to contrast the lives of young people in the present with the lives of young people in other times. Toward this end, I provide historical material in each chapter. Each chapter also contains a Historical Focus box that focuses on young people's development during a specific historical period—for example, adolescents' family lives during the Great Depression, the "Roaring Twenties" and the rise of youth culture, and work among British adolescents in the 19th century.

The emphasis on the historical context of development is especially important now with the accelerating pace of cultural change that has taken place around the world in recent decades due to the influence of globalization. In economically developing countries, the pace of change in recent decades has been especially dramatic, and young people often find themselves growing up in a culture that is much different than the one their parents experienced in their own adolescence. Globalization is a pervasive influence on the lives of young people today, in ways both promising and troubling, and for this reason I have made it one of the unifying themes of the book.

An Interdisciplinary Approach

The cultural approach and the emphasis on historical context are related to a fourth distinguishing feature of the conception offered in this book—the interdisciplinary approach to theories and research. Psychology and education are naturally represented abundantly because these are the disciplines where the most research on adolescent development takes place. However, I also integrate materials from a wide range of other fields. Much of the theory and research that is the basis for a cultural understanding of adolescence comes from anthropology, so anthropological studies are strongly represented. Students often find this material fascinating because it effectively challenges their assumptions about what they expect adolescence to be like. Interesting and important cultural material on adolescence also comes from sociology, especially with respect to European and Asian societies, and these studies find a place here. History is notably represented for providing the historical perspective discussed above. Other disciplines drawn from include psychiatry, medicine, and family studies.

The integration of materials across disciplines means drawing on a variety of research methods. The reader will find many different research methods represented here from questionnaires and interviews to ethnographic research and biological measurements. Each chapter contains a Research Focus box, in which the methods used in a specific study are described in detail.

Chapter Topics

My goal of presenting a fresh conception of young people's development has resulted in chapters on topics not represented as strongly in most other textbooks. Most textbooks include a discussion of moral development, but this textbook has a chapter on cultural beliefs (Chapter 4), including moral development, religious beliefs, political beliefs, and a discussion of individualistic and collectivistic beliefs in various cultures. This chapter provides a strong basis for a cultural understanding of adolescent development, because it emphasizes how the judgments we make about how adolescents should think and act are almost always rooted in cultural beliefs.

While most textbooks also include a discussion of gender issues at various points, and some include a separate chapter on gender, this textbook includes a chapter on gender (Chapter 5) that focuses on cultural variations and historical changes in gender roles, in addition to discussions of gender issues throughout .the book. Gender is a key defining guideline for life in every culture, and the vivid examples of gender roles and expectations in non-Western cultures should help students become more aware of how gender acts as a defining guideline for young people's development in their own culture as well.

This textbook also has an entire chapter on work (Chapter 11) , which is central to the lives of adolescents in developing countries because a high proportion of them are not in school. In industrialized societies, the transition from school to work is an important part of emerging adulthood, and this transition receives special attention in this chapter. An entire chapter on media is included (Chapter 12) with sections on computer games and the Internet. In most societies today, media are a prominent part of young people's lives, but this is a topic that receives surprisingly little attention in most textbooks. Finally, this textbook closes with a chapter on adolescence and emerging adulthood in the 21st century, in which the futures awaiting young people around the world are considered. In this chapter, we take a sweeping tour of the future prospects facing young people in every part of the world, and we see once more how dramatically different the lives of young people in different cultures can be.

One chapter found in most other textbooks but not in this one is a chapter on theories. In my view, having a separate chapter on theories gives students a misleading impression of the purpose and function of theories in the scientific enterprise. Theories and research are intrinsically related, with good theories inspiring research and good research leading to changes and innovations in theories. Presenting theories separately turns theory chapters into a kind of "Theory Museum," separate and sealed off from research. Instead, I present theoretical material throughout the book, always in relation to the research the theory has been based on and has inspired.

