Advanced PC Architecture

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· The first book ever to give a complete picture of the workings of a PC!

A comprehensive guide to the component systems of the PC, this book provides a foundation to the understanding of previous, current and future PC systems, and how the specification of each component of a PC affects the overall system performance.

The book outlines each of the main PC processors and contrasts their performance. It also examines each of the main interface ...

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Overview

· The first book ever to give a complete picture of the workings of a PC!

A comprehensive guide to the component systems of the PC, this book provides a foundation to the understanding of previous, current and future PC systems, and how the specification of each component of a PC affects the overall system performance.

The book outlines each of the main PC processors and contrasts their performance. It also examines each of the main interface devices and shows how they integrate into the main systems.

If you are an undergraduate or professional looking for a complete understanding of the internal architecture of the PC, and how it is changing, this book is for you. It explains how systems have evolved from the original PC, keeping its compatibility with previous systems, whilst increasing its power. It also provides an insight into how the PC will evolve in the future.

Key chapters:
· Motherboards - Analyses typical motherboards and shows how each of the components interfaces together, and how the architecture affects the system performance.
· Memory - Shows how chache memory and DRAM memory interface to the system and the processor.
· PCI bus - Discusses the fundamentals of the PCI bus and shows its importance in the architecture of modern PCs.

· On-line multiple choice tests for students
· On-line PowerPoint/HTML slides of all the graphics from the book.



0201398583B04062001

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
A guide to the component systems of the PC, providing a foundation for understanding previous, current, and future PC systems and how the specification of each component of a PC affects the overall system performance. Outlines each of the main PC processors and contrasts their performance, and examines each of the main interface devices and shows how they integrate into the main systems. Explains how systems have evolved from the original PC, and provides insight into PC of the future. Buchanan has written many books on computing. Wilson is a computer hardware expert. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780201398588
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 12/30/2000
  • Pages: 589
  • Product dimensions: 7.35 (w) x 9.18 (h) x 1.21 (d)

Meet the Author

William Buchanan is a Senior Lecturer at Napier University, Edinburgh. He acts as a consultant for British Gas, among other companies, and he is a founding partner of Real-Time Technologies, Ltd.  Austin Wilson is a computer hardware expert, working in the industry everyday with future computer hardware products. He has a wealth of theoretical and practical computer hardware knowledge. He provides a company consultant service and lectures at local colleges and universities; part of which includes course material updates and staff development classes.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE: The internal architecture of the PC is changing for many reasons, including:
* Phasing-out of old legacy busses and devices. PCs have, in the past, been difficult to configure and to add new equipment to, as they are still very much based on legacy systems. The worst offender of this is the ISA bus which requires the use of interrupt lines (IRQs) and special memory address (I/O ports). These have always been difficult to configure and normally require some degree of expertise before they can be correctly configured. New interfaces, such as the USB, allow for the automatic identification and configuration of a device and for addition and deletion of a device while the PC is still powered on.
* Increase in the system data rate. Over the years, the processor has increased its speed, but the system board has struggled to keep up with these increases. New architectures are now being developed which more closely match system memory and the graphics controller to the processor, while moving other devices and interfaces, such as the hard disk and communication ports, away from the processor. This allows high-speed devices to have direct access to the processor, allowing for increased data transfer to and from memory, and for enhanced 3D photorealisitic graphics.
* New memory devices. Traditional memory (DRAM) can be slow when compared with the processor speed. New memory devices, such as RDRAM, have now been developed which allows ultra-high data transfers between the processor and the memory.
* New plug-and-play architectures. USB provides a great deal of enhancements over traditional connections, and will be used extensively over the next few years toconnect devices to the PC.
* Increased usage of electronic bridges. These segment the PCs into segments which are more closely matched to the speed of the device. A typical device is the PCI bridge.

This book provides a foundation on the understanding of previous, current and future PC systems. These principles will allow undergraduates and professionals to fully understand how the specification of each component of a PC affects overall system performance.

