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African Politics and Society: A Mosiac in Transformation

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At a time when new African democracies are replacing authoritarian regimes, new leaders are promoting racial and ethnic tolerance, and a new generation of African scholars worldwide are producing vital research, this book emerges as the most timely and provocative analysis of the nature and evolution of modern Africa available. Concise, accessible, and unified by a single author's voice and vision, the book provides a complete picture of Africa, using its entire past as a source...
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Overview

At a time when new African democracies are replacing authoritarian regimes, new leaders are promoting racial and ethnic tolerance, and a new generation of African scholars worldwide are producing vital research, this book emerges as the most timely and provocative analysis of the nature and evolution of modern Africa available. Concise, accessible, and unified by a single author's voice and vision, the book provides a complete picture of Africa, using its entire past as a source for understanding its nations today.
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Editorial Reviews

Library Journal
This is the first contemporary, comprehensive, and single-authored textbook to scrutinize continuity and change in African politics and society from precolonial times to the present, with particular emphasis on the post-Cold War era. Based on extensive research and travels to Africa that included research meetings, interviews, and discussions with African intellectuals and commoners, the book is divided into six major parts. Each part is then subdivided into chapters that explain African politics and society by exploring the general evolution of rival theoretical perspectives, the historical context, the sociocultural context of current trends, continuity and change in governance, and foreign relations during the contemporary independence era. Easy to comprehend and thoroughly intriguing, Schraeder's (political science, Loyola Univ.) book sheds light on our understanding of the complex social, economic, and political environment of contemporary Africa and is well worth debating. This book lists a wide variety of print and electronic research resources and also includes an appendix with a country-by-country list of 128 introductory volumes, bibliographies, and historical dictionaries. A most valuable contribution to African studies.--Edward G. McCormack, Univ. of Southern Mississippi Gulf Coast, Long Beach Copyright 1999 Cahners Business Information.
Booknews
At a time when democracies are replacing authoritarian regimes across the continent and new leaders are promoting racial and ethnic tolerance, Schraeder (political science, Loyola U.) analyzes the nature and evolution of modern Africa in a concise and unified manner. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780312219475
  • Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
  • Publication date: 10/29/1999
  • Pages: 400
  • Product dimensions: 6.31 (w) x 9.57 (h) x 1.07 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface v
Illustrations, Tables, and Boxes xix
About the Author xxi
Part I Introduction
Chapter 1 Understanding the African Renaissance 1
Approaching the Study of African Politics and Society 2
African Continent Is a Rich Mosaic of Diversity 2
Necessity of a Continental Perspective 3
To Understand the Present, One Must Understand the Past 4
Influential Impact of the International System 5
Central Importance of the Domestic Dimension 9
Balancing Afro-Pessimism and Afro-Optimism 12
Key Terms 12
For Further Research 12
For Further Reading 20
Notes 21
Part II Rival Theoretical Perspectives
Chapter 2 Study of Africa within the Liberal Tradition 23
Predominance of Modernization Theory (1950s-Early 1960s) 24
Rise of Modernization Revisionism (Late 1960s) 26
Concern with Stability and the "Politics of Order" (Late 1960s-Early 1970s) 30
Demands for Policy Relevance and Public Policy Research (Mid-1970s-1980s) 34
New Directions in the Post-Cold War Era (Late 1980s-Present) 36
Key Terms 39
For Further Reading 39
Notes 40
Chapter 3 Study of Africa within the Critical Tradition 43
Classical Marxism (Nineteenth Century) as Precursor to Contemporary Critical Thought 44
Dependency Theory and the "Development of Underdevelopment" Thesis (Late 1960s-Early 1970s) 46
"Circulationist" Revisions of Dependency Theory (1970s) 48
Emergence of Neo-Marxist Forms of Scholarship (Late 1970s-1980s) 51
New Directions in the Post-Cold War Era (Late 1980s-Present) 56
Key Terms 58
For Further Reading 58
Notes 59
Part III Historical Context
Chapter 4 Politics and Economics of the Precolonial Independence Era (Prior to 1884) 63
Diversity of Segmented Political Systems 64
Band Organization 64
Classical Segmented System 66
Universalistic Segmented System 69
Ritually Stratified Segmented System 69
Autonomous Village System 70
Diversity of Centralized Political Systems 71
Pyramidal Monarchy 71
Associational Monarchy 72
Centralized Monarchy 73
Regional Diplomatic Practices 74
Economic Diversity and Trade 77
Key Terms 83
For Further Reading 83
Notes 84
Chapter 5 Political and Economic Impacts of Colonialism (1884-1951) 87
Early Contacts with Europe and the Arab World 88
Imposition of Direct Colonial Rule 94
Political Impacts of Colonialism 98
Application of the European Nation-State System to Africa 98
Division of African Nations among Several States 99
Incorporation of Several African Nations into One State 101
Destruction of Traditional Checks-and-Balances 103
Authoritarian Political Legacy 103
Economic Impacts of Colonialism 105
Creation of Closed Economic Systems 106
Creation of Export-Oriented, Mono-Crop or Mono-Mineral Economies 107
Evolution of Perverse Infrastructural Development 108
Authoritarian Legacy of the State 110
Key Terms 111
For Further Reading 111
Notes 112