Each chapter contains a number of critical thinking questions under the heading Thinking Critically. Critical thinking has become a popular term in academic circles and it has been subject to a variety of definitions, so I should explain how I used the term here. The purpose of the critical thinking questions was to inspire students to a higher level of analysis and reflection about the ideas and information in the chapters—higher, that is, than they would be likely to achieve simply by reading the chapter. With the critical thinking questions I sought to encourage students to connect ideas across chapters, to consider hypothetical questions, and to apply the chapter materials to their own lives. Often, the questions have no "right answer." Although they are mainly intended to assist students in attaining a high level of thinking as they read, they may also serve as lively material for class discussion.

Supplements to the Textbook

The supplements for this textbook have been prepared by Dr. Kimberly Schonert-Reichl and her graduate students in the Department of Education at the University of British Columbia. Kim is a respected scholar on adolescence who had years of experience as a high school teacher before becoming a professor, and she has made fruitful use of her skills as both a scholar and a teacher in preparing the Instructor's Resource Manual. I have worked with her in choosing the topics for the Manual so that it would complement the textbook.

The Instructor's Resource Manual with Tests and Web site (www.prenhall.com/arnett) was prepared carefully and thoroughly by Kimberly Schonert-Reichl, Helen Novak, and Sandra Jarvis Selinger under Kim's direction, and special care has been taken to ensure that the items are clear and accurate.

I have also prepared a book of readings to accompany this textbook entitled Readings in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood. The sections in the book of readings parallel the chapters in the textbook so that the two books complement each other. My selections for the book of readings followed a concept similar to the textbook. Consequently, the readings incorporate studies from a variety of cultures, on emerging adulthood as well as adolescence, and draw from a variety of disciplines. Instructors may wish to use the book of readings to supplement the textbook, especially for upper-level undergraduate courses.

Read More Show Less

Introduction

Adolescence is a fascinating time of life, and for most instructors it is an enjoyable topic to teach. For many students taking the course, it is the time of life they have just completed or are now passing through. Learning about development during this period is for them a journey of self-discovery, in part. Students who are beyond this period often enjoy reflecting back on who they were then, and they come away with anew understanding of their past and present selves. What students learn from a course on adolescence sometimes confirms their own intuitions and experiences, and sometimes contradicts or expands what they thought they knew. When it works well, a course on adolescence can change not only how students understand themselves, but how they understand others and how they think about the world around them. For instructors, the possibility the course offers for students' growth of understanding is often stimulating. My goal in writing this textbook has been to make it a book that will assist instructors and students in making illuminating connections of understanding on this dynamic and complex age period.

I wrote this book with the intention of presenting a fresh conception of adolescence, a conception reflecting what I believe to be the most promising and exciting new currents in the field. There are four essential features of the conception that guided this book: (1) a focus on the cultural basis of development; (2) an extension of the age period covered to include "emerging adulthood" (roughly ages 18 to 25) as well as adolescence; (3) an emphasis on historical context; and (4) an interdisciplinary approach to theories and research. All of these featuresdistinguish this textbook from other textbooks on adolescence.

The Cultural Approach

In teaching courses on adolescence, from large lecture classes to small seminars, I have always brought into the classroom a considerable amount of research from other cultures. My education as a postdoctoral student at the Committee on Human Development at the University of Chicago included a substantial amount of anthropology. Learning to take a cultural approach to development greatly expanded and deepened my own understanding of adolescence, and I have seen the cultural approach work this way for my students as well. Through an awareness of the diversity of cultural practices, customs, and beliefs about adolescence, we expand our conception of the range of developmental possibilities. We also gain a greater understanding of adolescent development in our own culture, by learning to see it as only one of many possible paths.

Taking a cultural approach to development means infusing discussion of every aspect of development with a cultural perspective. I present the essentials of the cultural approach in the first chapter, and it then serves as a theme that runs through every chapter. Each chapter also includes a Cultural Focus box in which an aspect of development in a specific culture is explored in-depth—for example, adolescents' family relationships in India, Japan's high schools, and media use among young people in Nepal.

My hope is that students will learn not only that adolescent development can be different depending on the culture, but how to think culturally—that is, how to analyze all aspects of adolescent development for their cultural basis. This includes learning how to critique research for the extent to which it does or does not take the cultural basis of development into account. I provide this kind of critique at numerous points throughout the book.