It outlines each of the main PC processors and contrasts their performance. It also examines each of the main interface devices and shows how they integrate into the complete system. In the motherboard material, previous, current and future motherboards are shown in some detail to allow undergraduates and professionals to understand how data is passed around the PC. The main objectives are to:
* Provide a complete understand of all PC systems, current or future. This helps in understanding the specifications of a computer so that users can purchase the required specification for their application.
* Provide an insight in how PC systems will involve in the future. This will allow hardware and software developers to properly understand how they design and develop their products to encapsulate new systems.
* Show how systems have evolved from the original PC to current and future systems. This shows how the PC has kept compatibility with previous systems, but increased its power.

One of the main aims of this book is to provide a foundation on the understanding of previous, current and future PC systems, and how the specification of each component of a PC affects the overall system performance. It shows where PCs have been in the past, where they are now, and how new architectures and interfaces devices will change the PC from a difficult-to-use, difficult-to-configure and difficult to add-to system into an easy-to-use supercomputer.

With new GHz processor speeds, and new memory and interfacing techniques, the PC is never going to be the same again. For the first time, the PC will discard the past and look towards the future. First in line in the discard pile will be the ISA bus, and gone forever will be IRQs and complex software set-ups. In will come true plug-and-play and hot addition/deletion.

The PC is dead. Long live, the PC. For 20 years the PC has struggled along with the same old system, and trying to be compatible with its famous father: the IBM PC. From now on, the PC will change, and things will never be the same again. In order to take it into the supercomputer range it must change. Thus everything is changing: its architecture, its memory, its graphics, its sound, in fact, almost everything. In will come a new shining system which will be one of the greatest achievements, ever!

So which chapters should you read if you really want to get a good understanding of the PC. Well we would recommend:
* Motherboards (Chapter 27) and Hub-based architecture (Chapter 28). These chapters analyse typical motherboards and chipsets and show how each of the components interfaces together, and how the architecture affects the system performance.
* Memory (Chapter 12). This chapter shows how cache memory and DRAM memory interfaces to the system, and the processor. It also outlines how SDRAM and RDRAM enhance the data transfer rate over traditional memory types, such as EDO RAM.
* PCI bus (Chapter 18) and AGP bus (Chapter 24). This chapter discusses the fundamentals of the PCI bus and shows its importance in the architecture of modern PCs. This concept is then further enhanced in the AGP chapter, which has used the PCI bus as a foundation and then enhanced it to provide for high-speed graphics transfers.

As much as possible little interesting inserts have been added to the text. Maybe they should provide a light relief to the more academic material.

Contacts:
Dr William Buchanan
Address: School of Computing, Napier University, Edinburgh. UK.
Email address: w.buchanan@napier.ac.uk w_j_buchanan@hotmail.com
WWW page: ...

