Advanced Composite Materials for Automotive Applications: Structural Integrity and Crashworthiness

Overview

The automotive industry faces many challenges, including increased global competition, the need for higher-performance vehicles, a reduction in costs and tighter environmental and safety requirements. The materials used in automotive engineering play key roles in overcoming these issues: ultimately lighter materials mean lighter vehicles and lower emissions. Composites are being used increasingly in the automotive industry due to their strength, quality and light weight.

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Advanced Composite Materials for Automotive Applications: Structural Integrity and Crashworthiness

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Overview

The automotive industry faces many challenges, including increased global competition, the need for higher-performance vehicles, a reduction in costs and tighter environmental and safety requirements. The materials used in automotive engineering play key roles in overcoming these issues: ultimately lighter materials mean lighter vehicles and lower emissions. Composites are being used increasingly in the automotive industry due to their strength, quality and light weight.

Advanced Composite Materials for Automotive Applications: Structural Integrity and Crashworthiness provides a comprehensive explanation of how advanced composite materials, including FRPs, reinforced thermoplastics, carbon-based composites and many others, are designed, processed and utilized in vehicles. It includes technical explanations of composite materials in vehicle design and analysis and covers all phases of composite design, modelling, testing and failure analysis. It also sheds light on the performance of existing materials including carbon composites and future developments in automotive material technology which work towards reducing the weight of the vehicle structure.

Key features:

  • Chapters written by world-renowned authors and experts in their own fields
  • Includes detailed case studies and examples covering all aspects of composite materials and their application in the automotive industries
  • Unique topic integration between the impact, crash, failure, damage, analysis and modelling of composites
  • Presents the state of the art in composite materials and their application in the automotive industry
  • Integrates theory and practice in the fields of composite materials and automotive engineering
  • Considers energy efficiency and environmental implications

Advanced Composite Materials for Automotive Applications: Structural Integrity and Crashworthiness is a comprehensive reference for those working with composite materials in both academia and industry, and is also a useful source of information for those considering using composites in automotive applications in the future.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118423868
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 1/7/2014
  • Series: Automotive Series
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 470
  • Sales rank: 1,124,419
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.60 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Editor
Ahmed Elmarakbi – University of Sunderland, UK

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Table of Contents

About the Editor xv

List of Contributors xvii

Series Preface xxi

Preface xxiii

Part One FUNDAMENTAL BACKGROUND

1 Overview of Composite Materials and their Automotive Applications 3
Ali Hallal, Ahmed Elmarakbi, Ali Shaito and Hicham El-Hage

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Polymer Composite Materials 5

1.3 Application of Composite Materials in the Automotive Industry 12

1.4 Green Composites for Automotive Applications 17

1.5 Modelling the Mechanical Behaviour of Composite Materials 19

1.6 Discussion 22

1.7 Conclusion 23

References 24

2 High-Volume Thermoplastic Composite Technology for Automotive Structures 29
Neil Reynolds and Arun Balan Ramamohan

2.1 Introduction – Opportunities for Thermoplastic Composites 29

2.2 Recent Developments in Automotive TPCs 31

2.3 Case Study: Rapid Stamp-Formed Thermoplastic Composites 34

2.4 Conclusion 48

Acknowledgements 49

References 49

3 Development of Low-Cost Carbon Fibre for Automotive Applications 51
Alan Wheatley, David Warren, and Sujit Das

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Research Drivers: Energy Efficiency 52

3.3 Lightweight Automotive Materials 53

3.4 Barriers to Carbon Fibre Adoption in the Automotive Industry 55

3.5 Global Production and the Market for Carbon Fibre 58

3.6 Low-Cost Carbon Fibre Programme 60

3.7 International Cooperation 72

Acknowledgements 72

References 72

Part Two IMPACT AND CRASH ANALYSIS

4 Mechanical Properties of Advanced Pore Morphology Foam Composites 77
Matej Vesenjak, Lovre Krstulovic-Opara and Zoran Ren

4.1 Introduction 77

4.2 Cellular Materials 78

4.3 Advanced Pore Morphology Foam 83

4.4 Mechanical Properties of Single APM Foam Elements 84

4.5 Behaviour of Composite APM Foam 89

4.6 Conclusion 96

Acknowledgements 96

References 96

5 Automotive Composite Structures for Crashworthiness 99
Dirk H.-J.A. Lukaszewicz

5.1 Introduction 99

5.2 Traffic Safety 99

5.3 Alternative Vehicles 101

5.4 Selective Overview of Worldwide Crash Tests 103

5.5 Structural Crash Management 106

5.6 Composite Materials for Crash Applications 110

5.7 Energy Absorption of Composite Profiles 115

5.8 Conclusion 124

Acknowledgements 125

References 125

6 Crashworthiness Analysis of Composite and Thermoplastic Foam Structure for Automotive Bumper Subsystem 129
Ermias Koricho, Giovanni Belingardi, Alem Tekalign, Davide Roncato and Brunetto Martorana

6.1 Introduction 129

6.2 Materials for Automotive Applications 132

6.3 Composite and Thermoplastic Materials 133

6.4 Numerical Modelling of Fiat 500 Frontal Transverse Beam 137

6.5 Standards for Low-Speed Frontal Impact 141

6.6 Bumper Beam Thickness Determination 141

6.7 Results and Discussion 142

6.8 Conclusion 145

References 146

7 Hybrid Structures Consisting of Sheet Metal and Fibre Reinforced Plastics for Structural Automotive Applications 149
Christian Lauter, Thomas Tr¨oster and Corin Reuter

