Advocacy and Opposition: An Introduction to Argumentation / Edition 5

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Advocacy and Opposition offers a comprehensive and practical approach to argumentation and critical thinking for the beginning student who needs to construct and present arguments on questions of fact, value, and policy. This text provides a theoretical view of the nature of argument in our society, a discussion of arguing as a form of communication, and a focus on how arguments are created using the Toulmin model of argument. By blending traditional and contemporary views on the nature of argument (including multicultural perspectives on the purpose and process of argument, ethics, and values), Advocacy and Opposition makes students more aware of both the development of theory and practice as well as competing views, providing a well-rounded approach to their study of argumentation.

New to the 5th Edition:

  • Addresses cultural differences that exist regarding the nature of argumentation, its purpose and processes, in building toward a definition of argumentation in a revised Chapter 1.
  • Explains how cultural differences relate to differing ethical sensibilities, builds overriding ethical principles with an eye toward finding areas of commonality to bridge these differences, and provides a brief discussion of pragma-dialectics.
  • Reflects significant changes in Internet research (Chapter 6), directing students to a wide variety of electronic resources to enable them to extend their research base.
  • Examines the differences in values that exist between cultures as both of locus of potential value conflict and an impetus for possible value change, providing key information that will benefit today's students.
  • Relates the examples of type of evidence and the discussion of tests of evidence to a single topic (rather than several different topics) in order to more clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of research strategies.
  • Streamlines Appendix A (debate) and Appendix B (brief writing) to reflect current practice and provide more useful guidance.
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Editorial Reviews

Explains the essentials of theory and practice of argumentation as used in competitive debate, but for students who are not engaged in formal debate. Discusses such aspects as the nature of argument in US society, ethical principles of arguing as a form of communication, how arguments are created using the Toulmin model, and fact and value. Also appends rules and formats for use in formal debate courses. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205380336
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 5/20/2003
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 288
  • Product dimensions: 5.96 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.58 (d)

Table of Contents

Each chapter includes “Suggested Supplemental Readings” and “References.”

1. What Is Argumentation?

The Nature of Argumentation.

The Nature of the Audience.

The Historical Development of Argumentation.

Ethical Standards for Argumentation.

2. Where Do I Begin in Argumentation?

Fields of Argumentation.


Burden of Proof.

The Prima Facie Case.

3. What Am I Going to Argue About?

The Nature of Propositions.

The Classification of Propositions.

Phrasing the Proposition.

Defining the Key Terms.

4. How Do I Analyze Propositions?

Locating the Immediate Cause.

Investigating History.

Defining Key Terms and Creating the Primary Inference.

Determining the Issues.

5. How Is a Unit of Argument Created?

The Toulmin Model of Arguments.

Simple, Chain, and Cluster Arguments.

6. How Do I Prove My Argument?

The Discovery of Evidence.

Types and Tests of Evidence.

Recording Evidence.

7. How Do I Reason with My Audience?

Argument from Cause.

Argument from Sign.

Argument from Generalization.

Argument from Parallel Case.

Argument from Analogy.

Argument from Authority.

Argument from Dilemma.

8. What Should I Avoid?

Fallacies in Reasoning.

Fallacies of Appeal.

Fallacies in Language.

9. How Are Factual Propositions Argued?

Advocating Propositions of Fact.

Opposing Propositions of Fact.

10. How Are Propositions of Value Argued?

Values in Conflict.

Advocating Propositions of Value.

Opposing Propositions of Value.

11. How Are Propositions of Policy Argued?

Advocating Policy Propositions.

Opposing Policy Propositions.

12. How Do I Present My Arguments to an Audience?

Audience Analysis.

Language Choice and Style.

Delivery Techniques.

Building Credibility with an Audience.

Appendix A: What Are the Rules of the Game?

Debate Formats.

Speaker Responsibilities.

Flow Sheeting.

Appendix B: How Do I Write an Argumentative Brief?



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