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Table of Contents

Preface vii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Pre-PC Development 1
1.2 8008/8080/8085 7
1.3 8086/8088 13
1.4 80186/80188 19
1.5 80286 20
1.6 Post-PC Development 21
1.7 Top 15 Achievers and Under-achievers 39
1.8 History of Computer Systems 44
1.9 Exercises 46
1.10 DEC 52
1.11 Note from the Author 54
2 PC Basics 56
2.1 PC Systems 56
2.2 Practical PC System 57
2.3 Buses 58
2.4 Interrupts 70
2.5 Interfacing 79
2.6 Exercises 84
2.7 Note from the Author 86
3 Introduction to Intel Processors 87
3.1 Introduction 87
3.2 Intel Range 88
3.3 Memory Addressing 93
3.4 8088 Microprocessor 95
3.5 View Inside the Processor 100
3.6 Exercises 101
4 8086 Basics 103
4.1 Introduction 103
4.2 Assembly Language Elements 104
4.3 Timing 111
4.4 Moving Data Around in Memory 113
4.5 Equates 114
4.6 Exercises 114
4.7 Data Definition 117
4.8 Assembler Directives 118
4.9 8086 Reference 119
5 80486 124
5.1 Introduction 124
5.2 80486 Pin Out 124
5.3 80386/80486 Registers 128
5.4 Memory Cache 128
5.5 Exercises 138
5.6 80486 Microprocessor Signals 138
6 Bus Cycles, Bus Controller and Direct Memory Access 151
6.1 Introduction 151
6.2 Bus Cycles 151
6.3 Bus Controller 157
6.4 Direct Memory Access 165
6.5 Exercises 170
7 CMOS, Memory and I/O 171
7.1 CMOS 171
7.2 Memory 173
7.3 Input/output Memory 181
7.4 Port B 183
7.5 Exercises 183
7.6 I/O Memory Map 184
7.7 Background on Memory 186
8 UART and PIC 191
8.1 Introduction 191
8.2 Universal asynchronous receiver transmitter (8250) 191
8.3 Programmable Interrupt Controller (8259) 199
8.4 Exercises 203
9 PPI and PTC 206
9.1 Introduction 206
9.2 Programmable Peripheral Interface (8255) 206
9.3 Programmable Timer Controller (8254) 213
9.4 Timers and the PC 221
9.5 Exercises 223
10 Introduction to the Pentium 226
10.1 Introduction 226
10.2 Intel Processor Development 226
10.3 Terminology 228
10.4 Pentium II and Pentium Pro 229
10.5 System Overview 230
10.6 Pentium Details 234
10.7 Exercises 242
11 Transaction Phase Signals 247
11.1 Introduction 247
11.2 Transaction Examples 256
11.3 Additional Pentium Pro Signals 263
11.4 Exercises 268
12 Memory 270
12.1 Introduction 270
12.2 Memory Basics 270
12.3 Memory Subsystem 282
12.4 Memory Errors 286
12.5 Exercises 291
12.6 Additional diagrams 292
13 MMX Technology 294
13.1 Introduction 294
13.2 PII Technology Profile 294
13.3 MMX Technology 295
14 Instruction Execution 305
14.1 Introduction 305
14.2 Typical Processor Approach to Instruction Execution 306
14.3 PII Approach to Instruction Execution 307
14.4 PII Processor Block Diagram 308
14.5 PII Dynamic Execution Implementation 309
14.6 PII Bus Features 310
14.7 PII/III Bus Transactions 312
14.8 Transaction Types 315
14.9 Transaction Phases 316
14.10 Processor Bus Transaction Signals Diagram 317
14.11 Exercises 326
15 SC242 Signals 327
15.1 Introduction 327
15.2 Additional SC242 signals 330
15.3 Exercises 335
16 Processor Developments 336
16.1 Introduction 336
16.2 Other Processors 340
16.3 x84-64 Architecture 342
17 Interface Buses 343
17.1 Introduction 343
17.2 PC Bus 343
17.3 ISA Bus 345
17.4 Other Legacy Buses 349
17.5 Summary of Interface Bus Types 350
17.6 Comparison of Different Interface Bus Types 353
17.7 Exercises 354
17.8 The Fall of the MCA Bus 355
17.9 Note from the Author 356
18 PCI Bus 361
18.1 Introduction 361
18.2 PCI Operation 363
18.3 Bus Arbitration 367
18.4 PCI I/O Write Data Cycle Timing Diagram Section 369
18.5 Other PCI Pins 377
18.6 Configuration Address Space 378
18.7 I/O Addressing 380
18.8 Bus Cycles 384
18.9 PCI Faults 388
18.10 Interrupt Handling 390
18.11 Exercises 391
18.12 PCI Functional Signal Groups 392
18.13 Example Manufacturer and Plug-and-play IDs 394
18.14 Note from the Author 395
19 IDE 396
19.1 Introduction 396
19.2 Tracks and Sectors 396
19.3 Fixed Disks 397
19.4 Drive Specifications 398
19.5 Hard Disk and CD-ROM Interfaces 398
19.6 IDE Interface 400
19.7 IDE Communication 402
19.8 Optical Storage 408
19.9 Magnetic Tape 412
19.10 File Systems 413
19.11 Exercises 415
19.12 Note from the Author 416
20 SCSI 418
20.1 Introduction 418
20.2 SCSI Types 418
20.3 SCSI Interface 419
20.4 SCSI Operation 422
20.5 Message System Description 424
20.6 SCSI Commands 426
20.7 Status 429
20.8 Exercises 430
20.9 Note from the Author 430
21 PCMCIA (PC Card) 432
21.1 Introduction 432
21.2 PCMCIA Registers 433
21.3 Exercises 437
21.4 Additional: PCMCIA Types and Pin Connections 437
21.5 Note from the Author 438
22 USB and Firewire 439
22.1 Introduction 439
22.2 USB 440
22.3 Firewire 445
22.4 Exercises 448
22.5 Note from the Author 449
23 Games Port, Keyboard and Mouse 450
23.1 Introduction 450
23.2 Games Port 450
23.3 Mouse 453
23.4 Keyboard 455
23.5 Mouse and Keyboard Interface 458
23.6 Exercises 459
23.7 Note from the Author 460
24 AGP 461
24.1 Introduction 461
24.2 PCI and AGP 462
24.3 Bus Transactions 463
24.4 Pin Description 463
24.5 AGP Connections 466
24.6 AGP Master Configuration 466
24.7 Bus Commands 467
24.8 Addressing Modes and Bus Operations 468
24.9 Register Description 468
24.10 Exercises 472
24.11 Note from the Author 473
25 RS-232 474
25.1 Introduction 474
25.2 Electrical Characteristics and Connectors 474
25.3 Communications Between Two Nodes 476
25.4 Programming RS-232 480
25.5 RS-232 Programs 480
25.6 Interface to the Motherboard 483
25.7 Exercises 483
25.8 Note from the Author 488
26 Parallel Port 489
26.1 Introduction 489
26.2 Data Handshaking 489
26.3 I/O Addressing 492
26.4 Interrupt-driven Parallel Port 497
26.5 ECP/EPP Mode 501
26.6 Interface to the Motherboard 510
26.7 Exercises 511
26.8 Note from the Author 514
27 PC Motherboards 516
27.1 Introduction 516
27.2 Intel HX 517
27.3 TX Motherboard 527
27.4 450NX PCIset 531
27.5 450KX and 450GX PCISET 533
27.6 Exercises 534
27.7 Interface to Flash 535
27.8 Note from the Author 535
28 Hub-based Architecture 537
28.1 Introduction 537
28.2 820 Chipset 539
28.3 840 Chipset 546
28.4 810E Chipset 550
28.5 Exercises 551
A Appendices 553
A.1 SIMM/DIMM Pin Connections 553
A.2 Slot 1/SC242 Connections 560
A.3 Quick Reference 562
A.4 ASCII 565
A.5 Additional WWW material 567
Index 568
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Preface

