Advanced Composite Techniques: Lightweigh Moldless Techniques for the Aircraft Homebuilder

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2005 Softcover First Edition Near Fine Condition VG+ 1st print 2005 Aeronaut Press paperback, illustrated-light shelf-wear and crease to lower rear edge of cover only. Sent ... Airmail at no extra cost; Worldwide Shipping IMMEDIATE 1ST CLASS/AIRMAIL DISPATCH Quantity Available: 1. Shipped Weight: Under 1 kilogram. Category: Aviation; ISBN: 0964282844. ISBN/EAN: 9780964282841. Inventory No: 055513. *****PLEASE NOTE: This item is shipping from an authorized seller in Europe. In the event that a return is necessary, you will be able to return your item within the US. To learn more about our European sellers and policies see the BookQuest FAQ section***** Read more Show Less

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This book will teach the non-engineer aircraft homebuilder how to make very light high performance composite structures using simple techniques and materials generally available at a home supply store.

Simple vacuum-bagging techniques, using flat tools suitable for the homebuilder, are described in detail. A 17-step self-teaching course allows the reader to progress from the simplest flat open layup to a nearly full-scale, closed, wing section.

The basic technique taught is the cored skin, where thin glass skins are bonded to very thick light-weight cores, producing very stiff, efficient, light-weight panels. Several different techniques for forming and bonding these panels are described

These techniques will be very useful to any builder who is considering adapting an aircraft to the FAA Light Sport Aircraft rules of 2004, especially the Experimental Light Sport Aircraft type.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780964282841
  • Publisher: Aeronaut Press
  • Publication date: 10/28/2005
  • Pages: 376
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Table of Contents