Emerging Adulthood

Not only is adolescence an inherently fascinating period of life, but we are currently in an especially interesting historical moment with respect to this period. It is a distinguishing feature of adolescence in our time that it begins far earlier than it did a century ago, because puberty begins for most people in industrialized countries at a much earlier age. Yet, if we measure the end of adolescence in terms of taking on adult roles such as marriage, parenthood, and stable full-time work, adolescence also ends much later than it has in the past, because these transitions are now postponed for many people into at least the mid-twenties. My own research over the past few years has focused on development among young Americans from their late teens through their mid-twenties, including Asian Americans, African Americans, Latinos, and Whites. I have concluded, on the basis of this research, that this period is not really adolescence, but it is not really adulthood either, even "young adulthood." In my view, the transition to adulthood has become so prolonged that by now it constitutes a separate period of the life course in industrialized societies, lasting about as long as adolescence.

Thus a second distinguishing feature of the conception guiding this textbook is that the age period covered includes not only adolescence but also "emerging adulthood," extending from the late teens through the mid-twenties. In theoretical papers, research papers, and a forthcoming book, I have presented a theory of emerging adulthood, conceptualizing it the age of identity explorations, the age of instability, the selffocused, the age of feeling in-between, and the age of possibilities. I describe this theory in some detail in the first chapter, and use it as the framework for discussing emerging adulthood in the chapters that follow. There is not as much research on the age period covered by emerging adulthood as there is on adolescence, so the balance of material in each chapter is tilted quite strongly toward adolescence. However, each chapter contains material that pertains to emerging adulthood.

The Historical Context

Given the differences between adolescence now and adolescence in the past, knowledge of the historical context of development is crucial to a complete understanding of adolescent development. Students will have a richer understanding of adolescent development if they are able to contrast the lives of young people in the present with the lives of young people in other times. Toward this end, I provide historical material in each chapter. Each chapter also contains a Historical Focus box that describes some aspect of young people's development during a specific historical period—for example, adolescents' family lives during the Great Depression, the "Roaring Twenties" and the rise of youth culture, and work among British adolescents in the 19th century.

An emphasis on the historical context of development is perhaps especially important now, with the accelerating pace of cultural change that has taken place around the world in recent decades due to the influence of globalization. Especially in economically developing countries, the pace of change in recent decades has been dramatic, and young people often find themselves growing up in a culture that is much different than the one their parents grew up in. Globalization is a pervasive influence on the lives of young people today, in ways both promising and troubling, and for this reason I have made it one of the unifying themes of the book.

An Interdisciplinary Approach

The cultural approach and the emphasis on historical context are related to a fourth distinguishing feature of the conception offered in this book—the interdisciplinary approach to theories and research. Psychology and education are of course represented abundantly, because these are the disciplines in which most research on adolescent development takes place. However, I also integrate materials from a wide range of other fields. Much of the theory and research that is the basis for a cultural understanding of adolescence comes from anthropology, so anthropological studies are strongly represented. Students often find this material fascinating, because it challenges effectively their assumptions about what they expect adolescence to be like. Interesting and important cultural material on adolescence also comes from sociology, especially with respect to European and Asian societies, and these studies find a place here. The field of history is notably represented, for providing the historical perspective discussed above. Other disciplines drawn from include psychiatry, medicine, and family studies.

The integration of materials across disciplines means drawing on a variety of research methods. The reader will find many different research methods represented here, from questionnaires and interviews to ethnographic research to biological measurements. Each chapter contains a Research Focus box, in which the methods used in a specific study are described in detail.

Chapter Topics

My goal of presenting a fresh conception of young people's development has resulted in chapters on topics not as strongly represented in most other textbooks. Most textbooks have a discussion of moral development, but this textbook has a chapter on cultural beliefs, including moral development, religious beliefs, political beliefs, and a discussion of individualistic and collectivistic beliefs in various cultures. The chapter on cultural beliefs provides a good basis for a cultural understanding of adolescent development, because it emphasizes how the judgments we make about how adolescents should think and act are almost always rooted in beliefs we have learned in the course of growing up in a particular culture.

