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1. Ancient Africa.
From Human Beginnings to the Rise of Egypt.
The Spread of Islam.
The Emergence of West African Kingdoms.
Central African Kingdoms.
African Ways of Life.
First Person: Leo Africanus Describes Timbuktu.
First Person: King Sundiata's Triumph over the Ghanaian King (oral legend).
First Person: Praise-chant for Ogún, Deity of Iron and War.
First Person: African Proverbs.
2. Africa and the Atlantic World.
Africa and Europe: The Fatal Connection.
Africa and the Rising Atlantic World.
The Trauma of Enslavement.
Early Africans in North America.
First Person: Oladuah Equiano Describes his Enslavement.
First Person: Slave Ship Captain Explains Bargaining for Slaves on African Coast.
First Person: A Slave Ship Surgeon Describes the Middle Passage.
First Person: Ottobah Cugano Describes Mid-Atlantic Slave Mutiny.
3. Africans in Early North America, 1619-1726.
The First Africans in English North America.
The Fateful Transition.
Defining Slavery, Defining Race.
Slavery and Race North of the Chesapeake.
Beyond English Boundaries.
First Person: Francis Payne Leaves a Will.
First Person: A Virginia Planter Defines Slavery (1705).
First Person: White Convict James Revel Relates Laboring with Africans.
First Person: The First Antislavery Protest.
4. Africans in Bondage: Early Eighteenth Century to the American Revolution.
Colonial Slavery at Full Tide.
The Negotiated Bondage.
Afro-Floridians and Afro-Louisianans in North America.
Becoming African American.
First Person: Petitioning Boston Slaves Lament Family Life (1773).
First Person: Venture Smith Tells of Early Freedom.
First Person: Redeeming Sin: A Black Christian's Account.
First Person: The Character of Job Ben Solomon.
5. The Revolutionary Era: Crossroads of Freedom.
Opposition to British Tyranny and the Fever of Freedom.
African Americans and the American Revolution.
Rhetoric and Reality in the New Nation.
The Constitutional Settlement.
The Resettlement of African American Loyalists.
First Person: Lemuel Haynes Calls for Universal Liberty.
First Person: Boston King Describes End of War for Black Loyalists.
First Person: Jehu Grant Fights for the Patriot Cause.
First Person: Belinda Petitions for a Small Pension.
First Person: Benjamin Banneker Chides Thomas Jefferson.
6. After the Revolution: Constructing Free Life and Combating Slavery, 1787-1816.
The Emergence of Free Black Communities.
“Under Our Vine and Fig Tree.”
Black Revolution in Haiti.
The Spread of Slavery.
Black Identity in the New Nation.
First Person: Benjamin Tanner Recalls How early Black Churches Offend Whites.
First Person: New Orleans Freemen Seek Assurances from Louisiana's New Rulers.
First Person: A Black Minister Celebrates End of Slave Trade.
First Person: A Virginia Slave Explains Gabriel's Rebellion.
First Person: A Black Sailmaker Lectures White Citizens.
7. African Americans in the Antebellum Era.
Black Religion in the Antebellum Era.
The Expansion of Slavery.
Slave Life and Labor.
Resistance and Rebellion.
Free Black Organizing.
First Person: Jarena Lee Preaches to the Downtrodden.
First Person: Solomon Northup Describes a New Orleans Slave Auction.
First Person: William Wells Brown Recalls Slaves Sent to Lower South.
First Person: David Walker Exhorts Black American to Rise Against Their Oppressors.
First Person: Nat Turner Tells of His Vision to Strike Against Slavery.
8. African Americans in the Reform Era, 1831-1850.
Black Americans in the Expanding Nation.
Colored Americans and Reform.
The Abolitionist Movement.
Limitations and Opportunities.
First Person: Maria Stewart Challenges Audiences.
First Person: Ames Curry Refuses to be Whipped.
First Person: Daniel Payne Abhors Slavery's Brutalization.
First Person: William Lloyd Garrison Dreams of a Color-Blind America.
First Person: Henry Highland Garnet Urges the Enslaved to “Strike the Blow.”
9. A Prelude to War: The 1850s.
The Struggle Over the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850.
The Power of Stories.
The Changing South.
Black Exiles Abroad and at Home.
First Person: Jermain Loguen Defies the Fugitive Slave Law.
First Person: Solomon Northup Decries Slavemaster's Cruelty.
First Person: A Plea from James Phillips.
First Person: Mary Ann Shadd Considers Colonization.
First Person: Frederick Douglass Reflects on “Bleeding Kansas.”
10. Civil War and the Promises of Freedom: The Turbulent 1860s.
“A White Man's War.”
War and Freedom.
Emancipation as Military and Political Strategy.
“Men of Color: To Arms.”
1863: The Tide Turns.
An Incomplete Victory.
First Person: A Slave Remembers Choosing Freedom.
First Person: Black Soldiers Petition for Equal Pay.
First Person: Joseph Miller Describes Camp Life.
First Person: Henry Highland Garnet Demands the Vote.
First Person: Two Views of the Freedman's Bureau.
11. Post Civil War Reconstruction: A New National Era.
Elected Black Leaders.
Citizenship and Suffrage.
The Freedman's Bank.
Washington, D.C. in the “New National Era.”
The End of Reconstruction.
First Person: Frances Ellen Watkins Harper Outlines a Plan.
First Person: Madison Hemings Recalls his Family History.
First Person: The New National Era reports Washington Social Life.
First Person: Simon Smith Laments the End of Hope.
First Person: John E. Bruce Promotes Africa.