Advanced Research Methods in Psychology

Advanced Research Methods in Psychology

by David Giles, C. Giles David
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0415227712

ISBN-13: 9780415227711

Pub. Date: 09/28/2002

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

How do you perform a MANOVA? What is grounded theory? How do you draw up a repertory grid? These, and many other questions are addressed in this wide-ranging handbook of methods and analytic techniques which uniquely covers both quantitative and qualitative methods.
Based on a broad survey of undergraduate curricula, the book takes curious readers through all of

Overview

How do you perform a MANOVA? What is grounded theory? How do you draw up a repertory grid? These, and many other questions are addressed in this wide-ranging handbook of methods and analytic techniques which uniquely covers both quantitative and qualitative methods.
Based on a broad survey of undergraduate curricula, the book takes curious readers through all of the methods that are taught on psychology courses worldwide, from advanced ANOVA statistics through regression models to test construction, qualitative research and other more unusual techniques such as Q methodology, meta-analysis and log-linear analysis. Each technique is illustrated by recent examples from the literature. There are also chapters on ethics, significance testing, and writing for publication and research proposals.
Advanced Research Methods in Psychology will provide an invaluable resource for advanced undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers who need a readable, contemporary and eclectic reference of advanced methods currently in use in psychological research.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780415227711
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
Publication date:
09/28/2002
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
376
Product dimensions:
6.20(w) x 9.40(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

List of figuresxii
List of tablesxiv
Prefacexvi
1Introduction1
Part IBeyond ANOVA7
2Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)9
Worked example of a one-way ANOVA with a single covariate10
Data screening12
ANCOVA using more than one covariate16
Worked example of ANCOVA with more than one covariate17
Two examples of ANCOVA from the psychological literature19
Alternatives to ANCOVA21
Summary22
3Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)25
Data screening26
Worked example of a 3 x 2 MANOVA with three dependent variables and three covariates28
MANOVA with one IV and three DVs29
Univariate tests of significance33
Post hoc and a priori comparisons34
MANOVA with two IVs and three DVs34
MANCOVA with one IV, three DVs and three covariates35
Split-plot 3 x 2 MANOVA with three dependent measures37
Two examples of MANOVA from the psychological literature37
Summary40
4Discriminant function analysis41
Questions to be answered by discriminant function analysis42
A worked example of discriminant function analysis44
Testing significance44
Interpreting the functions46
Classification analysis47
Other features of discriminant function analysis48
Example of discriminant function analysis from the psychological literature51
Summary52
Part IIMeasures of relationship: regression techniques53
5Multiple regression55
Partial correlation55
The multiple regression equation56
Different types of regression model59
Data screening61
Worked example of hierarchical multiple regression64
Performing the analysis using computer software66
Interpreting the output67
Model validation69
An example of multiple regression from the literature70
Multivariate regression71
Summary72
6Logistic regression73
Essential features of logistic regression73
Worked example of logistic regression75
Two examples of logistic regression from the psychological literature78
Summary80
7Structural equation modelling81
Terminology82
Basic concepts in structural equation modelling83
Example from the literature of a study using EQS88
Example from the literature of a study using path analysis90
Problems with structural equation modelling93
Alternatives to structural equation modelling94
Summary96
Part IIIQuestionnaires and scales99
Survey design99
8Scale design and construction103
Varieties of tests, scales and questionnaires103
Constructing a scale107
Creating an item pool107
Example of a test specification107
Writing items109
Poor questionnaire/scale items109
Organisation and layout of questionnaire111
Piloting and item analysis113
Measures of reliability and validity115
An example from the literature117
Summary119
9Factor analysis121
Exploratory factor analysis122
Steps in principal components analysis122
Other forms of exploratory factor analysis125
Factor selection126
Factor rotation128
Different types of rotation129
Interpreting the computer output129
Example of exploratory factor analysis from the literature130
Some issues in factor analysis132
Confirmatory factor analysis134
Example of confirmatory factor analysis from the literature135
Summary137
10Other techniques for data reduction138
Cluster analysis138
Hierarchical clustering techniques140
Average linkage cluster analysis142
Example from the literature of hierarchical cluster analysis143
Multidimensional scaling144
Calculations in multidimensional scaling146
Evaluating the MDS solution147
Canonical correlation149
Example of canonical correlation from the literature150
Summary154
Part IVQualitative methods155
11Qualitative research in psychology157
Arguments for using qualitative research in psychology158
The use of qualitative research in psychology161
Summary164
12Grounded theory165
Background to grounded theory166
How to perform a grounded theory analysis167
Data collection168
Initial analysis169
Secondary analysis171
Final analysis173
Writing the grounded theory report174
Examples of grounded theory from the psychological literature175
Debates and developments in grounded theory177
Departures from traditional grounded theory179
Summary180
13Discourse analysis181
Ideas behind discourse analysis in psychology181
Implications for psychological theory183
Steps in conducting discourse analysis185
Identifying and collecting data185
Transcription conventions186
Analytical techniques188
Two examples of discourse analysis from the psychological literature192
Some debates in discourse analysis194
Relation between discourse analysis and grounded theory197
Summary197
14Other qualitative approaches198
Qualitative content analysis198
Conversation analysis200
Ethnography203
Locating the field205
Data collection206
An example of ethnographic research with relevance to psychology207
Idiographic approaches208
Interpretative phenomenological analysis209
Narrative psychology209
Broad approaches210
Action research210
Feminist research212
Summary213
15Reporting and evaluating qualitative research214
Writing the qualitative report215
Criteria for evaluating qualitative research218
Summary223
Part VOther approaches225
16Content analysis and log-linear models227
Content analysis227
An example of content analysis from the psychological literature228
Log-linear analysis229
Underlying principles229
Other issues in log-linear analysis233
Two examples using log-linear analysis from the psychological literature234
Summary237
17Q methodology238
Q methodology: the basic idea238
The Q-sort: a worked example239
The European 'dialect' of Q methodology242
The North American 'dialect' of Q methodology245
Summary246
18Meta-analysis247
What does meta-analysis allow us to do?248
Worked example of a meta-analysis248
Carrying out the full analysis253
Examples of meta-analysis from the psychological literature254
Problems with meta-analysis258
Summary261
19Self-generated data262
The diary method in psychological research262
Repertory grid technique268
Constructing a repertory grid268
Analysing the grid271
The individual grid: an example from the clinical literature272
Comparisons using grids273
Other methods using self-generated data275
Summary276
Part VIUses and abuses of research277
20Ethical issues in psychological research279
Introduction279
Deception279
Protection of participants282
Informed consent283
Right to privacy285
Honesty286
Summary287
21Issues in design and statistics289
Introduction289
Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST): a matter for confusion290
Problems with NHST291
What is the null hypothesis anyway?291
Use of p values292
Alternatives to NHST293
Power calculations296
Confidence intervals298
Arguments against alternatives to NHST299
Guidelines proposed by the APA Task Force on Statistical Inference300
Summary302
22Writing for publication304
Introduction304
The review process304
Selecting an appropriate outlet308
Preparing the manuscript310
Tips and hints310
Books312
Some thoughts on the review process315
Summary317
23Writing research grant proposals318
Introduction318
What funds, where?319
Types of funding319
Funding bodies320
Applying for funding321
The review process322
Writing the grant proposal323
Some tips on writing grant proposals325
Summary327
Appendices 1 & 2328
References331
Index345

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