Chapter 6 Nationalism and the Emergence of the Contemporary Independence Era (1951-Present) 116
Trends in African Nationalism 117
Domestic Influences on the Rise of Nationalism 120
Creation of Administrative Centers and the Rise of Urbanization 121
Educational Training and Development 121
Formation and Spread of Voluntary Associations 125
International Influences on the Rise of Nationalism 126
Spread of Pan-Africanism 126
Involvement of African Soldiers in World War I and World War II 127
Demonstration Effect of Decolonization in Asia 129
Shifting Structure of the International System 131
Self-Determination and the Rise of Secessionist Movements 132
Key Terms 133
For Further Reading 133
Notes 134
Part IV Sociocultural Environment
Chapter 7 Ethnicity and Class 137
Ethnic Dimension of African Politics and Society 138
Ethnic Intermediaries and the Creation of Ethnic Compacts 140
Ethnic Violence and the Breakdown of Ethnic Compacts 143
Class Dimension of African Politics and Society 147
Class Divisions within African Society 149
Class Cooperation and Conflict 152
Competing Explanations of the Nigerian Civil War (1967-70) 156
Perceiving Events through an Ethnic Lens 157
Perceiving Events through a Class Lens 159
Uncertain Debate 160
Key Terms 161
For Further Reading 162
Notes 163
Chapter 8 Ideology and the Politics of Development 168
Evolution of African Ideologies of Development 169
Ideology and Development Choice 172
Primary Purpose of Development 173
Primary Engine of Development 174
Role of Agriculture in National Development 175
Perception of the Rural Peasantry 178
Role of Foreign Powers and Investment 179
Ideology and Development Performance 180
Economic Growth 182
Socioeconomic Equality 182
Autonomy from Foreign Control 183
Human Dignity 185
Political Participation 186
Toward a Capitalist Hybrid? 188
Key Terms 189
For Further Reading 190
Notes 190
Chapter 9 Politics of the African Novel 194
Political Dilemmas Faced by the African Novelist 195
Political Themes of the African Novel 197
Re-creation of Africa's Past 197
Colonial Intrusion 198
Colonial Injustice 199
Nationalism and Independence 200
Disenchantment with Elites 200
Freedom as Despair 200
Politically Committed African Novelists 201
Neglected Popular Elements of Society 201
Destructive Nature of Societal Divisions 202
Status of Women in African Society 202
Nuruddin Farah and the Politics of Commitment in Somalia 203
Early Years as Critic of Social Injustice 204
Qualified Optimism after the 1969 Military Coup d'Etat 205
Opposition to the Dictatorship of Siad Barre 206
Evolving African Identity 210
Politics of the African Novel in Perspective 212
Key Terms 212
For Further Reading 212
Notes 213
Part V Continuity and Change in Governance
Chapter 10 State and Civil Society 217
Concentration of State Power at the Expense of Civil Society 218
Africanization of the State 219
Bureaucratic Expansion and the Growth of Parastatals 220
Dismantling of Institutional Checks-and-Balances 221
Co-optation and Silencing of Civil Society 223
Expansion of the Coercive Apparatus 225
Creation of Personal Rule Networks 226
Crisis of the State and the Resurgence of Civil Society 227
Deepening Economic Crisis 228
Growing Inability to Provide Social Goods 229
Resurgence of Civil Society 231
Intensification of Domestic Violence and Conflict 232
Toward a State-Society Balance? 236
Key Terms 239
For Further Reading 239
Notes 240
Chapter 11 Military Coups d'Etat and Military Governance 244
Trends in Military Coups d'Etat 245
Role of the Military in Political Governance 248
Civilian Supremacy Model 248
Watchdog Model 249
Balance Wheel Model 249
Direct Rule Model 250
Social Transformation Model 251
Myths Concerning the Effectiveness of Military Governance 252
Military Enjoys Greater Legitimacy 252
Military Rule Is More Efficient 253
Military Is Best Able to Maintain Stability 254
Military Constitutes a Better Unifying Structure 255
Military Is Best Prepared to Promote Development 257
Demilitarization and Transitions to Civilian Rule 258
Key Terms 262
For Further Reading 262
Notes 263
Chapter 12 Democratic Experiments and Multiparty Politics 267
Establishment of Single-Party Political Systems 268
Experimentation with Multiparty Politics 271
Change via Multiparty Elections 273
Change via the National Conference 274
Co-opted Transitions 275
Guided Democratization 277
Authoritarian Reaction 278
Civil War and Contested Sovereignty 280
Democratic Consolidation or Decay? 281
Key Terms 286
For Further Reading 287
Notes 288
Part VI Foreign Relations
Chapter 13 Foreign Policy Making and the Pursuit of Pan-Africanism 291
Understanding the Foreign Policy-Making Context 292
President and Bureaucracies of the Executive Branch 292
Role of National Legislatures in Foreign Policy 295
Foreign Policy Impact of Nongovernmental Actors 296
Pan-Africanism and the Organization of African Unity 299
Inviolability of Inherited Frontiers 300
Noninterference in Domestic Affairs 301
Peaceful Settlement of Disputes 302
Opposition to Colonialism and White Minority Rule 306
Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration 306
Key Terms 311
For Further Reading 311
Notes 312
Chapter 14 Africa in World Politics 317
Role of Foreign Powers 318
Cooperation and Conflict during the Cold War 319
Complementary Interests among the Western Great Powers 320
Africa as a Proxy Battlefield for East-West Conflict 322
Indiscriminate Support for Allies 323
Emergence of the Cold Peace and Economic Competition 325
Transformation of Foreign Policy Interests 325
Rising Economic Competition among the Great Powers 326
Rhetoric versus Reality in Support for Democratization 328
Reassessments of Unilateral Intervention 330
Involvement in the United Nations 334
Influence of International Financial Institutions 336
Key Terms 340
For Further Reading 340
Notes 341
Appendix 1 List of Acronyms 347
Appendix 2 Country Name Changes in Africa during the Contemporary Independence Era 355
Appendix 3 Political Leadership in Africa during the Contemporary Independence Era 359
Index 369
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