Advocacy and Opposition: An Introduction to Argumentation / Edition 7

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Advocacy and Opposition: An Introduction to Argumentation presents a comprehensive and practical approach to argumentation and critical thinking for the beginner who needs to construct and present arguments on questions of fact, value, and policy.

Advocacy and Opposition offers a theoretical view of the nature of argument in our society, a discussion of arguing as a form of communication, and a focus on how arguments are created using the Toulmin model of argument. By blending traditional and contemporary views on the nature of argument (including multicultural perspectives on the purpose and process of argument, ethics, and values), Advocacy and Opposition makes students more aware of both the development of theory and practice, providing a well-rounded approach to their study of argumentation.

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Explains the essentials of theory and practice of argumentation as used in competitive debate, but for students who are not engaged in formal debate. Discusses such aspects as the nature of argument in US society, ethical principles of arguing as a form of communication, how arguments are created using the Toulmin model, and fact and value. Also appends rules and formats for use in formal debate courses. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205781188
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 2/24/2011
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 288
  • Sales rank: 146,519
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

1. What is argumentation?

The nature of argumentation

The nature of the audience

The historical development of argumentation

Ethical standards for argumentation

2. Where do I begin in argumentation?

Fields of argumentation


Burden of proof

The prima facie case

3. What am I going to argue about?

The nature of propositions

The classification of propositions

Phrasing the proposition

Defining key terms

4. How do I analyze propositions?

Locating the immediate cause

Investigating history

Defining key terms and creating the primary inference

Determining the issues

5. How is a unit of argument created?

The Toulmin model of argument

6. How do I prove my argument?

The discovery of evidence

Types and tests of evidence

Recording evidence

7. How do I reason with my audience?

Argument from cause

Argument from sign

Argument from generalization

Argument from parallel case

Argument from analogy

Argument from authority

Argument from dilemma

8. What should I avoid?

Fallacies of reasoning

Fallacies of appeal

Fallacies of language

9. How are factual propositions argued?

Advocating propositions of fact

Opposing propositions of fact

10. How are value propositions argued?

The nature of values

Advocating propositions of value

Opposing propositions of value

11. How are policy propositions argued?

Advocating propositions of policy

Opposing propositions of policy

Appendix A: What are the rules of the game?

Debate formats

Speaker responsibilities

Flow sheeting



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