Advanced Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis / Edition 1

Advanced Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis / Edition 1

by Patrick Echlin, C.E. Fiori, Joseph Goldstein, David C. Joy
     
 

ISBN-10: 0306421402

ISBN-13: 9780306421402

Pub. Date: 03/31/1986

Publisher: Springer US

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780306421402
Publisher:
Springer US
Publication date:
03/31/1986
Edition description:
1986
Pages:
454
Product dimensions:
6.40(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.30(d)

Table of Contents

Modeling Electron Beam-Specimen Interactions
3(42)
Introduction
3(1)
Cross Sections for Scattering Processes
3(12)
General Properties
3(2)
Elastic Scattering
5(2)
Inelastic Scattering
7(8)
Analytic Modeling
15(4)
X-Ray Generation in Thin Foils
16(1)
X-Ray Generation in Thick Targets
17(2)
Monte Carlo Electron Trajectory Simulation
19(26)
Formulation
19(7)
Applications of the Monte Carlo Method
26(12)
Appendix
38(7)
SEM Microcharacterization of Semiconductors
45(42)
Introduction
45(1)
Voltage Contrast
45(7)
Voltage Measurements
52(4)
Stroboscopic Microscopy
56(3)
Charge Collection Microscopy
59(2)
Charge Collection Images of Semiconductor Materials
61(10)
Quantitative Measurements in Charge Collection Microscopy
71(4)
Practical Aspects of Charge Collection Microscopy
75(2)
Cathodoluminescence Studies
77(5)
Thermal Wave Microscopy
82(5)
Electron Channeling Contrast in the SEM
87(60)
Introduction
87(1)
Origin of Electron Channeling Contrast
87(2)
Characteristics of Electron Channeling Contrast
89(3)
The Electron Channeling Pattern
92(7)
Coarse Structure
92(2)
Fine Structure
94(5)
Electron Optical Conditions to Observe Electron Channeling Contrast
99(8)
Beam Divergence
99(1)
Beam Current
100(1)
Choice of Detectors
101(2)
Signal Processing
103(1)
Beam Energy
104(1)
Backscattered Electron Energy
105(1)
Specimen Tilt
105(1)
Specimen Condition
106(1)
Channeling Micrographs
107(6)
Polycrystalline Samples
107(4)
Limit of Spatial Resoltion in Channeling Contrast Images
111(2)
Limit of Misorientation Detection
113(1)
Selected Area Electron Channeling Patterns
113(4)
Orientation Determination with ECPs
117(6)
Determining Orientation
118(1)
Channeling Maps
118(5)
Deformation Effects on Channeling Contrast
123(24)
Channeling Patterns
123(6)
Deformation Effects in Channeling Contrast Images
129(1)
Electron Channeling Maps
129(13)
Worked Example of Orientation Determination
142(5)
Magnetic Contrast in the SEM
147(34)
Introduction
147(1)
Magnetic Microstructures
147(3)
Magnetic Domains
147(2)
Types of Magnetic Materials
149(1)
Type I Magnetic Contrast: External Deflection of Secondary Electron Trajectories
150(8)
Physical Origin
150(1)
Characteristics of Type I magnetic Contrast
151(4)
Quantitative Theory of Type I Magnetic Contrast
155(2)
Strategy for Observing Type I Magnetic Contrast
157(1)
Type II Magnetic Contrast: Internal Deflection of Primary Electron Trajectories
158(15)
Physical Origin
158(3)
Characteristics of Type II Magnetic Contrast
161(7)
Calculation of Type II Magnetic Contrast
168(2)
Strategy for Observing Type II Magnetic Contrast
170(3)
Type III Magnetic Contrast: Polarization of Secondary Electrons
173(2)
Physical Origin
173(1)
Experimental Techniques
174(1)
Dynamic Experiments
175(6)
Computer-Aided Imaging and Interpretation
181(62)
Introduction
181(1)
Some Perceptual Limitations and Artifacts Due to Prejudice
182(1)
Some Perceptual Limitations and Artifacts of the Eye and Mind
183(3)
The Image Acquisition and Display System
186(2)
General Considerations for a Computer and Its Microscope Interface
188(4)
Considerations for the Microscope
189(1)
Considerations for the Computer
190(2)
Color Display Systems
192(3)
The Photography of Color Displays
195(1)
Satellite Processors
196(1)
Ways to Obtain Quantitative Intensity Information from Digital Images
197(5)
Line Scans
197(2)
Image Intensity Histograms
199(1)
Histogram Stretching
200(1)
Histogram Normalization
200(1)
