Aerosol Science: Technology and Applications [NOOK Book]

Overview

Aerosols influence many areas of our daily life. They are at the core of
environmental problems such as global warming, photochemical smog and
poor air quality. They can also have diverse effects on human health, where
exposure occurs in both outdoor and indoor ...

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Aerosol Science: Technology and Applications

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Overview

Aerosols influence many areas of our daily life. They are at the core of
environmental problems such as global warming, photochemical smog and
poor air quality. They can also have diverse effects on human health, where
exposure occurs in both outdoor and indoor environments.

However, aerosols can have beneficial effects too; the delivery of drugs to the
lungs, the delivery of fuels for combustion and the production of nanomaterials
all rely on aerosols. Advances in particle measurement technologies have
made it possible to take advantage of rapid changes in both particle size and
concentration. Likewise, aerosols can now be produced in a controlled fashion.
Reviewing many technological applications together with the current scientific
status of aerosol modelling and measurements, this book includes:

• Satellite aerosol remote sensing
• The effects of aerosols on climate change
• Air pollution and health
• Pharmaceutical aerosols and pulmonary drug delivery
• Bioaerosols and hospital infections
• Particle emissions from vehicles
• The safety of emerging nanomaterials
• Radioactive aerosols: tracers of atmospheric processes

With the importance of this topic brought to the public’s attention after the
eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull, this book provides a timely,
concise and accessible overview of the many facets of aerosol science.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118675359
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 1/30/2014
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 496
  • File size: 20 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Meet the Author

Ian Colbeck, University of Essex, UK

Mihalis Lazaridis, Technical University of Crete, Greece

 

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xv

1. Introduction 1
Mihalis Lazaridis and Ian Colbeck

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Size and Shape 5

1.3 Size Distribution 6

1.4 Chemical Composition 10

1.5 Measurements and Sampling 11

References 12

2. Aerosol Dynamics 15
Mihalis Lazaridis and Yannis Drossinos

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 General Dynamic Equation 17

2.3 Nucleation: New Particle Formation 19

2.4 Growth by Condensation 26

2.5 Coagulation and Agglomeration 27

2.6 Deposition Mechanisms 32

2.7 Resuspension 38

References 41

3. Recommendations for Aerosol Sampling 45
Alfred Wiedensohler, Wolfram Birmili, Jean-Philippe Putaud, and John Ogren

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Guidelines for Standardized Aerosol Sampling 46

3.3 Concrete Sampling Configurations 53

3.4 Artifact-Free Sampling for Organic Carbon Analysis 57

Acknowledgments 59

References 59

4. Aerosol Instrumentation 61
Da-Ren Chen and David Y. H. Pui

4.1 Introduction 61

4.2 General Strategy 62

4.3 Aerosol Sampling Inlets and Transport 63

4.4 Integral Moment Measurement 64

4.5 Particle Surface Area Measurement 68

4.6 Size-Distribution Measurement 70

4.7 Chemical Composition Measurement 78

4.8 Conclusion 80

References 82

5. Filtration Mechanisms 89
Sarah Dunnett

5.1 Introduction 89

5.2 Deposition Mechanisms 91

5.3 Factors Affecting Efficiency 104

5.4 Filter Randomness 109

5.5 Applications 109

5.6 Conclusions 110

Nomenclature 110

References 113

6. Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols 119
Sagnik Dey and Sachchida Nand Tripathi