Introduction 1
What's Different 1
What We Will Do 1
Acknowledgements 3
Chapter 1 Basic Principles of Composites 5
Composite Structures 6
Examples of Composites 8
Wood as a Composite 8
Panels 9
The Buckling Problem 9
Torsion 11
Sandwich Structures 11
Attachments - Distributed Loads 12
Environmental Factors - Postcuring 12
Basic Materials 13
Reinforcing Fibers 14
Matrix Materials 14
Core Materials 14
Adhesives 15
Fillers 15
Gelcoats - Why Everybody Else Uses Them 16
Chapter 2 Overview of Techniques 19
Handling and Cutting Glass Cloth 19
Measuring and Mixing Resin 21
Wetting Out 22
Handling Core Materials 23
Foams as Cores 24
Foams as Forms for Skins 25
Forming Gently Curved Surfaces 25
Foam Added to Previously Formed Skins 26
Cutting Foam 26
Bending Foam Sheets 27
Bending Thick Foam Sheets 28
Use of Vacuum Bagging 28
Basic Vacuum Bagging Components 29
Basic Setup 29
Effect of Vacuum 30
Chapter 3 Basic Materials Handling 33
Shop Safety - Important! 33
Storing Epoxy 34
Cleanup 35
Measuring Epoxy 36
Glass Cloth 39
Marking Cloth and Plastic Films 39
Tinting Resin 41
Thixotropic Fumed Silica 41
Working Temperatures 42
Chapter 4 Handling and Cutting Foam 45
Cutting Sheets 46
Carving Foam 47
Bevels 47
Perforating Foam Sheets 48
Attaching Foam to Temporary Forms 50
Hot Wire Cutting Polystyrene Foam 51
Splitting Polystyrene Foam Blocks 53
Curved Shapes - Wings 54
Attaching Foam to Foam 56
Splicing Sheets and Blocks 56
The Problem of Sanding Hard Micro 57
Hot-wire Cutting Block Joints 57
Temperature Limitations 58
Glues 58
Bending Unskinned Foam Sheets 59
Bending Thick Flat Panels 60
Bending Slotted Sheets 60
Bonding Slotted Cores 62
Laminating Cores 64
Chapter 5 Basic Layup Techniques 65
Basic Wetting-out Techniques 65
The "Prepreg" Sandwich 69
Wet Glass Tape 69
Bonding Fiber Skins to Foam 71
Applying Dry Glass to Foam 72
Applying Wetted Glass to Foam 75
Chapter 6 Flat Tool Vacuum Bagging 77
Flat Tool Techniques 78
The Basic Vacuum Bag Process 79
Practical Techniques 84
Vacuum Plumbing System 84
Vacuum Control and Measurement 87
Bag Material 87
Bag Sealing 88
Leak Detection, Location and Repair 89
Envelope Bagging 90
Flat Tool Mold Release Techniques 91
Placing Tool Release Film 91
Toolside Bleeding 93
Double Bagging and Joggles 94
Bagside Surface Finish 95
Effect of Thick Cores 96
Caul Plates 96
Chapter 7 Joints and Adhesives 99
Trimming Cured Skins 99
"Green" Trimming of Glass Skins 99
Knife Trim of Cured Skin with Local Heat 100
Router-like Tools 101
Band Saws 101
The Nature of Adhesives 101
The Basic Sheared Adhesive Joint 101
Real Adhesive Joints 103
Practical Adhesives 104
Methacrylate Adhesives 105
The Secondary Bond - A Compromise 108
Peeling 108
Bonded Joints 109
Vibration Considerations 111
Edges 111
Tacking Tape 113
Alignment, Clamping, and Inspection 114
Trial Assembly 115
Bonding 116
Chapter 8 Taping and Basic Corners 117
Basic Tape-making 117
Corner Bonding 119
Fillets 119
Applying Tape 121
The "Lost Bondo" Corner 121
The Pipe-formed Corner 124
Oblique Corners - The "Barrel Joint" 126
Applying "Planks" 127
The "Forming Spool" Self-jigging Trick 130
A Hybrid Variation 131
Boat-building Considerations 131
Chapter 9 Formed Curves and Corners 133
Bending Single-skin Foam 133
Folded Corners 133
Bending Slotted Sheets 135
The Short-radius Folded Joint 136
The Cored Corner 139
Joggles in Folded Joints 141
"Green" Folding 141
The Vision Aircraft Example 142
Comparison with Conventional Methods 146
Chapter 10 Flanges and Closing 147
The Closing Problem 147
Use of the Flange Tool 147
Closing Operations 154
Trial Fitting 154
Bonding the Closure 155
Chapter 11 Attachments 159
Load Transitions 159
Load Matching 159
Relation to Standard Practice 160
Practical Bolt Attachments 161
The Stub Web 164
"Synthetic Spruce" 165
Chapter 12 Single-Curved Molds 169
Sheet Molds 169
Shaping the Mold Sheet 171
Using A Single-curved Mold 174
Very Shaply-curved Molds 175
Chapter 13 Molding Techniques 179
Small-shop Commercial Practice 179
General Principles 180
Making The Mold 183
Partitioning The Mold 184
Mold Flanges 186
Producing a Part From A Mold 186
Small-shop Commercial Practice 186
Home-builder Molding Practice 187
Exercise 1 Basic Open Flat Layup 189
Exercise 2 The Basic "Transfer" Layup 197
Exercise 3 Basic Vacuum Bagging 203
Exercise 4 Making Accurate "Prepregs" 209
Exercise 5 The Flat Sandwich Laminate 213
Exercise 6 The Cored-skin Sandwich 219
Exercise 7 Bonding Panels 229
Exercise 8 Vacuum Release Film Experiment 239
Exercise 9 Flat Cored Panels 243
Exercise 10 Forming and Joining 253
Exercise 11 Mailbox Door and Finishing 259
Exercise 12 Flat-sided Fuselage Simulation 267
Exercise 13 Single-curved Wing Skin Mold 279
Exercise 14 Single-curved Wing Skin 297
Exercise 15 Wing Skin Ribs And Webs 305
Exercise 16 Bottom Wing Skin 313
Exercise 17 Wing Closing Flanges 313
Appendix 1 321
General Tools 321
Common Tools 322
Drills 320
Power Saws 320
Rotary Tools 321
Work Area, Benches, and Storage 322
Temperature Control 326
Resin Storage 326
Postcuring 329
Standard Composite Tools 331
Measuring Epoxy 333
Ratio Pumps 333
Ratio Balances 334
Foam Tools 337
Hot Wire Cutters 337
Perforating Foam 340
Perforator Construction 342
Foam Beveling Tool 343
Beveling Tool Construction 344
Appendix 2
Very Elementary Beam Theory 345
Trusses And Beams 345
Relationship To A Practical Cored Panel 350
Appendix 3
Fibers, Weaves & Matrices 353
Why We Use Structural Fibers 353
Theoretical And Actual Strength 353
Strain And Stiffness 354
Fiber Materials - Summary 355
Strands, Yarns, and Roving 355
Design Strength Of Yarns 356
Weaves 359
Non-woven Fibers 359
Woven Fibers 360
Matrix Materials 361
Polyesters 361
Disadvantages of Polyesters 362
Epoxy Matrices 362
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