African Successes: Four Public Managers of Kenyan Rural Development / Edition 1

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Overview

For the past twenty-five years Kenya has progressed while most of Africa has stagnated. Instead of the economic disasters, underdevelopment, and serious food shortages that have plagued its neighbors, Kenya has enjoyed an expanding economy and agriculture. And instead of a corrupt and incompetent public administration, Kenya has established several successful rural development programs run by public servants with integrity and professional commitment.

What accounts for these Kenyan successes? In this innovative study, David Leonard illustrates the way public policy is made and implemented in Kenya by focusing on four public officials who have had a great impact on rural development. He skillfully weaves his analyses of Kenya's political, economic, and administrative systems into evocative biographical portraits of Charles Karanja, General Manager of the Kenya Tea Development Authority, Harris Mule, administrative head of Finance and Planning, Ishmael Muriithi, head of the Veterinary Department, and Simeon Nyachae, Cabinet Secretary and chief of the Civil Service. The result is a fascinating glimpse of Kenyan political life from the inside, set in the context of the historical and social forces that have shaped that country's government.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780520070769
  • Publisher: University of California Press
  • Publication date: 3/14/1991
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 436
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.97 (d)

Meet the Author


David K. Leonard, Professor of Political Science and Chair of the African Studies Center at the University of California, Berkeley, is the author of Reaching the Peasant Farmer: Organization Theory and Practice in Kenya (1977). He is also the editor of Rural Administration in Kenya: A Critical Appraisal (1973) and the coeditor of Institutions of Rural Development for the Poor: Decentralization and Organizational Linkages (1982). Having taught for many years at African universities and served as a management advisor to the Kenyan government, he now consults for the World Bank, the United Nations, and the U.S. Agency for International Development.
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Table of Contents

List of Illustrations xiii
List of Tables xv
Preface xvii
Abbreviations and Glossary xxi
Abbreviated Chronology of Political Events in Kenya xxiii
List of Principal Persons in the Book xxv
Simplified Family Trees of the Administrators Studied xxviii
Acknowledgments xxx
1. Introduction: Individuals, Institutions, and Interests 1
An Example of Successful Management 1
Why This Book? 2
Successful Managers 3
Rural Development Policies 4
The Nature and Evolution of the Kenyan State 6
A Modest Theoretical Framework 7
Four Public Servants 10
A Note on Methodology 11
A Preview of the Book 13
2. The Foundation 15
Everything Has a History 15
Disruption 16
The Agricultural Economy 18
The Missions 21
Colonial African Administration 26
The Emerging African Social Structure 34
Monopoly and Control 36
Conclusions 38
3. Growing Up and Out of Colonialism 39
Charles Kibe Karanja 39
Mau Mau from Kiambu 46
Simeon Nyachae 47
The Political Struggle for Independence 51
Ishmael Muriithi 54
Dan Mbogo 60
Harris Mutio Mule 63
Conclusions 69
4. Independence and the Emerging Class Structure 73
The Political Background to the Republic 73
The Colonial Class Structure 73
Ethnic Tensions 77
Africanization of the Civil Service 81
Africanization and the Four Administrators 82
Did "Tribalism" Overlay Africanization in the Civil Service? 86
Africanizing Land Ownership 90
Class Formation and the Matajiri 93
Administrators and Land 95
Africanizing Commerce and Industry 97
Interests: The Interaction of Class and Ethnicity 100
5. Nyachae and Administrative Power in the Kenyatta State 103
The Institutional Legacy 103
Nyachae and the Provincial Administration 106
Administration of Land 107
Political Representation and Control 110
The Balance of Administrative and Political Power 113
The Weberian Theory of Administrative Power Applied to Kenya 117
Conclusions 123
6. Karanja and the Kenya Tea Development Authority 125
Success and Institutional Inheritance 125
Karanja's Rise through the Ranks 129
Karanja's General Managership 133
The KTDA Expands into Factory Management 137
Conclusions 142
7. Muriithi and the Dairy Industry 145
The Creation of a Smallholder Dairy Industry 145
Dairy Marketing 147
Artificial Insemination 150
Veterinary Care 156
What of Integration? 160
Beef Production 163
Conclusions 165
8. The Moi Presidencies and Their Impact on Karanja and Muriithi 168
The Succession 168
Bureaucratic Power under the New Regime 169
Karanja's Fall from Grace 171
The "Second" Moi Presidency 176
Muriithi Presides over the Decline in Veterinary Services 177
Conclusions 181
9. Rural Development, Decentralization, and Mule's 183
Apprenticeship Equity and the ILO Report 183
Rural Development 190
Decentralization 196
The Special Rural Development Program 196
The Arid and Semi-Arid Lands Program 198
Conclusions 200
10. Nyachae, Mule, District Focus, and Agriculture 202
District Focus 203
Agricultural Prices and Markets 209
Economic Management in Adversity 215
Conclusions 218
11. The Unofficial Lives 220
Workaholics 221
Sons of Their Villages 222
Patronage 224
Harambee, Patronage, and Politics 228
Nyachae's Political Downfall 233
Ill-gotten Gains? 236
Class and the Next Generation 242
Conclusions 246
12. African Managerial Success: Conclusions about Individuals 248
The Varieties of Management 248
Public Policies 249
Organizational Leadership 249
Internal Administration 250
Bureaucratic Hygiene 250
Can Managers Affect the Performance of Their Organizations? 251
The Policy Responsibilities of Management 252
Can Individual Managers Make a Difference? 255
The Attributes of Successful Kenyan Management 256
Political Connections and Organizational Autonomy 257
Professional Concern with Public Policy and Organizational Mission 259
Professional Integrity 260
Access to Donor Resources 261
Africanization 262
Being a "Nationalist" 264
Staff Management 265
Competition and Management Information Systems 266
Delegation 267
Risk Taking 268
Drive 269
Selection Policy and Organizational Performance 269
Problems with the Current Kenyan Analysis 269
Kenyatta's Selection Policies 270
Moi's Personnel Policies 271
Internationalizing Professionalism 272
Conclusions 273
13. The State and Administrative Development: Conclusions about Institutions and Interests 275
The State 275
The Political Forces Directing the State 277
The State as a "Commons" 279
The Forces Directing the State from Within 283
Socialization 284
Institutionalization 288
Political Responsiveness 292
The Strong State 295
What of This Can Be Generalized? 297
Appendix A. Ethnic Determinants of Civil Service Promotions 303
Appendix B. Bureaucratic Influences and the Regional Allocation of Government Services 306
Anecdotes and Questions 307
Methodology for the Study of Influence 308
Regional Allocations: The Dependent Variable 312
Categories of Cause: The Independent Variables 313
The Quantitative Evidence 315
Appendix C. Persons Interviewed 330
Notes 337
Index of Persons 363
Index of Subjects 369
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