The Adolescent: Development, Relationships, and Culture / Edition 12

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The Adolescent: Development, Relationships, and Culture offers an eclectic, interdisciplinary approach to the study of adolescence, presenting both psychological and sociological viewpoints as well as educational, demographic, and economic data. This text discusses not just one theory on the subject, but many, and outlines the contributions, strengths, and weaknesses of each. The authors also take into consideration current and important topics such as ethnic identity formation, gender issues, the Internet, and the effects of single-parent families. The twelfth edition offers a vibrant treatment of the adolescent that offers current scholarship, as well as an understanding of what it means to be an adolescent today.

New To This Edition!

  • New full-color design adds visual interest and better complements the current and engaging content.
  • Expanded epilogue contains coverage of emerging adulthood, a recently defined stage of life that often follows adolescence in modern 21st century society.
  • More than 750 new references keep students abreast of the most contemporary research and topics in the field, such as sleep deprivation in adolescence and the down-turn in adolescent pregnancy.
  • Thought Questions are now divided into three categories: Personal Reflection, Group Discussion, and Debate Questions.
  • Expanded coverage of cross-cultural issues throughout provides a richer and deeper understanding of adolescence across different cultural groups.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205530748
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
  • Publication date: 6/4/2007
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 12
  • Pages: 544
  • Product dimensions: 8.42 (w) x 10.72 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Table of Contents


Features xi

Preface xiii

Part One Adolescence

Chapter 1 Adolescents in Social Context 1

Approaches to Studying Adolescence 3

The Changing Face of American Adolescence 4

Our Society in Revolution 4

The Prolongation of Adolescence 7

The Revolution in Information Technology 7

The Internet 7

Potential Hazards of Internet Use 8

The Revolution in the Workplace 9

Multiple Jobholders and Overtime Work 9

Working Women 10

Adolescent Employment 10

Advertising and Consumption 11

The Education Revolution 11

Educational Attainment 11

Embracing the New Technology 11

Innovations in Career Education 12

The Family Revolution 12

Changes in Marriage and Parenthood 12

Changes in Family Dynamics 14

The Sexual Revolution 16

Positive Effects of the Sexual Revolution 16

Negative Effects of the Sexual Revolution 16

The Violence Revolution 17

Violent Crime 18

Violence in Society 18

Violence in the Home 19

Violent Deaths 19

A Caveat to Understanding Adolescence 19

Chapter 2 Adolescents in Theoretical Context 24

Biological Views of Adolescence 26

G. Stanley Hall: Sturm und Drang 26

Arnold Gesell: Spiral Growth Patterns 27

Psychoanalytical and Psychosocial Views of Adolescence 27

Sigmund Freud: Individuation 27

Anna Freud: Defense Mechanisms 29

Erik Erikson: Ego Identity 30

Cognitive Views of Adolescence 32

Jean Piaget: Adaptation and Equilibrium 32

Robert Selman: Social Cognition 34

Lev Vygotsky: Social Influences on Cognition 36

Social-Cognitive Learning View of Adolescence 37

Albert Bandura: Social Learning Theory 37

Social-Cognitive Theory 38

The Impact of Culture on Adolescents 38

Robert Havighurst: Developmental Tasks 38

Kurt Lewin: Field Theory 40

Urie Bronfenbrenner: An Ecological Model 41

Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict: Anthropological Views 42

