Aerosol Technology: Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles / Edition 2

Aerosol Technology: Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles / Edition 2

by William C. Hinds
     
 

The #1 guide to aerosol science and technology -now better than ever

Since 1982, Aerosol Technology has been the text of choice among students and professionals who need to acquire a thorough working knowledge of modern aerosol theory and applications. Now revised to reflect the considerable advances that have been made over the past seventeen years across a

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Overview

The #1 guide to aerosol science and technology -now better than ever

Since 1982, Aerosol Technology has been the text of choice among students and professionals who need to acquire a thorough working knowledge of modern aerosol theory and applications. Now revised to reflect the considerable advances that have been made over the past seventeen years across a broad spectrum of aerosol-related application areas - from occupational hygiene and biomedical technology to microelectronics and pollution control -this new edition includes:
* A chapter on bioaerosols
* New sections on resuspension, transport losses, respiratory deposition models, and fractal characterization of particles
* Expanded coverage of atmospheric aerosols, including background aerosols and urban aerosols
* A section on the impact of aerosols on global warming and ozone depletion.

Aerosol Technology, Second Edition also features dozens of new, fully worked examples drawn from a wide range of industrial and research settings, plus new chapter-end practice problems to help readers master the material quickly.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780471194101
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
01/28/1999
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
504
Sales rank:
523,420
Product dimensions:
6.42(w) x 9.35(h) x 1.16(d)

Table of Contents

Preface to the First Edition xi

Preface to the Second Edition xiii

List of Principal Symbols xv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Definitions 3