The internal architecture of the PC is changing for many reasons, including:
* Phasing-out of old legacy busses and devices. PCs have, in the past, been difficult to configure and to add new equipment to, as they are still very much based on legacy systems. The worst offender of this is the ISA bus which requires the use of interrupt lines (IRQs) and special memory address (I/O ports). These have always been difficult to configure and normally require some degree of expertise before they can be correctly configured. New interfaces, such as the USB, allow for the automatic identification and configuration of a device and for addition and deletion of a device while the PC is still powered on.
* Increase in the system data rate. Over the years, the processor has increased its speed, but the system board has struggled to keep up with these increases. New architectures are now being developed which more closely match system memory and the graphics controller to the processor, while moving other devices and interfaces, such as the hard disk and communication ports, away from the processor. This allows high-speed devices to have direct access to the processor, allowing for increased data transfer to and from memory, and for enhanced 3D photorealisitic graphics.
* New memory devices. Traditional memory (DRAM) can be slow when compared with the processor speed. New memory devices, such as RDRAM, have now been developed which allows ultra-high data transfers between the processor and the memory.
* New plug-and-play architectures. USB provides a great deal of enhancements over traditional connections, and will be used extensively over the next few yearsto connect devices to the PC.
* Increased usage of electronic bridges. These segment the PCs into segments which are more closely matched to the speed of the device. A typical device is the PCI bridge.

