Advanced Cardiovascular Exercise Physiology

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Overview

Written for students and professionals working within exercise science and related health professions, Advanced Cardiovascular Exercise Physiology systematically details the effect of acute and chronic exercise training on each component of the cardiovascular system: the heart, the vasculature, and the blood (including blood clotting factors). Readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of the cardiovascular system and learn how to apply this knowledge to their work with athletes, other active individuals, and patients who have cardiovascular risk factors.

Advanced Cardiovascular Exercise Physiology highlights the complex interaction of the components of the cardiovascular system both at rest and during exercise. Using the latest scientific and medical research, this text presents engaging discussion of cardiovascular responses and adaptions to both acute and chronic aerobic and resistance exercise training. In addition, specific attention is paid to the beneficial effects of exercise on the components of the cardiovascular system and the mechanisms through which regular exercise provides cardioprotection.

Each chapter contains a summary to highlight key content, important terms bolded within the text for quick reference, and a key terms section at the end of each chapter defining all the bolded terms. In addition, sidebars within each chapter describe real-world examples and applications. Richly illustrated, Advanced Cardiovascular Exercise Physiology uses extensive figures and graphics to elucidate physiological mechanisms and to depict exercise responses and training adaptations.

This text is divided into two sections, beginning with a concise explanation of the structure and function of each component of the cardiovascular system. In the second section, readers encounter detailed discussion of the acute and chronic effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on cardiac function, vascular function, and hemostatic variables.

Advanced Cardiovascular Exercise Physiology provides a framework for understanding how the components of the cardiovascular system cooperate to support exercise and how those components adapt to and benefit from a systematic program of exercise training. By presenting current research that elucidates the specific effects and benefits of exercise on the cardiovascular system, Advanced Cardiovascular Exercise Physiology also offers readers possible future directions for research.

Human Kinetics’ Advanced Exercise Physiology series offers books for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as professionals in exercise science and kinesiology. These books highlight the complex interaction of the various systems both at rest and during exercise. Each text in this series offers a concise explanation of the system and details how each is affected by acute exercise and chronic exercise training. Advanced Cardiovascular Exercise Physiology is the second volume in the series.

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Editorial Reviews

Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Erik H VanIterson, M.S., M.Bio(University of Minnesota School of Kinesiology)
Description: This book highlights and details the human body's cardiovascular system in response to acute and chronic aerobic and anaerobic exercise training. The information is well supported by scientific research and is applicable to many different settings, ranging from clinical healthcare practice to athlete training to the classroom.
Purpose: A primary focus of this book is on providing an up-to-date understanding of the human cardiovascular system. In doing so, the authors' aim is to fully outline in detail the components that comprise the human cardiovascular system. Their secondary aim is to explain how acute and chronic aerobic and anaerobic exercise affects each of these components individually and systematically in both healthy and unhealthy populations.
Audience: The appropriate audience includes students of health and exercise science and healthcare professionals with prior knowledge of exercise physiology and the cardiovascular system. Students and professionals may find this book useful as a classroom teaching resource, practical hands-on guide, or clinical resource tool for use with athletes, students, clinical populations, or fitness enthusiasts of all kinds.
Features: The book's two main sections introduce and then further explain the components and mechanisms of the cardiovascular system and its relationship with exercise physiology. Each chapter is structured so that readers can either read the book from beginning to end, or just individual chapters as needed. The illustrations are a great learning aid.
Assessment: This book is perfect for students or professionals with a strong interest in cardiovascular exercise physiology. It is well written and supported with up-to-date, peer-reviewed literature. The concepts are applicable to many different real-world settings ranging from the clinical setting to the classroom. It is a quick read due to its clear and concise style and should be kept as both a hands-on resource guide and a primary textbook for the classroom.
From The Critics
Reviewer:This book is perfect for students or professionals with a strong interest in cardiovascular exercise physiology. It is well written and supported with up-to-date, peer-reviewed literature. The concepts are applicable to many different real-world settings ranging from the clinical setting to the classroom. It is a quick read due to its clear and concise style and should be kept as both a hands-on resource guide and a primary textbook for the classroom.
Description:
Purpose:This book highlights and details the human body's cardiovascular system in response to acute and chronic aerobic and anaerobic exercise training. The information is well supported by scientific research and is applicable to many different settings, ranging from clinical healthcare practice to athlete training to the classroom.
Audience:A primary focus of this book is on providing an up-to-date understanding of the human cardiovascular system. In doing so, the authors' aim is to fully outline in detail the components that comprise the human cardiovascular system. Their secondary aim is to explain how acute and chronic aerobic and anaerobic exercise affects each of these components individually and systematically in both healthy and unhealthy populations.
Features:The appropriate audience includes students of health and exercise science and healthcare professionals with prior knowledge of exercise physiology and the cardiovascular system. Students and professionals may find this book useful as a classroom teaching resource, practical hands-on guide, or clinical resource tool for use with athletes, students, clinical populations, or fitness enthusiasts of all kinds.
Assessment:The book's two main sections introduce and then further explain the components and mechanisms of the cardiovascular system and its relationship with exercise physiology. Each chapter is structured so that readers can either read the book from beginning to end, or just individual chapters as needed. The illustrations are a great learning aid.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780736073929
  • Publisher: Human Kinetics Publishers
  • Publication date: 12/9/2010
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 240
  • Product dimensions: 7.10 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Denise L. Smith, PhD, is a professor in the department of health and exercise sciences and the class of 1961 term professor at Skidmore College. She also holds an appointment as a research scientist at the University of Illinois Fire Service Institute. She received her PhD from the University of Illinois in exercise physiology in 1990. For nearly two decades, Smith has conducted scientific research on cardiovascular responses to exercise. Her research is focused on the physiological strain associated with heat stress, with a specific emphasis on cardiovascular and thrombotic responses to firefighting. She has led several federally funded research projects dealing with the cardiovascular strain of firefighting.

