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In this exciting text, the author adopts a numerical approach to the thermal design of heat exchangers, extending the theory of performance evaluation to the point where computer software may be written. The first few chapters are intended to provide a development from undergraduate studies regarding the fundamentals of heat exchanger theory and the concepts of direct sizing. Later chapters on transient response of heat exchangers and on the related single-blow method of obtaining experimental results should also interest the practicing engineer. Theory is explained simply, with the intention that readers can develop their own approach to the solution of particular problems.
This book is an indispensable reference text for higher level (post-graduate) students and practicing engineers, researchers and academics in the field of heat exchangers.
Chapter 1: Classification.
1.1 Class definition.
1.2 Exclusions and extensions.
1.3 Helical-tube, multi-start coil.
1.4 Plate–fin exchangers.
1.6 Helically twisted flattened tube.
1.7 Spirally wire-wrapped.
1.8 Bayonet tube.
1.9 Wire-woven heat exchangers.
1.10 Porous matrix heat exchangers.
1.11 Some possible applications.
Chapter 2: Fundamentals.
2.1 Simple temperature distributions.
2.2 Log mean temperature difference.
2.3 LMTD–Ntu rating problem.
2.4 LMTD–Ntu sizing problem.
2.5 Link between Ntu values and LMTD.
2.6 The ‘theta’ methods.
2.7 Effectiveness and number of transfer units.
2.8 1–Ntu rating problem.
2.9 1–Ntu sizing problem.
2.10 Comparison of LMTD–Ntu and 1–Ntu approaches.
2.11 Sizing when Q is not specified.
2.12 Optimum temperature profiles in contraflow.
2.13 Optimum pressure losses in contraflow.
2.14 Compactness and performance.
2.15 Required values of Ntu in cryogenics.
2.16 To dig deeper.
2.17 Dimensionless groups.
Chapter 3: Steady-State Temperature Profiles.
3.1 Linear temperature profiles in contraflow.
3.2 General cases of contraflow and parallel flow.
3.3 Condensation and evaporation.
3.4 Longitudinal conduction in contraflow.
3.5 Mean temperature difference in unmixed crossflow.
3.6 Extension to two-pass unmixed crossflow.
3.7 Involute-curved plate–fin exchangers.
3.8 Longitudinal conduction in one-pass unmixed crossflow.
3.9 Determined and undetermined crossflow.
3.10 Possible optimization criteria.
3.11 Cautionary remark about core pressure loss.
3.12 Mean temperature difference in complex arrangements.
3.13 Exergy destruction.
Chapter 4: Direct-Sizing of Plate–Fin Exchangers.
4.1 Exchanger lay-up.
4.2 Plate–fin surface geometries.
4.3 Flow-friction and heat-transfer correlations.
4.4 Rating and direct-sizing design software.
4.5 Direct-sizing of an unmixed crossflow exchanger.
4.6 Concept of direct-sizing in contraflow.
4.7 Direct-sizing of a contraflow exchanger.
4.8 Best of rectangular and triangular ducts.
4.9 Best small, plain rectangular duct.
4.10 Fine-tuning of ROSF surfaces.
4.11 Overview of surface performance.
4.12 Headers and flow distribution.
4.13 Multi-stream design (cryogenics).
4.14 Buffer zone or leakage plate ‘sandwich’.
4.15 Consistency in design methods.
4.16 Geometry of rectangular offset strip fins.
4.17 Compact fin surfaces generally.
Chapter 5: Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers.
5.1 Design framework.
5.2 Consistent geometry.
5.3 Simplified geometry.
5.4 Thermal design.
5.5 Completion of the design.
5.6 Thermal design results for t/d =1.346.
5.7 Fine tuning.
5.8 Design for curved tubes.
5.10 Part-load operation with by-pass control.
Chapter 6: Direct-Sizing of Bayonet-Tube Exchangers.
6.1 Isothermal shell-side conditions.
6.4 Design illustration.
6.5 Non-isothermal shell-side conditions.
6.6 Special explicit case.
6.7 Explicit solution.
6.8 General numerical solutions.
6.9 Pressure loss.
Chapter 7: Direct-Sizing of RODbaffle Exchangers.
7.1 Design framework.
7.2 Configuration of the RODbaffle exchanger.
7.3 Approach to direct-sizing.
7.4 Flow areas.
7.5 Characteristic dimensions.
7.6 Design correlations.
7.7 Reynolds numbers.
7.8 Heat transfer.
7.9 Pressure loss tube-side.
7.10 Pressure loss shell-side.
7.12 Tube-bundle diameter.
7.13 Practical design.
7.14 Generalized correlations.
7.16 Other shell-and-tube designs.
Chapter 8: Exergy Loss and Pressure Loss.
8.2 Historical development.
8.3 Exergy change for any flow process.
8.4 Exergy loss for any heat exchangers.
8.5 Contraflow exchangers.
8.6 Dependence of exergy loss number on absolute temperature level.
8.7 Performance of cryogenic plant.
8.8 Allowing for leakage.
8.9 Commercial considerations.
8.11 Control of flow distribution.
8.12 Header design.
8.13 Minimizing effects of flow maldistribution.
8.14 Embedded heat exchangers.
8.15 Pumping power.
Chapter 9: Transients in Heat Exchangers.
