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Advances in Virus Research

Advances in Virus Research

by Karl Maramorosch, Aaron J. Shatkin, Frederick A. Murphy

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ISBN-10: 0123858852

ISBN-13: 9780123858856

Pub. Date: 12/12/2011

Publisher: Elsevier Science

This latest volume in the Advances in Virus Research series presents articles on topics such as the role of lipid rafts in virus assembly and budding; novel vaccine strategies; treatment of arenavirus infections; the evaluation of drug resistance in HIV infection; perspectives on polydnavirus origin and evolution; bateriophage 29 DNA packaging; the potential of


This latest volume in the Advances in Virus Research series presents articles on topics such as the role of lipid rafts in virus assembly and budding; novel vaccine strategies; treatment of arenavirus infections; the evaluation of drug resistance in HIV infection; perspectives on polydnavirus origin and evolution; bateriophage 29 DNA packaging; the potential of plant viral vectors and transgenic plants for subunit vaccine production; and the interaction of orthopoxviruses with interferon-treated cultured cells. This timely and informative compilation of articles will be of interest to researchers in the fields of virology, immunology, microbiology, and plant science.

Product Details

Elsevier Science
Publication date:
Advances in Virus Research Series
Product dimensions:
6.10(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

The Pathogenesis of Poliomyelitis: What We Don't Know   Neal Nathanson     1
Introduction     3
Sequential Steps in the Spread of Infection     3
Questions unanswered: Cellular sites of replication     4
Questions unanswered: Neural invasion from the blood     6
Provocation Poliomyelitis     6
Questions unanswered: The mechanism of the provoking effect     7
Questions unanswered: Neural spread     10
PVR, Tropism, and the Localization of Lesions     11
Questions unanswered: Receptor expression is necessary but not sufficient     11
Questions unanswered: Localization within the CNS     13
Questions unanswered: How poliovirus kills cells     15
Host Innate and Immune Response to Infection     15
Questions unanswered: The acquired immune response     16
Immune Defenses and Viral Clearance: Mechanisms of Vaccine-Induced Protection     17
Primary infections     17
Secondary infection in immune hosts     18
Poliovirus serotypes     20
Animal Models of Human Poliomyelitis     21
Questions unanswered: Determinants of primate susceptibility     22
Questions unanswered: The mechanism of rodent adaptation     23
Questions unanswered: PVR mice     25
Questions unanswered: The tropism enigma     26
Virulence of Polioviruses     26
Questions unanswered: Mechanisms of neurovirulence     32
Questions unanswered: Viremia and virulence     32
Questions unanswered: Epidemiological properties of polioviruses     33
How Does Poliovirus Persist?     34
Questions unanswered: Overt persistence of poliovirus     35
The post-polio syndrome and covert persistence of poliovirus     35
Eradication     36
Questions unanswered: Why is it so difficult to complete the global eradication of wild polioviruses?     37
Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses and the Eradication Endgame     38
Questions unanswered: What strategy should be followed if wild polioviruses are eradicated?     39
Reprise     41
Acknowledgments     42
References     42
Cutting the Gordian Knot-Development and Biological Relevance of Hepatitis C Virus Cell Culture Systems   Judith M. Gottwein   Jens Bukh     51
Introduction     53
Genetic Heterogeneity of HCV-Genotypes, Subtypes, Isolates, and Quasispecies     54
The HCV Genome and Its Encoded Proteins     59
Host Cell Factors Supporting the HCV Life Cycle     67
Consensus HCV cDNA Clones-Infectious in Transfected Chimpanzees     71
The Replicon System-Autonomous HCV RNA Replication in Hepatoma Cell Lines     73
Identification of adaptive mutations led to more efficient replicon systems     74
The study of replicon systems led to identification of highly permissive Huh7 cell lines     78
Pseudo-Particles Expressing the HCV Envelope Proteins (HCVpp)-A System for the Study of Viral Entry and Neutralization     79
The JFH1 Isolate-Generation of Cell Culture Derived HCV (HCVcc) in Full Viral Life Cycle Cell Culture Systems     82
The original and adapted JFH1 cell culture system     82
The J6/JFH1 cell culture system     87
Analysis of HCV buoyant density suggests a role of lipoproteins for the viral life cycle     89
Possible causes of special growth characteristics of JFH1 and J6/JFH1     91
Applicability of JFH1 and J6/JFH1 cell culture system     92
Perspectives for Further Development of HCV Cell Culture Systems     95
Adaptation of cell culture systems to yield higher viral titers     95
Cell culture systems for other HCV genotypes     95
Expansion of cell culture systems to different host cells     100
Conclusion-Implications of Novel Cell Culture Systems      103
Acknowledgments     104
References     104
Poxvirus Host Range Genes   Steven J. Werden   Masmudur M. Rahman   Grant McFadden     135
Introduction     136
Orthopoxvirus Host Range Genes     137
SPI-1     140
K1L     143
C7L     145
CHOhr     146
p28/N1R     147
B5R (ps/hr)     148
E3L     149
K3L     152
Myxoma Virus Host Range Genes     153
M-T2     154
M-T4     155
M-T5     155
M11L     157
M13L     158
M063     159
Molluscum Contagiosum: An Extreme Example of Host Range Restriction     160
Conclusions     160
Acknowledgments     162
References     163
Receptor Interactions, Tropism, and Mechanisms Involved in Morbillivirus-Induced Immunomodulation   Jurgen Schneider-Schaulies   Sibylle Schneider-Schaulies     173
Introduction     174
General aspects of MV- and morbillivirus-induced immunosuppression     176
Relationships between tropism of the virus, spread of infection, and immunosuppression     177
Leukopenia Associated with Morbillivirus Infections     181
Mechanisms and Consequences of T Cell Silencing in Morbillivirus Infections     183
Receptors and Signaling Involved in Suppression of Cell Functions     186
Virus Interactions with DCs     190
Virus interference with DC functions in animal models     190
Experimental models and consequences of DC surface interactions with viral proteins     191
Consequences of infection on DC viability and function     192
Conclusions and Perspectives     195
References     196
Lyssaviruses-Current Trends   Susan A. Nadin-Davis   Christine Fehlner-Gardiner     207
Introduction     208
Developments in Diagnostic and Surveillance Tools     209
Diagnosis     209
Viral typing     210
Evolutionary time frames     211
Modeling applications     212
Fundamental Aspects of Virus-Host Interactions     213
What is the basis for RABV pathogenicity?     214
Role of viral proteins     214
Role of host cell pathways     218
Considerations for future studies on rabies pathogenesis     222
Reverse Genetics-Methodology and Applications     222
RABV vaccines     224
Vaccines for other diseases     225
Other Strategies for Rabies Vaccine Development     227
Adenovirus recombinants     227
DNA vaccines     228
The Challenge of Rabies Biologics for Passive Immunity     230
Novel Applications of RABV     231
Use as a neuronal tracer     231
Use of RABV proteins for molecular targeting     235
Concluding Remarks     236
References     237
Index     251

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