This book provides a foundation on the understanding of previous, current and future PC systems. These principles will allow undergraduates and professionals to fully understand how the specification of each component of a PC affects overall system performance.

It outlines each of the main PC processors and contrasts their performance. It also examines each of the main interface devices and shows how they integrate into the complete system. In the motherboard material, previous, current and future motherboards are shown in some detail to allow undergraduates and professionals to understand how data is passed around the PC. The main objectives are to:
* Provide a complete understand of all PC systems, current or future. This helps in understanding the specifications of a computer so that users can purchase the required specification for their application.
* Provide an insight in how PC systems will involve in the future. This will allow hardware and software developers to properly understand how they design and develop their products to encapsulate new systems.
* Show how systems have evolved from the original PC to current and future systems. This shows how the PC has kept compatibility with previous systems, but increased its power.

One of the main aims of this book is to provide a foundation on the understanding of previous, current and future PC systems, and how the specification of each component of a PC affects the overall system performance. It shows where PCs have been in the past, where they are now, and how new architectures and interfaces devices will change the PC from a difficult-to-use, difficult-to-configure and difficult to add-to system into an easy-to-use supercomputer.

With new GHz processor speeds, and new memory and interfacing techniques, the PC is never going to be the same again. For the first time, the PC will discard the past and look towards the future. First in line in the discard pile will be the ISA bus, and gone forever will be IRQs and complex software set-ups. In will come true plug-and-play and hot addition/deletion.

The PC is dead. Long live, the PC. For 20 years the PC has struggled along with the same old system, and trying to be compatible with its famous father: the IBM PC. From now on, the PC will change, and things will never be the same again. In order to take it into the supercomputer range it must change. Thus everything is changing: its architecture, its memory, its graphics, its sound, in fact, almost everything. In will come a new shining system which will be one of the greatest achievements, ever!

So which chapters should you read if you really want to get a good understanding of the PC. Well we would recommend:
* Motherboards (Chapter 27) and Hub-based architecture (Chapter 28). These chapters analyse typical motherboards and chipsets and show how each of the components interfaces together, and how the architecture affects the system performance.
* Memory (Chapter 12). This chapter shows how cache memory and DRAM memory interfaces to the system, and the processor. It also outlines how SDRAM and RDRAM enhance the data transfer rate over traditional memory types, such as EDO RAM.
* PCI bus (Chapter 18) and AGP bus (Chapter 24). This chapter discusses the fundamentals of the PCI bus and shows its importance in the architecture of modern PCs. This concept is then further enhanced in the AGP chapter, which has used the PCI bus as a foundation and then enhanced it to provide for high-speed graphics transfers.

As much as possible little interesting inserts have been added to the text. Maybe they should provide a light relief to the more academic material.

Contacts:
Dr William Buchanan
Address: School of Computing, Napier University, Edinburgh. UK.
Email address: w.buchanan@napier.ac.uk w_j_buchanan@hotmail.com
WWW page: http://www.dcs.napier.ac.uk/~bill http://ceres.dcs.napier.ac.uk/staff/bill
http//www.napier.ac.uk/Departments/Staff-detail.asp?StaffID=833
http://www.soc.napier.ac.uk/bill
Austin Wilson
Compaq Computers.



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  • Anonymous

    Posted February 16, 2001

    Very poor

    A very dull book not worth the asking price. Poorly structured and difficult to follow. This book will teach you nothing that you cant read in manufacturers data sheets.

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