6.1 Introduction 119

6.2 Surface-Based Remote Sensing 120

6.3 Satellite-Based Remote Sensing 126

6.4 Summary and Future Requirements 141

Acknowledgements 142

References 142

7. Atmospheric Particle Nucleation 153
Mikko Sipilä, Katrianne Lehtipalo, and Markku Kulmala

7.1 General Relevance 153

7.2 Detection of Atmospheric Nanoparticles 156

7.3 Atmospheric Observations of New Particle Formation 163

7.4 Laboratory Experiments 166

7.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Challenges 169

References 170

8. Atmospheric Aerosols and Climate Impacts 181
Maria Kanakidou

8.1 Introduction 181

8.2 Global Aerosol Distributions 181

8.3 Aerosol Climate Impacts 182

8.4 Simulations of Global Aerosol Distributions 186

8.5 Extinction of Radiation by Aerosols (Direct Effect) 190

8.6 Aerosols and Clouds (Indirect Effect) 194

8.7 Radiative Forcing Estimates 200

8.8 The Way Forward 203

References 203

9. Air Pollution and Health and the Role of Aerosols 207
Pat Goodman and Otto Hänninen

9.1 Background 207

9.2 Size Fractions 208

9.3 Which Pollution Particle Sizes Are Important? 209

9.4 What Health Outcomes Are Associated with Exposure to Air Pollution? 209

9.5 Sources of Atmospheric Aerosols 209

9.6 Particle Deposition in the Lungs 210

9.7 Aerosol Interaction Mechanisms in the Human Body 211

9.8 Human Respiratory Outcomes and Aerosol Exposure 212

9.9 Cardiovascular Outcomes and Aerosol Exposure 215

9.10 Conclusions and Recommendations 215

References 216

10. Pharmaceutical Aerosols and Pulmonary Drug Delivery 221
Darragh Murnane, Victoria Hutter, and Marie Harang

10.1 Introduction 221

10.2 Pharmaceutical Aerosols in Disease Treatment 223

10.3 Aerosol Physicochemical Properties of Importance in Lung Deposition 226

10.4 The Fate of Inhaled Aerosol Particles in the Lung 228

10.5 Production of Inhalable Particles 233

10.6 Aerosol Generation and Delivery Systems for Pulmonary Therapy 237

10.7 Product Performance Testing 253

10.8 Conclusion and Outlook 255

References 255

11. Bioaerosols and Hospital Infections 271
Kaman Lai, Zaheer Ahmad Nasir, and Jonathon Taylor

11.1 The Importance of Bioaerosols and Infections 271

11.2 Bioaerosol-Related Infections in Hospitals 272

11.3 Bioaerosol Properties and Deposition in Human Respiratory Systems 275

11.4 Chain of Infection and Infection Control in Hospitals 275

11.5 Application of Aerosol Science and Technology in Infection Control 277

11.6 Conclusion 285

References 285

12. Nanostructured Material Synthesis in the Gas Phase 291
Peter V. Pikhitsa and Mansoo Choi

12.1 Introduction 291

12.2 Aerosol-Based Synthesis 292

12.3 Flame Synthesis 292

12.4 Flame and Laser Synthesis 299

12.5 Laser-Induced Synthesis 302

12.6 Metal-Powder Combustion 309

12.7 Spark Discharge 313

12.8 Assembling Useful Nanostructures 314

12.9 Conclusions 322

References 323

13. The Safety of Emerging Inorganic and Carbon Nanomaterials 327
L. Reijnders

13.1 Introduction 327

13.2 Human Health and Inhaled Persistent Engineered Inorganic and Carbon Nanomaterials 330

13.3 Human Health Hazards and Risks Linked to the Ingestion of Persistent Inorganic Nanomaterials 333

13.4 Ecotoxicity of Persistent Inorganic and Carbon Nanomaterials 335

13.5 Conclusion 336

References 336

14. Environmental Health in Built Environments 345
Zaheer Ahmad Nasir

14.1 Environmental Hazards and Built Environments 345

14.2 Particulate Contaminants 348

14.3 Gas Contaminants 351

References 362

15. Particle Emissions from Vehicles 369
Jonathan Symonds

15.1 Introduction 369

15.2 Engine Concepts and Technologies 370

15.3 Particle Formation 373

15.4 Impact of Vehicle Particle Emissions 376

15.5 Sampling and Measurement Techniques 378

15.6 Amelioration Techniques 385

Acknowledgements 388

References 388

16. Movement of Bioaerosols in the Atmosphere and the Consequences for Climate and Microbial Evolution 393
Cindy E. Morris, Christel Leyronas, and Philippe C. Nicot

16.1 Introduction 393

16.2 Emission: Launch into the Atmosphere 395

16.3 Transport in the Earth’s Boundary Layer 399

16.4 Long-Distance Transport: From the Boundary Layer into the Free Troposphere 404

16.5 Interaction of Microbial Aerosols with Atmospheric Processes 406

16.6 Implications of Aerial Transport for Microbial Evolutionary History 407

References 410

17. Disinfection of Airborne Organisms by Ultraviolet-C Radiation and Sunlight 417
Jana S. Kesavan and Jose-Luis Sagripanti

17.1 Introduction 417

17.2 UV Radiation 418

17.3 Sunlight 419

17.4 Selected Organisms 421

17.5 Effects of UV Light on Aerosolized Organisms 423

17.6 Disinfection of Rooms Using UV-C Radiation 429

17.7 Sunlight Exposure Studies 430

17.8 Testing Considerations 431

17.9 Discussion 435

References 435

18. Radioactive Aerosols: Tracers of Atmospheric Processes 441

Katsumi Hirose

18.1 Introduction 441

18.2 Origin of Radioactive Aerosols 442

18.3 Tracers of Atmospheric Processes 446

18.4 Tracer of Environmental Change 457

18.5 Conclusion 460

References 461

Index 469

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