9.1 Review of solution methods – contraflow.
9.2 Contraflow with finite differences.
9.3 Further considerations.
9.4 Engineering applications – contraflow.
9.5 Review of solution methods – crossflow.
9.6 Engineering applications – crossflow.
Chapter 10: Single-Blow Test Methods.
10.1 Features of the test method.
10.2 Choice of theoretical model.
10.3 Analytical and physical assumptions.
10.4 Simple theory.
10.5 Relative accuracy of outlet response curves in experimentation.
10.6 Conclusions on test methods.
10.7 Practical considerations.
10.8 Solution by finite differences.
Chapter 11: Heat Exchangers in Cryogenic Plant.
11.2 Liquefaction concepts and components.
11.3 Liquefaction of nitrogen.
11.4 Hydrogen liquefaction plant.
11.5 Preliminary direct-sizing of multi-stream heat exchangers.
11.6 Step-wise rating of multi-stream heat exchangers.
11.7 Future commercial applications.
Chapter 12: Heat Transfer and Flow Friction in Two-Phase Flow.
12.1 With and without phase change.
12.2 Two-phase flow regimes.
12.3 Two-phase pressure loss.
12.4 Two-phase heat-transfer correlations.
12.5 Two-phase design of a double-tube exchanger.
12.7 Aspects of air conditioning.
12.8 Rate processes.
Appendix A: Transient Equations with Longitudinal Conduction and Wall Thermal Storage.
A.1 Mass flow and temperature transients in contraflow.
A.2 Summarized development of transient equations for contraflow.
A.3 Computational approach.
Appendix B: Algorithms And Schematic Source Listings.
B.1 Algorithms for mean temperature distribution in one-pass unmixed crossflow.
B.2 Schematic source listing for direct-sizing of compact one-pass crossflow exchanger.
B.3 Schematic source listing for direct-sizing of compact contraflow exchanger.
B.4 Parameters for rectangular offset strip fins.
B.5 Longitudinal conduction in contraflow.
B.6 Spline-fitting of data.
B.7 Extrapolation of data.
B.8 Finite-difference solution schemes for transients.
Supplement to Appendix B – Transient Algorithms.
Appendix C: Optimization of Rectangular Offset Strip, Plate–Fin Surfaces.
C.1 Fine-tuning of rectangular offset strip fins.
C.2 Trend curves.
C.3 Optimization graphs.
C.4 Manglik & Bergles correlations.
Appendix D: Performance Data for RODbaffle Exchangers.
D.1 Further heat-transfer and flow-friction data.
D.2 Baffle-ring by-pass.
Appendix E: Proving the Single-Blow Test Method – Theory and Experimentation.
E.1 Analytical approach using Laplace transforms.
E.2 Numerical evaluation of Laplace outlet response.
E.3 Experimental test equipment.
Appendix F: Most Efficient Temperature Difference in Contraflow.
F.1 Calculus of variations.
F.2 Optimum temperature profiles.
Appendix G: Physical Properties of Materials and Fluids.
G.1 Sources of data.
Appendix H: Source Books on Heat Exchangers.
H.1 Texts in chronological order.
H.2 Exchanger types not already covered.
H.3 Fouling – some recent literature.
Appendix I: Creep Life of Thick Tubes.
I.2 Fundamental equations.
I.3 Early work on thick tubes.
I.4 Equivalence of stress systems.
I.5 Fail-safe and safe-life.
I.6 Constitutive equations for creep.
I.7 Clarke’s creep curves.
I.8 Further and recent developments.
Appendix J: Compact Surface Selection for Sizing Optimization.
J.1 Acceptable flow velocities.
J.2 Overview of surface performance.
J.3 Design problem.
J.4 Exchanger optimization.
J.5 Possible surface geometries.
Appendix K: Continuum Equations.
K.1 Laws of continuum mechanics.
K.2 Coupled continuum theory.
K.3 De-coupling the balance of energy equation.
Appendix L: Suggested Further Research.
L.1 Sinusoidal–lenticular surfaces.
L.2 Steady-state crossflow.
L.3 Header design.
L.4 Transients in contraflow.
Appendix M: Conversion Factors.
Chapter 2: Fundamentals.
Chapter 3: Steady-state temperature profiles.
Chapter 4: Direct-sizing of plate–fin exchangers.
Chapter 5: Direct-sizing of helical-tube exchangers.
Chapter 6: Direct-sizing of bayonet-tube exchangers.
Chapter 7: Direct-sizing of RODbaffle exchangers.
Chapter 8: Exergy loss and pressure loss.
Chapter 9: Transients in heat exchangers.
Chapter 10: Single-blow test methods.
Chapter 11: Heat exchangers in cryogenic plant.
Chapter 12: Heat transfer and flow friction in two-phase flow.
Appendix A: Transient equations with longitudinal conduction and wall thermal storage.
Appendix I: Creep life of thick tubes.