Chapter 3 Adolescent Diversity: Socioeconomic Status and Ethnicity 48

Adolescents of Low Socioeconomic Status 50

Limitations of Low Socioeconomic Status 51

Cycle of Poverty and Deprivation 51

Minority Adolescents 55

African American Adolescents 56

Latino Adolescents 60

Native American Adolescents 64

Asian-American Adolescents 67

Immigrants and Refugees 68

Southeast Asian Refugee Experience 69


Chapter 4 Body Issues: Sexual Maturation and Physical Growth 74

Biochemical Basis of Puberty 76

The Hypothalamus 76

The Pituitary Gland 76

The Gonads 77

The Adrenal Glands 78

Sex Hormone Regulation in Males 78

Sex Hormone Regulation in Females 78

Maturation and Functions of Male Sex Organs 79

Spermatogenesis 80

The Developing Penis 80

The Cowper’s Glands 81

Nocturnal Emissions 82

Maturation and Functions of Female Sex Organs 82

The Developing Vagina 82

Changes in the Vulva and Uterus 82

Ovarian Changes 82

Menarche and the Menstrual Cycle 82

Menstrual Concerns 86

Development of Secondary Sexual Characteristics 87

Males 88

Females 88

Results of Sexual Maturation 90

Growth in Height and Weight 90

Growth Trends 91

Determinants of Height 91

Other Physical Changes 91

Chapter 5 Body Issues: Health-Related Behaviors and Attitudes 94

Health Status 96

Mortality 96

Health Decisions 96

Adolescent Health in the Third World 98

Body Image 98

Physical Attractiveness 98

Body Types and Ideals 99

Early and Late Maturation 101

Early-Maturing Boys 101

Late-Maturing Boys 101

Early-Maturing Girls 103

Late-Maturing Girls 103

Off-Time Maturation 103

Weight 104

Personal Contributors to Being Overweight 104

Interpersonal Interactions and Being Overweight 105

Environmental Influences 106

Broader Social Influences 106

Eating Disorders 106

Anorexia Nervosa 106

Bulimia 108

Health-Related Behaviors 109

Nutrition 109

Exercise 111

Sleep 112

Acne 112

Skin Gland Development 113

Causes 113

Treatment 113


Chapter 6 Traditional Approaches to Cognitive Development: Piaget and Elkind 116

Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development 118

Sensorimotor Stage 118

Preoperational Stage 119

Concrete Operational Stage 120

Formal Operational Stage 122

Effects of Adolescent Thought on Personality and Behavior 125

Idealism 125

Long-Term Values 126

Hypocrisy 126

Pseudostupidity 127

Egocentrism 127

Introspection 129

Self-Concept 129

Critique of Piaget’s Theory 129

Criticisms of Piaget’s First Two Stages 129

Age and Development 129

Consistency 130

Beyond Formal Operations 130

Culture and Environment 130

Motivation and Response 131

What Can We Retain from Formal Operations? 132

Chapter 7 New Approaches to Cognitive Development: Information Processing, Decision Making, and Assessment Issues 136

