Africa's Future, Africa's Challenge: Early Childhood Care and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa


Early childhood, from birth through school entry, was largely invisible worldwide as a policy concern for much of the twentieth century. Children, in the eyes of most countries, were 'appendages' of their parents or simply embedded in the larger family structure. The child did not emerge as a separate social entity until school age (typically six or seven). 'Africa's Future, Africa's Challenge: Early Childhood Care and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa' focuses on the 130 ...
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Early childhood, from birth through school entry, was largely invisible worldwide as a policy concern for much of the twentieth century. Children, in the eyes of most countries, were 'appendages' of their parents or simply embedded in the larger family structure. The child did not emerge as a separate social entity until school age (typically six or seven). 'Africa's Future, Africa's Challenge: Early Childhood Care and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa' focuses on the 130 million children south of the Sahel in this 0-6 age group.

This book, the first of its kind, presents a balanced collection of articles written by African and non-African authors ranging from field practitioners to academicians and from members of government organizations to those of nongovernmental and local organizations. 'Africa's Future, Africa's Challenge' compiles the latest data and viewpoints on the state of Sub-Saharan Africa's children. Topics covered include the rationale for investing in young children, policy trends in early childhood development (ECD), historical perspectives of ECD in Sub-Saharan Africa including indigenous approaches, new threats from HIV/AIDS, and the importance of fathers in children's lives. The book also addresses policy development and ECD implementation issues; presents the ECD programming experience in several countries, highlighting best practices and challenges; and evaluates the impact of ECD programs in a number of countries.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780821368862
  • Publisher: World Bank Publications
  • Publication date: 1/18/2008
  • Series: Directions in Development
  • Pages: 556
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Table of Contents