Most textbooks include a discussion of gender issues at various points, and some include a separate chapter on gender, but in this textbook there is a chapter on gender that focuses on cultural variations and historical changes in gender roles, in addition to discussions of gender issues in other chapters. Gender is a key defining guideline for life in every culture, and the vivid examples of gender roles and expectations in non-Western cultures should help students to become more aware of how gender acts as a defining guideline for young people's development in their own culture as well.

This textbook also has an entire chapter on work, which is central to the lives of adolescents in developing countries because a high proportion of them are not in school. In industrialized societies, the transition from school to work is an important part of emerging adulthood for most people, and that transition receives special attention in this chapter. An entire chapter on media is included, with sections on computer games and the Internet. Media are a prominent part of young people's lives in most societies today, but this is a topic that receives surprisingly little attention in most current textbooks. Finally, this textbook closes with a chapter on adolescence and emerging adulthood in the 21st century, in which the futures awaiting young people around the world are considered. In this chapter we take a sweeping tour of the future prospects facing young people in every part of the world, and we see once more how dramatically different the lives of young people indifferent cultures can be.

One chapter found in most other textbooks, but not in this one, is a chapter on theories. In my view, having a separate chapter on theories gives students a misleading impression of the purpose and function of theories in the scientific enterprise. Theories and research are intrinsically related, with good theories inspiring research and good research leading to changes and innovations in theories. Presenting theories separately turns theory chapters into a kind of "Theory Museum," separate and sealed off from research. Instead, I present theoretical material throughout the book, always in relation to the research the theory has been based on and has inspired.

Each chapter contains a number of critical thinking questions under the heading Thinking Critically. Critical thinking has become a popular term in academic circles and it has been subject to a variety of definitions, so I should explain how I used the term here. The purpose of the critical thinking questions is to inspire students to a higher level of analysis and reflection about the ideas and information in the chapters—higher, that is, than they would be likely to achieve simply by reading the chapter. With the critical thinking questions I seek to encourage students to connect ideas across chapters, to consider hypothetical questions, and to apply the chapter materials to their own lives. Often, the questions have no "right answer." Although they are mainly intended to assist students in attaining a high level of thinking as they read, they may also serve as lively material for class discussion or writing assignments.

Changes to the Second Edition

The considerable success of the first edition of this textbook was due primarily to three strengths, according to instructors and reviewers: (1) the cultural approach; (2) the inclusion of emerging adulthood along with adolescence; and (3) the quality of the writing. I have sought to enhance those strengths in the second edition. Research on adolescence around the world is growing, so there is even more cultural information than before. For example, in Chapter 2, on Biological Foundations, I added information on how the meaning of girls' first menstruation is viewed in China. In Chapter 3, on Cognitive Foundations, I added Vgotsky's cultural theory of cognitive development and recent research based on that theory. In Chapter 4, on Cultural Beliefs, I added theory and research on the new "worldviews" approach to moral development, which is grounded in a cultural perspective. In Chapter 10, on Schools, I added material on secondary education around the world, including tables of international comparisons in math and reading. Every chapter in the book includes new material that will enhance students' understanding of cultural similarities and differences and how the development of adolescents and emerging adults is influenced by the culture they live in.

Encouraged by the response to the material on emerging adulthood in the first edition, I have included more of it in the second edition. Exciting developments in theory and research are taking place in this area, as more and more scholars recognize its importance and turn their attention to it, and I have sought to reflect those developments in this edition. For example, in Chapter 1, the Introduction, there is new theoretical material on the essential features of emerging adulthood. In Chapter 5, on The Self, there is a new section on self-esteem in emerging adulthood. In Chapter 7, on Family Relationships, the section on relationships with parents in emerging adulthood has been expanded to include new material on how these relationships change when emerging adults return home to live. Every chapter includes the latest, most up-to-date theory and research related to emerging adulthood.

As for the writing style, I have continued to strive to make the book not only highly informative but also lively and fun to read. The best textbooks achieve both these goals.

In addition to enhancing the aspects of the book that were so favorably received in the first edition, I have made numerous minor changes to each chapter. Some of these changes have been part of updating each chapter so that it incorporates the most recent and important theory and research. Other changes have been in response to comments and suggestions made by instructors who reviewed the first edition. Still other changes were made on my own initiative, as I read the chapters before embarking on the second edition and made judgments about what should be added, changed, or deleted.

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