Advocacy and Opposition: An Introduction to Argumentation / Edition 3

Advocacy and Opposition: An Introduction to Argumentation / Edition 3

by Karyn C. Rybacki

ISBN-10: 020519379X

ISBN-13: 9780205193790

Pub. Date: 11/28/1995

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

Advocacy and Opposition offers a comprehensive and practical approach to argumentation and critical thinking for the beginning student who needs to construct and present arguments on questions of fact, value, and policy. This text provides a theoretical view of the nature of argument in our society, a discussion of arguing as a form of communication, and a


Advocacy and Opposition offers a comprehensive and practical approach to argumentation and critical thinking for the beginning student who needs to construct and present arguments on questions of fact, value, and policy. This text provides a theoretical view of the nature of argument in our society, a discussion of arguing as a form of communication, and a focus on how arguments are created using the Toulmin model of argument. By blending traditional and contemporary views on the nature of argument (including multicultural perspectives on the purpose and process of argument, ethics, and values), Advocacy and Opposition makes students more aware of both the development of theory and practice as well as competing views, providing a well-rounded approach to their study of argumentation.

New to the 5th Edition:

  • Addresses cultural differences that exist regarding the nature of argumentation, its purpose and processes, in building toward a definition of argumentation in a revised Chapter 1.
  • Explains how cultural differences relate to differing ethical sensibilities, builds overriding ethical principles with an eye toward finding areas of commonality to bridge these differences, and provides a brief discussion of pragma-dialectics.
  • Reflects significant changes in Internet research (Chapter 6), directing students to a wide variety of electronic resources to enable them to extend their research base.
  • Examines the differences in values that exist between cultures as both of locus of potential value conflict and an impetus for possible value change, providing key information that will benefit today's students.
  • Relates the examples of type of evidence and the discussion of tests of evidence to a single topic (rather than several different topics) in order to more clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of research strategies.
  • Streamlines Appendix A (debate) and Appendix B (brief writing) to reflect current practice and provide more useful guidance.

Product Details

Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date:
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
6.01(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.78(d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1What Is Argumentation?1
The Nature of Argumentation2
The Nature of the Audience5
The Historical Development of Argumentation6
Ethical Standards for Argumentation14
Discourse Ethics19
Suggested Supplementary Readings21
Chapter 2Where Do I Begin in Argumentation?24
Fields of Argumentation25
Burden of Proof31
The Prima Facie Case32
Suggested Supplementary Readings36
Chapter 3What Am I Going to Argue About?38
The Nature of Propositions38
Selecting Terms for Definition39
Specifying Direction of Change40
Identifying Key Issues42
The Classification of Propositions45
Propositions of Fact46
Propositions of Value47
Propositions of Policy48
Phrasing the Proposition49
Defining the Key Terms51
Rules of Definition51
Terms Needing Definition53
How to Define Terms54
Suggested Supplementary Readings56
Chapter 4How Do I Analyze Propositions?58
Locating the Immediate Cause58
Immediate Cause in Factual Propositions59
Immediate Cause in Value Propositions59
Immediate Cause in Policy Propositions60
Investigating the History60
Historical Background in Factual Propositions60
Historical Background in Value Propositions61
Historical Background in Policy Propositions62
Defining Key Terms and Creating the Primary Inference63
Key Terms in Factual Propositions65
Key Terms in Value Propositions66
Key Terms in Policy Propositions66
Determining the Issues67
Stock Issues for Factual Propositions68
Stock Issues for Value Propositions68
Stock Issues for Policy Propositions71
Suggested Supplementary Readings73
Chapter 5How Is a Unit of Argument Created?74
The Toulmin Model of Argument74
Simple, Chain, and Cluster Arguments89
Suggested Supplementary Readings91
Chapter 6How Do I Prove My Argument?92
The Discovery of Evidence92
Subject Heading Searches95
Government Documents99
Fact Books, Encyclopedias, and Other Printed Resources100
Types and Tests of Evidence101
Evidence of Fact102
Evidence from Opinion112
Recording Evidence116
Suggested Supplementary Readings118
Chapter 7How Do I Reason with My Audience?121
Argument from Cause122
Argument from Sign125
Argument from Generalization128
Argument from Parallel Case130
Argument from Analogy133
Argument from Authority135
Argument from Dilemma138
Suggested Supplementary Readings140
Chapter 8What Should I Avoid?142
Fallacies in Reasoning142
Hasty Generalization142
Irrelevant Arguments146
Circular Reasoning147
Avoiding the Issue148
Forcing a Dichotomy151
Fallacies of Appeal152
Appeal to Ignorance153
Appeal to the People154
Appeal to Emotion154
Appeal to Authority155
Appeal to Tradition156
Appeal to Humor158
Fallacies of Language159
Ambiguity and Equivocation159
Emotionally Loaded Language161
Technical Jargon161
Suggested Supplementary Readings162
Chapter 9How Are Factual Propositions Argued?164
Advocating Propositions of Fact166
Building the Prima Facie Case168
Preempting Opposing Arguments169
Argument in Action170
Opposing Propositions of Fact174
Evaluating the Primary Inference174
Using Presumption to Dispute the Primary Inference175
Refuting by Denial and Extenuation175
Responding to Preemptive Arguments176
Argument in Action177
Suggested Supplementary Readings181
Chapter 10How Are Value Propositions Argued?183
Values in Conflict184
Value Change185
Values and Culture186
Advocating Propositions of Value192
Defining the Value Object193
Identifying the Hierarchy193
Specifying the Criteria194
Measuring the Value Object196
Argument in Action198
Opposing Propositions of Value200
Establishing Strategy201
Examining Definitions and Hierarchy201
Challenging the Criteria202
Refuting the Measurement203
Argument in Action203
Suggested Supplementary Readings205
Chapter 11How Are Policy Propositions Argued?208
Advocating Propositions of Policy209
Advocacy of the First Stock Issue211
Advocacy of the Second Stock Issue212
Advocacy of the Third Stock Issue213
Argument in Action215
Opposing Propositions of Policy219
Establish Strategy220
Examine Definitions220
Refute the Reason for Change221
Refute the Consequences of Change222
Offer a Counterproposal225
Argument in Action226
Suggested Supplementary Readings231
Chapter 12How Do I Present My Arguments to an Audience?232
Audience Analysis233
The General Audience233
The Actual Audience233
Language Choice and Style235
Words as Symbols235
The Elements of Style236
Introductions, Transitions, and Conclusions239
Delivery Techniques240
Use of Voice240
Use of Body242
Use of Visual Aids243
Building Credibility with an Audience244
External Credibility244
Internal Credibility245
Managing Your Credibility245
Suggested Supplementary Readings247
Appendix AWhat Are the Rules of the Game?249
Debate Formats249
Speaker Responsibilities251
Burden of Clash254
Flow Sheeting256
Appendix BHow Do I Write an Argumentative Brief?258

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