7.1 Introduction and Motivation 149

7.2 Conventional Method for the Development of Composite Structures 150

7.3 Approaches to Automotive Lightweight Construction 151

7.4 Requirements for Automotive Structures 154

7.5 Simulation 158

7.6 Manufacturing 160

7.7 Testing 165

7.8 New Methodology for the Product Engineering of Hybrid Lightweight Structures 170

7.9 Conclusion 172

References 172

8 Nonlinear Strain Rate Dependent Micro-Mechanical Composite Material Model for Crashworthiness Simulation 175
Ala Tabiei

8.1 Introduction 175

8.2 Micro-Mechanical Formulation 175

8.3 Strain Rate Dependent Effects 188

8.4 Numerical Results 197

8.5 Conclusion 203

References 203

9 Design Solutions to Improve CFRP Crash-Box Impact Efficiency for Racing Applications 205
Simonetta Boria

9.1 Introduction 205

9.2 Composite Structures for Crashworthy Applications 207

9.3 Geometrical and Material Characterisation of the Impact Attenuator 214

9.4 Experimental Test 216

9.5 Finite Element Analysis and LS-DYNA 219

9.6 Comparison between Numerical and Experimental Analysis 220

9.7 Investigation of the Optimal Solution 221

9.8 Conclusion 224

References 224

Part Three DAMAGE AND FAILURE

10 Fracture and Failure Mechanisms for Different Loading Modes in Unidirectional Carbon Fibre/Epoxy Composites 229
Victoria Mollon, Jorge Bonhomme, Jaime Vina and Antonio Arguelles

10.1 Introduction 229

10.2 Delamination Failure 230

10.3 Objectives 232

10.4 Experimental Programme 233

10.5 Numerical Simulations 240

10.6 Fractography 244

10.7 Results and Discussion 244

10.8 Conclusion 253

References 253

11 Numerical Simulation of Damages in FRP Laminated Structures under Transverse Quasi-Static or Low-Velocity Impact Loads 257
Ning Hu, Ahmed Elmarakbi, Alamusi, Yaolu Liu, Hisao Fukunaga, Satoshi Atobe and Tomonori Watanabe

11.1 Introduction 257

11.2 Theory 261

11.3 Techniques for Overcoming Numerical Instability in Simulation of Delamination Propagation 267

11.4 Numerical Examples 275

11.5 Conclusion 291

References 291

12 Building Delamination Fracture Envelope under Mode I/Mode II Loading for FRP Composite Materials 293
Othman Al-Khudairi, Homayoun Hadavinia, Eoin Lewis, Barnaby Osborne and Lee S. Bryars

12.1 Introduction 293

12.2 Experimental Studies 294

12.3 Mode I Delamination Testing: Double Cantilever Bending Test Analysis and Results 296

12.4 Mode II Delamination Testing: End Notched Flexure Test Analysis and Results 297

12.5 Mixed Mode I/II Delamination Testing: Mixed-Mode Bending Test Analysis and Results 302

12.6 Fracture Failure Envelope 306

12.7 Conclusion 308

Nomenclature 309

References 309

Part Four CASE STUDIES AND DESIGNS

13 Metal Matrix Composites for Automotive Applications 313
Anthony Macke, Benjamin F. Schultz, Pradeep K. Rohatgi and Nikhil Gupta

13.1 Automotive Technologies 313

13.2 Reinforcements 321

13.3 Automotive Applications 328

13.4 Conclusion 342

Acknowledgements 343

References 343

14 Development of a Composite Wheel with Integrated Hub Motor and Requirements on Safety Components in Composite 345
Nicole Schweizer and Andreas B¨uter

14.1 Introduction 345

14.2 Wheels Made from FRPs 349

14.3 Development of a Composite Wheel with Integrated Electric Motor 358

14.4 Multifunctional Design – Requirements regarding Structural Durability and System Reliability 364

14.5 Conclusion 369

References 370

15 Composite Materials in Automotive Body Panels, Concerning Noise and Vibration 371
Peyman Honarmandi

15.1 Introduction 371

15.2 Composite Materials in Automobile Bodies 371

15.3 Multilayer Composite Materials in Noise and Vibration Treatment 372

15.4 Case Studies 373

15.5 Conclusion 386

References 387

16 Composite Materials for Automotive Braking Systems 389
David C. Barton

16.1 Introduction 389

16.2 Materials Requirements for Brake Rotors 390

16.3 Cast Iron Rotors 392

16.4 Carbon Composite Rotors 393

16.5 Light Alloy Composite Rotors 395

16.6 Evaluation of Composite Disc Materials 395

16.7 Surface Engineering of Light Alloy Brake Discs 398

16.8 Friction Material 400

16.9 Conclusion 402

References 403

17 Low-Cost Carbon Fibre: Applications, Performance and Cost Models 405
Alan Wheatley, David Warren and Sujit Das

17.1 Current and Proposed Carbon Fibre Applications 405

17.2 Carbon Fibre Polymer Composites: Cost Benefits and Obstacles for Automobiles 407

17.3 Performance Modelling 414

17.4 Cost Modelling 427

17.5 Conclusion 433

Acknowledgements 433

References 433

Index 435

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