Smith has published studies on heat stress, cardiovascular function, and the physiological aspects of firefighting in numerous peer-reviewed scientific journals, including the American Journal of Cardiology, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Ergonomics, Journal of Thermal Biology, and Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine. Smith has collaborated extensively with fire service organizations, has served in leadership roles in the American College of Sports Medicine, and is a member of the American Physiological Society.

Bo Fernhall, PhD, is a professor in the department of kinesiology and community health at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He received his PhD in exercise physiology from Arizona State University in 1984. Fernhall has nearly 30 years of experience in cardiovascular research, with a current focus on how exercise and diet affect heart, arterial, and autonomic function. He also directed cardiovascular rehabilitation programs for over 20 years, combining research and clinical experience.

Fernhall is a fellow of the American Heart Association, the American Association of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, and the American College of Sports Medicine. He was elected to the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education in 2005. He has won several national research awards, most recently the G. Lawrence Rarick National Research Award in 2006 for his research on the benefits of exercise in people with disabilities. Fernhall has published over 160 peer-reviewed manuscripts in scientific journals, including the American Journal of Cardiology, Amercan Journal of Hypertension, American Journal of Physiology, Atherosclerosis, European Heart Journal, and Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise.

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Table of Contents

Preface vii

Series Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

Section I Cardiovascular Physiology 1

Chapter 1 Essentials of the Cardiovascular System 3

Components of the Cardiovascular System 5

Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise 12

Summary 12

Chapter 2 The Heart as a Pump 13

Gross Anatomy of the Heart 13

Cardiac Cycle 15

The Ventricular Pressure-Volume Loop 17

Cardiac Output 18

Distribution of Cardiac Output 21

Coronary Blood Supply 23

Measuring Cardiac Function 26

Summary 29

Chapter 3 Cardiac Myocytes 31

Microscopic Anatomy of Cardiac Myocytes 31

Excitation-Contraction Coupling 36

Mechanisms of Contraction 37

Metabolic Requirements 40

Summary 40

Chapter 4 Electrical Activity of the Heart 43

Ion Basis of Electrical Activity 43

Resting Membrane Potential 44

Action Potential 44

Conduction System of the Heart 48

Autorhythmicity of Conduction Cells 49

Pacemakers of the Heart 50

Control of Heart Rate 51

Brain- and Receptor-Mediated Heart Rate Control Mechanisms 53

Heart Rate Variability 55

Summary 58

Chapter 5 The Electrocardiogram 59

The ECG Tracing 59

Measuring the ECG 61

Measuring Heart Rate 65

Cardiac Rhythms 67

Conduction Blocks 71

Ventricular Hypertrophy 74

ST-Segment Changes (Ischemia) 76

Myocardial Infarction 76

Test Considerations 79

Common ECG Changes in Athletes 79

Summary 81

Chapter 6 Hemodynamics and Peripheral Circulation 83

The Pressure Differential 83

Flow Velocity 84

Poiseuille's Law 85

Blood Flow 89

Arterial Blood Pressure 92

Pulse Waves and Wave Reflections 93

Blood Pressure Measurement 95

Control of Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation 97

Reflex Control of Blood Pressure and Vasomotion 101

Summary 103

Chapter 7 Vascular Structure and Function 105

Structure of Blood Vessels 105

Vascular Network 107

Endothelium 108

Endothelium Regulation of Vascular Tone 112

Vascular Smooth Muscle 115

Measuring Endothelial and Vascular Function 118

Summary 121

Chapter 8 Hemostasis: Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 123

Vascular Injury 125

Platelets 126

Coagulation 130

Fibrinolysis-Clot Dissolution 133

Assessing Hemostasis 134

Summary 135

Section II Exercise Physiology 137

Chapter 9 Cardiovascular Responses to Acute Aerobic Exercise 139

Cardiac Responses 139

Vascular Response 144

Hemostatic Responses 156

Summary 162

Chapter 10 Cardiovascular Adaptations to Aerobic Training 163

Cardiac Adaptations 163

Vascular Adaptations 168

Hemostatic Adaptations 175

Summary 178

Chapter 11 Cardiovascular Responses to Acute Resistance Exercise 179

Cardiac Responses 180

Vascular Responses 184

Hemostatic Responses 189

Summary 192

Chapter 12 Cardiovascular Adaptations to Resistance Training 193

Cardiac Adaptations 193

Vascular Function 197

Hemostatic Adaptations With Resistance Training 201

Summary 201

Glossary 203

Recommended Readings 207

References 209

Index 223

About the Authors 227

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