Advanced FPGA Design: Architecture, Implementation, and Optimization / Edition 1

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Overview

This book provides the advanced issues of FPGA design as the underlying theme of the work. In practice, an engineer typically needs to be mentored for several years before these principles are appropriately utilized. The topics that will be discussed in this book are essential to designing FPGA's beyond moderate complexity. The goal of the book is to present practical design techniques that are otherwise only available through mentorship and real-world experience.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Advanced FPGA Design is an excellent and concise reference book that is suitable for engineers already familiar with the fundamentals of FPGA design. (IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, November 2008)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470054376
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 6/29/2007
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 352
  • Sales rank: 987,347
  • Product dimensions: 6.42 (w) x 9.19 (h) x 0.91 (d)

Meet the Author

Steve Kilts is a cofounder and principal engineer at Spectrum Design Solutions, an engineering consulting firm based out of Minneapolis, Minnesota (www.spectrumdsi.com). Mr. Kilts and his team at Spectrum have successfully completed projects for clients ranging from Fortune 100 companies to small start-ups. His FPGA design experience is extensive and includes applications in audio, DSP, high-speed computing and bus architectures, IC testers, industrial automation and control, embedded microprocessors, PCI, medical system design, commercial aviation, and ASIC prototyping. Mr. Kilts has many years of experience making performance trade-offs for FPGA designs targeting high speed, area reduction, and low power. He holds a master of science degree in electrical engineering from the University of Minnesota.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