1.2 Particle Size, Shape, and Density 8

1.3 Aerosol Concentration 10

Problems 12

References 13

2 Properties of Gases 15

2.1 Kinetic Theory of Gases 15

2.2 Molecular Velocity 18

2.3 Mean Free Path 21

2.4 Other Properties 23

2.5 Reynolds Number 27

2.6 Measurement of Velocity, Flow Rate, and Pressure 31

Problems 39

References 41

3 Uniform Particle Motion 42

3.1 Newton's Resistance Law 42

3.2 Stokes's Law 44

3.3 Settling Velocity and Mechanical Mobility 46

3.4 Slip Correction Factor 48

3.5 Nonspherical Particles 51

3.6 Aerodynamic Diameter 53

3.7 Settling at High Reynolds Numbers 55

3.8 Stirred Settling 62

3.9 Instruments That Rely on Settling Velocity 65

3.10 Appendix: Derivation of Stokes's Law 67

Problems 70

References 73

4. Particle Size Statistics 75

4.1 Properties of Size Distributions 75

4.2 Moment Averages 82

4.3 Moment Distributions 84

4.4 The Lognormal Distribution 90

4.5 Log-Probability Graphs 94

4.6 The Hatch-Choate Conversion Equations 97

4.7 Statistical Accuracy 100

4.8 Appendix 1: Distributions Applied to Particle Size 104

4.9 Appendix 2: Theoretical Basis for Aerosol Particle Size Distributions 105

4.10 Appendix 3: Derivation of the Hatch-Choate Equations 105

Problems 108

References 110

5. Straight-Line Acceleration and Curvilinear Particle Motion 111

5.1 Relaxation Time 111

5.2 Straight-Line Particle Acceleration 112

5.3 Stopping Distance 117

5.4 Curvilinear Motion and Stokes Number 119

5.5 Inertial Impaction 121

5.6 Cascade Impactors 128

5.7 Virtual Impactors 134

5.8 Time-of-Flight Instruments 136

Problems 138

References 140

6. Adhesion of Particles 141

6.1 Adhesive Forces 141

6.2 Detachment of Particles 144

6.3 Resuspension 145

6.4 Particle Bounce 146

Problems 147

References 148

7 Brownian Motion and Diffusion 150

7.1 Diffusion Coefficient 150

7.2 Particle Mean Free Path 154

7.3 Brownian Displacement 156

7.4 Deposition by Diffusion 160

7.5 Diffusion Batteries 165

Problems 168

References 169

8 Thermal and Radiometrie Forces 171

8.1 Thermophoresis 171

8.2 Thermal Precipitators 176

8.3 Radiometrie and Concentration Gradiant Forces 178

Problems 180

References 180

9 Filtration 182

9.1 Macroscopic Properties of Filters 182

9.2 Single-Fiber Efficiency 190

9.3 Deposition Mechanisms 191

9.4 Filter Efficiency 196

9.5 Pressure Drop 200

9.6 Membrane Filters 202

Problems 204

References 204

10 Sampling and Measurement of Concentration 206

10.1 Isokinetic Sampling 206

10.2 Sampling from Still Air 213

10.3 Transport Losses 216

10.4 Measurement of Mass Concentration 217

10.5 Direct-Reading Instruments 222

10.6 Measurement of Number Concentration 225

10.7 Sampling Pumps 228

Problems 230

References 231

11 Respiratory Deposition 233

11.1 The Respiratory System 233

11.2 Deposition 235

11.3 Deposition Models 242

11.4 Inhalability of Particles 245

11.5 Respirable and Other Size-Selective Sampling 249

Problems 257

References 258

12 Coagulation 260

12.1 Simple Monodisperse Coagulation 260

12.2 Polydisperse Coagulation 268

12.3 Kinematic Coagulation 272

Problems 276

References 277

13 Condensation and Evaporation 278

13.1 Definitions 278

13.2 Kelvin Effect 281

13.3 Homogeneous Nucleation 283

13.4 Growth by Condensation 285

13.5 Nucleated Condensation 288

13.6 Condensation Nuclei Counters 292

13.7 Evaporation 294

Problems 301

References 302

14 Atmospheric Aerosols 304

14.1 Natural Background Aerosol 304

14.2 Urban Aerosol 307

14.3 Global Effects 312

Problems 314

References 315

15 Electrical Properties 316

15.1 Units 316

15.2 Electric Fields 318

15.3 Electrical Mobility 320

15.4 Charging Mechanisms 323

15.5 Corona Discharge 331

15.6 Charge Limits 333

15.7 Equilibrium Charge Distribution 335

15.8 Electrostatic Precipitators 338

15.9 Electrical Measurement of Aerosols 341

Problems 346

References 347

16 Optical Properties 349

16.1 Definitions 350

16.2 Extinction 352

16.3 Scattering 358

16.4 Visibility 364

16.5 Optical Measurement of Aerosols 370

Problems 376

References 377

17 Bulk Motion of Aerosols 379

Problems 385

References 385

18 Dust Explosions 386

Problems 392

References 392

19 Bioaerosols 394

19.1 Characteristics 394

19.2 Sampling 396

Problems 400

References 400

20 Microscopic Measurement of Particle Size 402

20.1 Equivalent Sizes of Irregular Particles 402

20.2 Fractal Dimension of Particles 408

20.3 Optical Microscopy 413

20.4 Electron Microscopy 416

20.5 Asbestos Counting 422

20.6 Automatic Sizing Methods 424

Problems 425

References 426

21 Production of Test Aerosols 428

21.1 Atomization of Liquids 428

21.2 Atomization of Monodisperse Particles in Liquid Suspensions 434

21.3 Dispersion of Powders 438

21.4 Condensation Methods 443

Problems 445

References 446

Appendices 447

A1. Useful Constants and Conversions Factors 447

A2. Some Basic Physical Laws 449

A3. Relative Density of Common Aerosol Materials 451

A4. Standard Sieve Sizes 451

A5. Properties of Gases and Vapors at 293 K [20°C] and 101 kPa [1 atm] 452

A6. Viscosity and Density of Air versus Temperature 452

A7. Pressure, Temperature, Density, and Mean Free Path of Air versus Altitude 453

A8. Properties of Water Vapor 455

A9. Properties of Water 455

A10. Particle Size Range of Aerosol Properties and Measurement Instruments 456

All. Properties of Airborne Particles at Standard Conditions 458

A12. Slip Correction Factor for Standard and Nonstandard Conditions 460

A13. Properties of Selected Low-Vapor-Pressure Liquids 461

A14. Reference Values for Atmospheric Properties at Sea Level and 293 K [20°C] 462

A15. Greek Symbols Used in This Book 464

A16. SI Prefixes 464

Index 465

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