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The fusion of basic ideas in mathematics, biology, and chemistry with ongoing improvements in hardware and computation offers the promise of much more sophisticated and accurate sensing capabilities than currently exist. Coupled with the dramatic rise in the need for surveillance in innumerable aspects of our daily lives, brought about by hostile acts deemed unimaginable only a few short years ago, the time is ripe for scientists in the diverse areas of sensing and security to join together in a concerted effort ...
The fusion of basic ideas in mathematics, biology, and chemistry with ongoing improvements in hardware and computation offers the promise of much more sophisticated and accurate sensing capabilities than currently exist. Coupled with the dramatic rise in the need for surveillance in innumerable aspects of our daily lives, brought about by hostile acts deemed unimaginable only a few short years ago, the time is ripe for scientists in the diverse areas of sensing and security to join together in a concerted effort to combat the new brands of terrorism. The contents of this volume can be divided into three broadly defined but interrelated areas: The increasing need for fast and accurate sensing - what is the threat; The scientific underpinnings of the ongoing revolution in sensing; Specific sensing algorithms and techniques. A deep understanding of these three topics, and of their interdependency, is clearly crucial to meet the increasing sophistication of those who wish to do us harm. The contributors to this volume are many of the world's leading experts in the development of new methodologies to both comprehend and predict these threats and to effectively deal with them. The ASI brought together these world leaders from academia, Government and industry, with extensive multidisciplinary backgrounds evidenced by their research and participation in numerous workshops and conferences.
Preface. Acknowledgments.Bistatic and multistatic radar sensors for homeland security; G.J. Baker and H.D. Griffiths. 1. Introduction .- 2 Definitions .-3. Bistatic essentials .- 4. Passive Coherent Location (PCL).- 5. Multistatic radar .-6. Conclusions.- 7. Acknowlegments .-References.The Terrorist Threat and Its Implications for Sensor Technologies; J. L. Brower.1. Introduction.- 2. What is Terrorism?.- 3. General Trends in Terrorism.- 4.Significant Domestic Threats.- 5. State Sponsored Terrorism.- 6. Future Threats.- 7. Preventions Efforts The Role of Sensors.- 8. Improving Sensors.- 9. Conclusions.- References. Advances in sensors; the lessons from Neurosciences; M. Costa.-1. Energies that affect earth living organisms survival.- 2. The emergence of a nervous system. 3. Neurons as excitable cells.- 4. Sensory neurons.- 5. Sensory transduction.- 6. Molecules of sensory transduction.- 7. Hearing system and mechanosensation.- 8. Temperature receptors.- 9. Pain receptors.- 10. Olfaction.- 11. Vision .-12. General view of the sensory systems.- References. Chemical sensors and chemical sensor systems; A. Orsini, A. D ‘Amico. 1. Introduction—Parameters.- 2. Fundamentals Devices; 3. Thermopiles.- 4. Kelvin Probe.- 5. Bulk Acoustic Waves.- 6. Surface Acoustic Waves.- 7. Natural and Artificial Olfaction.- 8. Optical Fibre Sensor .- 9. Surface Plasmon Resonance.- 10. Conclusions.- References. Wireless Sensor Networks for Security: Issues and Challenges; T. Onel, et al. 1. Introduction.- 2. Neyman-Pearson Detection.- 3. Breach Probability Analysis .-
4. Data Processing Architecture for Target Tracking.- 5. Maximum Mutual Information Based Sensor Selection Algorithm.- 6. Simulation Results.- 7. Conclusion.-References. Internet-Scale Chemical Sensing ; D. Diamond. 1. Introduction.- 2. Chemical Sensing and Biosensing.- 3. Miniaturised Analytical Instruments — Lab on a Chip Devices.- 4. Analytical Device Hierarchy.-5. Networking Options.-
6. Integrating Chemical Sensors and Biosensors with Wireless Networks.- 7. Scale-up Issues for Densely Distributed Analytical Devices.- 8. Chemo- & Bio-warfare Agents.- 9. Sensor communities and group behaviour.- 10. pHealth.- 11. Conclusions.- References. Data analysis for chemical sensor arrays; .C. Di Natale et al.1. Feature extraction.-2. Data Pre—processing: Scaling .- 3. Normalization.-
4.- Multivariate data exploration.- 5. Principal Component Analysis.- 6. Supervised Classification .- 7. Linear Discrimination.- 8. Application to the investigation of Chemical Sensors properties.-
9. Conclusions.- References. Fundamentals of Tomography and Radar; H.D. Griffiths and C.J. Baker. 1. Introduction.-2. Imaging and Resolution.- 3. Tomographic Imaging.- 4. The Projection Slice Theorem .- 5. Tomography of Moving Targets.- 6. Applications.- 7. Automatic Target Recognition.- 8. Bandwidth Extrapolation.- 9. Target-matched Illumination.- 10. Conclusion.-11. Acknowledgements.- References. Remote Sensing using Space Based Radar; B. Himed, et al. 1. Introduction .- 2. Geometry.- 3. Range Foldover and Earth’s Rotation.- 4. Application of STAP for SBR .-5. Orthogonal Pulsing Scheme.- References. Continuous wave radars—monostatic, multistatic and network ; K. Kulpa. 1.Introduction.- 2. Radar fundamentals.- 3. Linear Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Radar.- 4. Noise Radar.- 5. Noise radar range equation .- 6. Bi-static and multi-static continuous wave radars.- 7. Target identification in continuous wave radars.-References.
Terahertz Imaging, Millimeter-Wave Radar; R. W. McMillan.1. Introduction .- 2. Atmospheric Limitations.- 3. Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Sources of Radiation.-4. Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Detectors and Receivers.- 5. Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Optics.-6. Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Systems.- 7. Summary.- References. Sensor Management for Radar: A Tutorial;
B. Moran et al. 1. Introduction .- 2. Radar Fundamentals.- 3. Sensor Management Overview.- 4. Theory of Waveform Libraries.-5. Sensor scheduling simulations and results.- References. Waveform Design, Range CFAR and Target Recognition; H. Rohling.1. Introduction.- 2. Combination of LFMCW and FSK modulation principles for automotive radar systems.- Automotive Radar Network Based On 77GHz FMCW Sensors.- 4. Range CFAR Techniques.- 5. Conclusion.-References. Tomography of Moving Targets (TMT) for Security and Surveillance; M. C. Wicks et al. 1.Introduction.- 2. Tomography Concept and Framework .-3. Bistatic Geometry and Observables .-4. Matched Filter Processing (MFP).- 5. TMT Netted Radar System.-6. TMT MFP Simulation.-
7. Detection Perfomance.-8. Summary.- 9. Acknowledgements.- References. Near Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy for Brain Activity Monitoring; Il- Young Son, B. Yazici.1. Introduction.- 2. NIR Imaging and Spectroscopy Systems .- 3. Hemodynamic Response.- 4. Neuronal Response.- 5. Human Subject Studies.- 6. Concluding Remarks and Future Directions.-References.