Information Processing 138

Steps in Information Processing 138

Processing Speed 141

Higher-Order Thought Processes 141

Problem Solving 143

The Role of Knowledge 143

Decision Making 143

The Process 143

The Nine Cs of Decision Making 144

Epistemological Understanding 146

Brain Development during Adolescence 147

Assessing Cognition 148

Theories of Intelligence 149

Intelligence Tests 151

Changes with Age 151

Factors Influencing Test Results 151

Uses and Misuses of IQ Tests 153

Achievement Tests 154

The Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) 154


Chapter 8 Self-Concept, Identity, Ethnicity, and Gender 158

Self-Concept and Self-Esteem 160

Importance of Having a Good Self-Concept 161

Self-Esteem 162

Mental Health 163

Interpersonal Competence and Popularity 163

Progress in School 163

Vocational Aspirations 164

Delinquency 164

Development of a Positive Self-Concept 165

Changes in Self-Concept during Adolescence 168

Identity 168

Seven Conflicts 169

Identity Status 170

Identity as a Process 174

Ethnic Identity 175

Gender 178

Biological Sex 178

Cognitive-Developmental Theories 179

Societal Influences 179

Androgyny 182

Gender in Adolescence 182

Chapter 9 Sexual Values and Behavior 186

Changing Attitudes and Behavior 188

Premarital Sexual Behavior 188

Correlates 190

Other Mutual Sexual Behaviors 192

Masturbation 193

Sex and Its Meaning 193

What Are Adolescents Seeking? 193

Sexual Pluralism 193

Gender Differences in Sexual Ethics 195

Sexual Aggression 196

Contraceptives and Sexually Transmitted Diseases 197

Use of Contraceptives among Adolescents 197

Why Contraceptives Are Not Used 200

Should Adolescents Have Contraceptives? 200

Sexually Transmitted Diseases 201

AIDS 202

Unwed Pregnancy and Abortion 205

Incidence of Teen Pregnancy 205

Causation Theories 206

Pregnancy-Resolution Decisions 207

Adolescent Mothers 208

Adolescent Fathers 209

Homosexuality 210

Causation Theories 211

Identity Adjustment 213

Sex Knowledge and Sex Education 214

Sources of Sex Information 215

The Role of Parents 215

The Role of Schools 216


Chapter 10 Adolescents and their Families 222

Parenting Adolescents 224

What Kinds of Parents Do Adolescents Want? 224

Connection 224

Trust 228

Attachment Style 228

Autonomy 228

Regulation 230

Parent-Adolescent Tension 234

Differences in Outlook 234

Focus of Conflict 235

Variables Affecting Conflict 236

Conflicts with Parents versus Conflicts with Peers 237

Results of Conflict 237

Relationships with Other Family Members 238

Adolescent-Sibling Relationships 238

Relationships with Other Relatives 239

Maltreatment 240

Physical Abuse 240

Sexual Abuse 240

Incest 241

Neglect 241

Chapter 11 Divorced, Parent-Absent, and Blended Families 244

With Whom Do American Adolescents Live? 246

Divorce and Adolescents 247

Attitudes toward Divorce 247

Short-Term Emotional Reactions 247

Long-Term Effects 249

Factors Influencing the Effects of Divorce 251

Single-Parent/Grandparent-Headed Families 255

Single-Parent Families Resulting from Parental Death 257

Effects of Being Raised in a One-Parent Family 258

Development of Masculinity/Femininity 258

Influences on School Performance, Achievement, and Vocation 259

Blended Families 259

Adopted Adolescents 263


Chapter 12 Social Development: The Changing Nature of Friendship and Romance 266

Companionship 268

The Need for Friends 268

Loneliness 269

Family and Peer Relationships 270

Early Adolescent Friendships 270

Broadening Early Friendships 272

Friendship Activities 272

Group Acceptance and Popularity 273

What Does It Take to Be Popular? 273

Routes to Social Acceptance 274

The Darker Side of Peer Interactions: Bullying 276

Heterosociality 278

Psychosocial Development 278

Adolescent Love and Crushes 280

Loss of Love 280

Dating 281

The Development of Dating 282

Violence 283

“Going Together” 284

Nonmarital Cohabitation 285

Incidence 285

Meanings Attached to Cohabitation 285

Cohabitation versus Dating 287

Adjustments to Cohabitation 287

Effects on Subsequent Marriage 288

Cohabitation and Premarital Childbearing 288

Adolescent Marriage 289

Trends and Incidence 289

Prospects and Prognosis 290

A Profile of the Young Married 290

Reasons for Adolescent Marriage 290

Adjustments and Problems 291

Early Marriage and Education 293

Chapter 13 Adolescent Society, Culture, and Subculture 296

Culture and Society 298

The Adolescent Subculture 298

A False Dichotomy 298

Distinctive Social Relationships and Culture 299

Adolescent Societies 299

Formal Societies 299

Informal Societies 300

Division by Grade 300

Social Class and Status 300

Formal and Semiformal Subsystems 300

The Formal Academic Subsystem 300

The Semiformal Activities Subsystem 301

The Friendship Subsystem 302

Notable Youth Subcultures 303

Flappers 303

Hippies 304

Skateboarders 304

Hip-Hop 305

Goths 305

Material Concerns of Adolescent Culture 306

Adolescents as Consumer Forces 306

Clothing 307

Automobiles 309

Cell Phones 310

Computers and the Internet 311

Nonmaterial Concerns of Adolescent Culture 313

Slang 313

Music 313

Chapter 14 The Development of Moral Values 320

Cognitive-Socialization Theories of Development 322

Kohlberg and Levels of Moral Development 324

Gilligan and Sex Differences in Moral Reasoning 328

The Social-Cognitive Domain Approach to Moral Reasoning 329

Moral Reasoning and Prosocial Behavior 330

Family Factors and Moral Learning 332

The Family’s Role 332

Extrafamilial Influences on Morality 334

Peers 334

Religion 334

Television 336

Moral Education 339

Part Seven Educational and Vocational

Chapter 15 Education and School 344

Trends in U.S. Education 346

Traditionalists versus Progressives 346

Rise of Progressive Education 346

Sputnik and After 346

1960s and 1970s 346

1980s 347

1990s 348

Early Twenty-First Century 349

Middle Schools 349

Characteristics of Good Schools 351

Size 352

Atmosphere 352

Teachers 353

Curriculum 354

Private versus Public Schools 355

Achievement and Dropping Out 356

Enrollment Figures 356

Who Drops Out and Why 356

Dropouts and Employment 362

Chapter 16 Work and Vocation 366

Motives for Choice 368

Theories of Vocational Choice 368

Ginzberg’s Compromise with Reality Theory 368

Holland’s Occupational Environment Theory 371

Gati’s Sequential Elimination Model 372

People Influencing Vocational Choice 372

Parents 372

Peers 374

School Personnel 374

Gender Roles and Vocational Choice 374

Other Crucial Determinants of Vocational Choice 377

Intelligence 377

Aptitudes and Special Abilities 378

Interests 378

Job Opportunities 379

Salary 380

Prestige 380

Socioeconomic Factors 380

Familiarity 380

Social Status and Aspirations 380

Race/Ethnicity and Aspirations 381

Youth Employment 381

Working for Wages 381

Volunteerism 385

Adolescents and Unemployment 386

Numbers of Unemployed Youths 386

Causes of Unemployment 386

Career Education 387


Chapter 17 Adolescent Alienation 392

Running Away 394

Classes of Runaways 394

Reasons for Running Away 394

Throwaways 396

Life on the Street 396

Help for Runaways 396

Worldwide Scope 397

Suicide 397

Frequency of Suicide 397

Causes and Motives of Suicide 399

Copycat Suicides 403

Unsuccessful Attempts 403

Survivors 404

Juvenile Delinquency 404

Incidence of Delinquency 404

Causes of Delinquency 406

Juvenile Gangs 409

The Juvenile Justice System 411

The Restorative Justice Movement 414

Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency 414

Chapter 18 Substance Abuse, Addiction, and Dependency 418

Drug Use and Abuse 420

Physical Addiction and Psychological Dependency 420

Patterns and Intensity of Drug Use 420

Types of Drugs 421

Frequency of Adolescent Drug Use 427

Reasons for First Drug Use 429

Demographic Differences 430

Compulsive Drug Use 430

Prevention and Treatment 431

Tobacco and Smoking 435

Incidence of Tobacco Use 435

Reasons Adolescents Start Smoking 435

Effects of Cigarette Advertising 436

Reasons Adolescents Continue Smoking 437

Smokeless Tobacco 437

Keeping Adolescents from Starting 438

Alcohol and Excessive Drinking 439

Incidence of Alcohol Abuse 439

Reasons for Drinking during Adolescence 440

Adult and Peer Influences 441

Physical Consequences of Alcohol Use 442

Drinking in Young Adulthood 442

Epilogue 446

Glossary 448

Bibliography 453

Index 506

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