Density Slicing
201(1)
Primary Coloring and Pseudocoloring
201(1)
Transformations for Electron and X-Ray Micrograph Processing: The Contrast Problem
202(5)
Some Preliminaries
203(1)
Derivative Transformations
204(1)
The First Derivative
205(1)
The Space Gradient
206(1)
The Space Laplacian
206(1)
Isotropic, Nonlinear, Differential Operators
206(1)
Application of the Derivative Transforms to the Contrast Problem
207(1)
Discrete Approximations to Several of the Derivative Operators
208(2)
"Smoothing" Kernels
210(4)
The Acquisition and Display of X-Ray Images in Scanning Electron Column Instruments
214(4)
Statement of the Problem
215(1)
Discussion
216(2)
Methods to Separate the Characteristic and Continuum Radiation: EDS
218(2)
Deadtime Correction for Digitally Acquired EDS Images
220(1)
Methods to Separate the Characteristic and Continuum Radiation: WDS
220(4)
Regional Variance in Background-Corrected Images
222(1)
Choice of Scale for Background-Corrected Images
222(2)
Conversion of Background- and Deadtime-Corrected Intensity Maps to Quantitative Maps
224(1)
An Example of Computer-Aided Imaging and Interpretation
224(12)
Contrast Criteria for Images
236(4)
Conclusion
240(3)
Appendix
240(3)
Alternative Microanalytical Techniques
243(52)
Introduction
243(1)
Strengths and Weaknesses of SEM/XM
243(4)
General Observations on Analysis Methods
247(10)
Quantitative Analysis Procedures
247(7)
Detection Limits
254(3)
High-Spatial-Resolution Microanalysis
257(15)
Thin Specimens: Analytical Electron Microscopy
257(5)
Analysis at Atomic Resolution
262(1)
Analysis of Bulk Samples
263(3)
Surfaces
266(6)
Trace Microanalysis
272(9)
X-Ray Analysis Techniques
272(4)
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
276(3)
Laser Microprobe Mass Analysis
279(2)
Molecular Microanalysis
281(13)
Mass Spectrometry Techniques
281(3)
Photon Beam Microanalysis
284(10)
Summary
294(1)
Specimen Coating
295(30)
Introduction
295(1)
Diode Sputter Coating
296(2)
Low-Voltage Sputter Coating
298(3)
Gold/Palladium
299(1)
Gold
300(1)
Platinum
300(1)
Very-Low-Voltage Sputter Coating
301(1)
Penning Sputtering
302(3)
Ion Beam Sputtering
305(6)
Thermal Evaporation
311(2)
Coating at Low Specimen Temperatures
313(2)
Coating Thickness Measurements
315(2)
Artifacts
317(4)
Coating Techniques for X-Ray Microanalysis
321(1)
Non-Thin-Film Coating Methods
322(1)
Conclusions
323(2)
Advances in Specimen Preparation for Biological SEM
325(40)
Introduction
325(1)
General Methods of Specimen Preparation
325(2)
Fixation
327(2)
Dehydration
329(3)
Exposing Internal Surfaces
332(4)
Localizing Regions of Biological Activity and Chemical Specificity
336(16)
Immunocytochemical Techniques
337(7)
Radioactive Labeling Methods
344(3)
Backscattered-Electron Cytochemical Methods
347(5)
Modifying Specimen Bulk Conductivity
352(6)
Specimen Mounting Procedures
358(1)
High-Resolution Microscopy
359(6)
Isolation of Object of Interest
359(4)
Stabilization and Conductive Staining
363(1)
Specimen Coating
363(2)
Cryomicroscopy
365(70)
Introduction
365(2)
Low-Temperature States of Water
367(4)
Conversion of the Liquid to the Solid State
371(8)
Specimen Pretreatment
371(7)
Nonchemical Pretreatment
378(1)
Methods of Rapid Cooling
379(5)
Plunge Cooling
380(1)
Spray Cooling
381(1)
Jet Cooling
381(1)
Metal Block Cooling
382(1)
High-Pressure Cooling
383(1)
Sample Handling after Rapid Cooling
384(23)
Sectioning
385(6)
Fracturing
391(4)
Etching and Replication
395(2)
Chemical Substitution
397(3)
Low-Temperature Embedding
400(3)
Freeze-Drying
403(4)
Microscopy and Analysis
407(18)
Specimen Transfer
407(1)
Specimen Stages
408(1)
Specimen Visualization
409(11)
Artifacts of Microscopy
420(5)
Analysis
425(2)
Thin Sections
426(1)
Bulk Samples
426(1)
Specimen Damage
427(6)
Thermal Damage
427(1)
Ionizing Radiation
428(5)
Conclusion
433(2)
References 435(14)
Index 449

Customer Reviews

Average Review:

Write a Review

and post it to your social network

     

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See all customer reviews >