1. Architecting Speed 1

1.1 High Throughput 2

1.2 Low Latency 4

1.3 Timing 6

1.3.1 Add Register Layers 6

1.3.2 Parallel Structures 8

1.3.3 Flatten Logic Structures 10

1.3.4 Register Balancing 12

1.3.5 Reorder Paths 14

1.4 Summary of Key Points 16

2. Architecting Area 17

2.1 Rolling Up the Pipeline 18

2.2 Control-Based Logic Reuse 20

2.3 Resource Sharing 23

2.4 Impact of Reset on Area 25

2.4.1 Resources Without Reset 25

2.4.2 Resources Without Set 26

2.4.3 Resources Without Asynchronous Reset 27

2.4.4 Resetting RAM 29

2.4.5 Utilizing Set/Reset Flip-Flop Pins 31

2.5 Summary of Key Points 34

3. Architecting Power 37

3.1 Clock Control 38

3.1.1 Clock Skew 39

3.1.2 Managing Skew 40

3.2 Input Control 42

3.3 Reducing the Voltage Supply 44

3.4 Dual-Edge Triggered Flip-Flops 44

3.5 Modifying Terminations 45

3.6 Summary of Key Points 46

4. Example Design: The Advanced Encryption Standard 47

4.1 AES Architectures 47

4.1.1 One Stage for Sub-bytes 51

4.1.2 Zero Stages for Shift Rows 51

4.1.3 Two Pipeline Stages for Mix-Column 52

4.1.4 One Stage for Add Round Key 52

4.1.5 Compact Architecture 53

4.1.6 Partially Pipelined Architecture 57

4.1.7 Fully Pipelined Architecture 60

4.2 Performance Versus Area 66

4.3 Other Optimizations 67

5. High-Level Design 69

5.1 Abstract Design Techniques 69

5.2 Graphical State Machines 70

5.3 DSP Design 75

5.4 Software/Hardware Codesign 80

5.5 Summary of Key Points 81

6. Clock Domains 83

6.1 Crossing Clock Domains 84

6.1.1 Metastability 86

6.1.2 Solution 1: Phase Control 88

6.1.3 Solution 2: Double Flopping 89

6.1.4 Solution 3: FIFO Structure 92

6.1.5 Partitioning Synchronizer Blocks 97

6.2 Gated Clocks in ASIC Prototypes 97

6.2.1 Clocks Module 98

6.2.2 Gating Removal 99

6.3 Summary of Key Points 100

7. Example Design: I2S Versus SPDIF 101

7.1 I2S 101

7.1.1 Protocol 102

7.1.2 Hardware Architecture 102

7.1.3 Analysis 105

7.2 SPDIF 107

7.2.1 Protocol 107

7.2.2 Hardware Architecture 108

7.2.3 Analysis 114

8. Implementing Math Functions 117

8.1 Hardware Division 117

8.1.1 Multiply and Shift 118

8.1.2 Iterative Division 119

8.1.3 The Goldschmidt Method 120

8.2 Taylor and Maclaurin Series Expansion 122

8.3 The CORDIC Algorithm 124

8.4 Summary of Key Points 126

9. Example Design: Floating-Point Unit 127

9.1 Floating-Point Formats 127

9.2 Pipelined Architecture 128

9.2.1 Verilog Implementation 131

9.2.2 Resources and Performance 137

10. Reset Circuits 139

10.1 Asynchronous Versus Synchronous 140

10.1.1 Problems with Fully Asynchronous Resets 140

10.1.2 Fully Synchronized Resets 142

10.1.3 Asynchronous Assertion, Synchronous Deassertion 144

10.2 Mixing Reset Types 145

10.2.1 Nonresetable Flip-Flops 145

10.2.2 Internally Generated Resets 146

10.3 Multiple Clock Domains 148

10.4 Summary of Key Points 149

11. Advanced Simulation 151

11.1 Testbench Architecture 152

11.1.1 Testbench Components 152

11.1.2 Testbench Flow 153

11.1.2.1 Main Thread 153

11.1.2.2 Clocks and Resets 154

11.1.2.3 Test Cases 155

11.2 System Stimulus 157

11.2.1 MATLAB 157

11.2.2 Bus-Functional Models 158

11.3 Code Coverage 159

11.4 Gate-Level Simulations 159

11.5 Toggle Coverage 162

11.6 Run-Time Traps 165

11.6.1 Timescale 165

11.6.2 Glitch Rejection 165

11.6.3 Combinatorial Delay Modeling 166

11.7 Summary of Key Points 169

12. Coding for Synthesis 171

12.1 Decision Trees 172

12.1.1 Priority Versus Parallel 172

12.1.2 Full Conditions 176

12.1.3 Multiple Control Branches 179

12.2 Traps 180

12.2.1 Blocking Versus Nonblocking 180

12.2.2 For-Loops 183

12.2.3 Combinatorial Loops 185

12.2.4 Inferred Latches 187

12.3 Design Organization 188

12.3.1 Partitioning 188

12.3.1.1 Data Path Versus Control 188

12.3.1.2 Clock and Reset Structures 189

12.3.1.3 Multiple Instantiations 190

12.3.2 Parameterization 191

12.3.2.1 Definitions 191

12.3.2.2 Parameters 192

12.3.2.3 Parameters in Verilog-2001 194

12.4 Summary of Key Points 195

13. Example Design: The Secure Hash Algorithm 197

13.1 SHA-1 Architecture 197

13.2 Implementation Results 204

14. Synthesis Optimization 205

14.1 Speed Versus Area 206

14.2 Resource Sharing 208

14.3 Pipelining, Retiming, and Register Balancing 211

14.3.1 The Effect of Reset on Register Balancing 213

14.3.2 Resynchronization Registers 215

14.4 FSM Compilation 216

14.4.1 Removal of Unreachable States 219

14.5 Black Boxes 220

14.6 Physical Synthesis 223

14.6.1 Forward Annotation Versus Back-Annotation 224

14.6.2 Graph-Based Physical Synthesis 225

14.7 Summary of Key Points 226

15. Floorplanning 229

15.1 Design Partitioning 229

15.2 Critical-Path Floorplanning 232

15.3 Floorplanning Dangers 233

15.4 Optimal Floorplanning 234

15.4.1 Data Path 234

15.4.2 High Fan-Out 234

15.4.3 Device Structure 235

15.4.4 Reusability 238

15.5 Reducing Power Dissipation 238

15.6 Summary of Key Points 240

16. Place and Route Optimization 241

16.1 Optimal Constraints 241

16.2 Relationship between Placement and Routing 244

16.3 Logic Replication 246

16.4 Optimization across Hierarchy 247

16.5 I/O Registers 248

16.6 Pack Factor 250

16.7 Mapping Logic into RAM 251

16.8 Register Ordering 251

16.9 Placement Seed 252

16.10 Guided Place and Route 254

16.11 Summary of Key Points 254

17. Example Design: Microprocessor 257

17.1 SRC Architecture 257

17.2 Synthesis Optimizations 259

17.2.1 Speed Versus Area 260

17.2.2 Pipelining 261

17.2.3 Physical Synthesis 262

17.3 Floorplan Optimizations 262

17.3.1 Partitioned Floorplan 263

17.3.2 Critical-Path Floorplan: Abstraction 1 264

17.3.3 Critical-Path Floorplan: Abstraction 2 265

18. Static Timing Analysis 269

18.1 Standard Analysis 269

18.2 Latches 273

18.3 Asynchronous Circuits 276

18.3.1 Combinatorial Feedback 277

18.4 Summary of Key Points 278

19. PCB Issues 279

19.1 Power Supply 279

19.1.1 Supply Requirements 279

19.1.2 Regulation 283

19.2 Decoupling Capacitors 283

19.2.1 Concept 283

19.2.2 Calculating Values 285

19.2.3 Capacitor Placement 286

19.3 Summary of Key Points 288

Appendix A 289

Appendix B 303

Bibliography 319

Index 321

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Sort by: Showing all of 2 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted July 9, 2007

    Very helpful

    This book contains excellent information for FPGA designers who want to take their skills to the next level. The depth of coverage is outstanding.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted July 18, 2007

    Excellent overview of topics

    I felt the author did a great job of covering the important issues with respect to real world FPGA design. I would recommend this book to anyone who designs FPGAs professionally. There are many topics covered in this book that most FPGA designers are not aware of, and thus this is a very useful reference to have on hand.

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