Foreword     xix
Acknowledgments     xxi
Contributors     xxiii
Abbreviations     xxvii
Introduction   Alan Pence   Judith L. Evans   Marito Garcia     1
Children in Sub-Saharan Africa     1
Children as Social Entities     2
Children on the Agenda in Africa     3
Why This Volume?     3
Sections and Chapters     4
Notes     6
References     6
Contexts     9
The State of Young Children in Sub-Saharan Africa   Marito Garcia   Gillian Virata   Erika Dunkelberg     11
Indexes Indicate the Conditions of Children     14
Children in Sub-Saharan Africa Fare Worse than Children in Most Other Regions     17
Investments in Young Children     26
Notes     27
References     27
Positioning ECD Nationally: Trends in Selected African Countries   Agnes Akosua Aidoo     29
Africa's Young Children     30
Evolution of ECD Policy     31
ECD Links with International and Regional Conventions and African Development Policies     32
National ECD Policies: Needs andChallenges     36
Policy Development Process     39
Conclusion and Key Actions     44
Note     48
References     48
Early Childhood Care and Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: What Would It Take to Meet the Millennium Development Goals?   Adriana Jaramillo   Alain Mingat     51
Can the World's Goals for Children Be Met?     52
Arguments to Support the Extension of ECCD Activities in Sub-Saharan Africa     60
Policy Implications for Reaching ECD Goals     66
Conclusion     69
Notes     69
References     70
Brain Development and ECD: A Case for Investment   Mary Eming Young   Fraser Mustard     71
The Economics of ECD     72
Africa Today     73
Why ECD?     74
Brain Development and Function: The Science     74
Literacy and Health     80
Turning Around Poor Development in the Early Years     83
Vulnerability and Cognition     84
The Benefits of ECD for Africa     85
Conclusion     87
Notes     88
References     88
New Threats to Early Childhood Development: Children Affected by HIV/AIDS   Jodie Fonseca   Chloe O'Gara   Linda Sussman   John Williamson     93
HIV/AIDS and Young Children: The Problem     94
The Rationale for a Response     100
Young Children Affected by HIV/AIDS: The Way Forward     105
Notes     108
References     108
Sociohistorical Contexts     115
ECD in Africa: A Historical Perspective   Larry Prochner   Margaret Kabiru     117
ECD in the Colonial Era     118
Indigenous ECD in Historical Perspective     123
A Contemporary Community-Based ECD Model: Kenya's Harambee Preschools     126
Conclusion     130
References     130
(Mis)Understanding ECD in Africa: The Force of Local and Global Motives   A. Bame Nsamenang     135
Whose Interests Are Addressed in ECD Programs?     136
Fundamentals of Indigenous African ECD     139
Concluding Thoughts     144
References     146
Fathering: The Role of Men in Raising Children in Africa-Holding Up the Other Half of the Sky   Linda M. Richter   Robert Morrell     151
Absent Fathers     152
Why Is It Important to Involve Men in the Care of Young Children?     155
What Do Children Say About Fathers?     158
Men's Care and Protection of Young Children     159
What Still Needs to Be Done?     161
References     163
Policy Development     167
ECD Policy: A Comparative Analysis in Ghana, Mauritius, and Namibia   J.K.A. Boakye   Stella Etse   Madeez Adamu-Issah   Medha Devi Moti   Juditha Leketo Matjila   Shamani-Jeffrey Shikwambi     169
Ghana     170
Mauritius     173
Namibia     178
Conclusion     183
References     185
Participatory ECD Policy Planning in Francophone West Africa   Emily Vargas-Baron     187
The Three-Country Project     188
Some Lessons Learned about ECD Policy Planning in Africa     193
Future ECD Policy Challenges     197
Note     198
References     198
Programming     199
Responding to the Challenge of Meeting the Needs of Children Under 3 in Africa   Kofi Marfo   Linda Biersteker   Jenieri Sagnia   Margaret Kabiru     201
Key Issues: An Overview      203
Case Studies: Exemplary and Innovative Approaches to Policy and Program Delivery     209
Summary and Concluding Comments     220
Notes     222
References     222
Introducing Preprimary Classes in Africa: Opportunities and Challenges   Linda Biersteker   Samuel Ngaruiya   Edith Sebatane   Sarah Gudyanga     227
South Africa     229
Kenya     232
Zimbabwe     234
Lesotho     238
Opportunities and Challenges: What Have We Learned?     241
Conclusion     244
Notes     245
References     246
Inclusive Education: A Mauritian Response to the "Inherent Rights of the Child"   Gilberte Chung Kim Chung   Cyril Dalais     249
Inclusive Education: A Brief History     251
The Experience in Mauritius     252
Schools for Children with Special Education Needs     253
From Segregation to Inclusion: A Long Road     253
Developments     259
The Inclusive Reform Strategy     260
Conclusion     261
References     263
Parenting Challenges for the Changing African Family    Judith L. Evans   Chalizamudzi Elizabeth Matola   Jolly P. T. Nyeko     265
The Changing African Family     265
A Focus on Families and Communities     270
Strengthening Care for the Youngest Children through Parenting Programs     271
Conclusion     280
References     281
ECD and HIV/AIDS: The Newest Programming and Policy Challenge   Patrice L. Engle   Erika Dunkelberg   Shireen Issa     285
Programming for Young Children Affected by HIV/AIDS     285
Program Options     288
Best Practices and Challenges     298
The Policy Framework     302
Conclusions     309
Notes     311
References     311
Supporting Young Children in Conflict and Postconflict Situations: Child Protection and Psychosocial Well-Being in Angola   Michael Wessells   Carlinda Monteiro     317
The Angolan Wars and the Aftermath     319
Tools to Support Young Children     321
References     328
Strategic Communication in Early Childhood Development Programs: The Case of Uganda   Cecilia Cabanero-Verzosa   Nawsheen Elaheebocus     331
The Need for Strategic Communication in ECD Programs     332
Key Concepts of Strategic Communication     333
Case Example: Uganda Nutrition and Early Childhood Development Project     336
Conclusion     344
Notes     350
References     350
Evaluations and Research     353
The Synergy of Nutrition and ECD Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa   Harold Alderman   Patrice L. Engle     355
Synergy of Nutrition and Cognitive Development and School Readiness     356
The Programmatic Synergy of Community Nutrition and ECD Approaches     359
Conclusion     367
Note     367
References     367
The Impact of ECD Programs on Maternal Employment and Older Children's School Attendance in Kenya   Michael M. Lokshin   Elena Glinskaya   Marito Garcia     371
The Kenya Household and ECD Centers Surveys     373
Conclusions     384
Notes     385
References     386
Madrasa Early Childhood Development Program: Making a Difference   Peter Mwaura   Bishara T. Mohamed     389
Background     390
Goals     392
Curriculum      392
Management and Governance     393
Operational Activities     393
Program Sequence     393
Research within the MRC Program     395
Impact of the Program on the Community     401
Conclusion     403
Notes     404
References     405
Linking Policy Discourse to Everyday Life in Kenya: Impacts of Neoliberal Policies on Early Education and Childrearing   Elizabeth Swadener   Patrick Wachira   Margaret Kabiru   Anne Njenga     407
Education Postindependence: From Harambee to the National Alliance Rainbow Coalition     411
Final Reflections     420
References     422
Community-Based Approaches That Work in Eastern and Southern Africa   Jane E. Lucas   Jessica Jitta   Gareth Jones   Katarzyna Wilczynska-Ketende     427
A Review of Household and Community Interventions     428
Survey Evidence on Changes in Key Family Care Practices     432
Coordinating a Package of Interventions for Greater Efficiency and Effectiveness     450
Conclusion     453
Notes     453
References     454
Challenges and Ways Forward     457
Can Early Childhood Programs Be Financially Sustainable in Africa?   Adriana Jaramillo   Alain Mingat     459
Considering Costs     459
Policy Implications     466
Creating an ECD Policy     467
Unit Costs of the Policies     470
The Simulation Model: Putting It All Together     475
Summary and Conclusions     482
Notes     484
References     484
A Tri-Part Approach to Promoting ECD Capacity in Africa: ECD Seminars, International Conferences, and ECDVU   Alan Pencem   Abeba Habtom   Francis R. W. Chalamada     487
A Tri-Part Set of Initiatives: Seminars, Conferences, and the ECDVU     488
Promoting Capacity through Multiple Approaches     491
Next Steps     498
Conclusion     499
Notes     500
References     500
Index     503
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