The Age of Reason

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Overview

"Of all the tyrannies that affect mankind, tyranny in religion is the worst," declared Thomas Paine, adding, "every other species of tyranny is limited to the world we live in; but this attempts to stride beyond the grave, and seeks to pursue us into eternity." Paine's years of study and reflection on the role of religion in society culminated with his final work, The Age of Reason. This coolly reasoned polemic influenced religious thinking throughout the world at the dawn of the nineteenth century, and its resonance remains undiminished by time. ...
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The Age of Reason

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Overview

"Of all the tyrannies that affect mankind, tyranny in religion is the worst," declared Thomas Paine, adding, "every other species of tyranny is limited to the world we live in; but this attempts to stride beyond the grave, and seeks to pursue us into eternity." Paine's years of study and reflection on the role of religion in society culminated with his final work, The Age of Reason. This coolly reasoned polemic influenced religious thinking throughout the world at the dawn of the nineteenth century, and its resonance remains undiminished by time. The selfsame humanist and egalitarian views that made Paine a popular figure of the American Revolution brought him into frequent conflict with political authorities. Parts of The Age of Reason were written in a French jail, where Paine was confined for his opposition to the execution of Louis XVI. An attack on revealed religion from the deist point of view -- embodied by Paine's credo, "I believe in one God, and no more" -- this work undertakes a hitherto unheard-of approach to Bible study. Its critical and objective examination of Old and New Testaments cites numerous contradictions as evidence against literal interpretations of the text. Well articulated and eminently readable, The Age of Reason is a classic of free thought.

Piercing analysis of religion that continues to influence religious thinking to this day.

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Editorial Reviews

Bruce Kuklick University of Pennsylvania
"There are many editions of The Age of Reason available for students and modern readers. Kerry Walters' Broadview Edition is the best. It combines an astute introduction with up-to-the-moment bibliographic material. Walters also illuminates crucial aspects of the book and its arguments with hard-to-find contemporary documents that put Paine's work in an international context."
Jack Fruchtman Jr. Towson University
"Kerry Walters' new edition of Thomas Paine's Age of Reason, along with its collection of pre- and post-publication material, is an invaluable addition to the Paine library. Most impressive is Walters's eloquent and lucid introduction, which concisely places Paine's Deism in the greater context of the British and French Enlightenment. It is an indispensable edition for undergraduate and graduate students studying history, philosophy, the history of religion, and the psychology of social ideas."
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781494769260
  • Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
  • Publication date: 12/23/2013
  • Pages: 186
  • Sales rank: 1,366,795
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Kerry Walters is Professor of Philosophy at Gettysburg College. He has published numerous books on Christianity, and particularly on religion in early America.

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Read an Excerpt

The Age of Reason

Being an Investigation of True and Fabulous Theology


By Thomas Paine, Moncure Daniel Conway

Dover Publications, Inc.

Copyright © 2014 Dover Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-0-486-13099-6



CHAPTER 1

THE AUTHOR'S PROFESSION OF FAITH.


IT has been my intention, for several years past, to publish my thoughts upon religion; I am well aware of the difficulties that attend the subject, and from that consideration, had reserved it to a more advanced period of life. I intended it to be the last offering I should make to my fellow-citizens of all nations, and that at a time when the purity of the motive that induced me to it could not admit of a question, even by those who might disapprove the work.

The circumstance that has now taken place in France, of the total abolition of the whole national order of priesthood, and of everything appertaining to compulsive systems of religion, and compulsive articles of faith, has not only precipitated my intention, but rendered a work of this kind exceedingly necessary, lest, in the general wreck of superstition, of false systems of government, and false theology, we lose sight of morality, of humanity, and of the theology that is true.


As several of my colleagues, and others of my fellow-citizens of France, have given me the example of making their voluntary and individual profession of faith, I also will make mine; and I do this with all that sincerity and frankness with which the mind of man communicates with itself.

I believe in one God, and no more; and I hope for happiness beyond this life.

I believe the equality of man, and I believe that religious duties consist in doing justice, loving mercy, and endeavouring to make our fellow-creatures happy.

But, lest it should be supposed that I believe many other things in addition to these, I shall, in the progress of this work, declare the things I do not believe, and my reasons for not believing them.

I do not believe in the creed professed by the Jewish church, by the Roman church, by the Greek church, by the Turkish church, by the Protestant church, nor by any church that I know of. My own mind is my own church.

All national institutions of churches, whether Jewish, Christian, or Turkish, appear to me no other than human inventions set up to terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit.

I do not mean by this declaration to condemn those who believe otherwise; they have the same right to their belief as I have to mine. But it is necessary to the happiness of man, that he be mentally faithful to himself. Infidelity does not consist in believing, or in disbelieving; it consists in professing to believe what he does not believe.

It is impossible to calculate the moral mischief, if I may so express it, that mental lying has produced in society. When a man has so far corrupted and prostituted the chastity of his mind, as to subscribe his professional belief to things he does not believe, he has prepared himself for the commission of every other crime. He takes up the trade of a priest for the sake of gain, and, in order to qualify himself for that trade, he begins with a perjury. Can we conceive anything more destructive to morality than this?

Soon after I had published the pamphlet COMMON SENSE, in America, I saw the exceeding probability that a revolution in the system of government would be followed by a revolution in the system of religion. The adulterous connection of church and state, wherever it had taken place, whether Jewish, Christian, or Turkish, had so effectually prohibited, by pains and penalties, every discussion upon established creeds, and upon first principles of religion, that until the system of government should be changed, those subjects could not be brought fairly and openly before the world; but that whenever this should be done, a revolution in the system of religion would follow. Human inventions and priest-craft would be detected; and man would return to the pure, unmixed, and unadulterated belief of one God, and no more.

CHAPTER 2

OF MISSIONS AND REVELATIONS.


EVERY national church or religion has established itself by pretending some special mission from God, communicated to certain individuals. The Jews have their Moses; the Christians their Jesus Christ, their apostles and saints; and the Turks their Mahomet; as if the way to God was not open to every man alike.

Each of those churches shows certain books, which they call revelation, or the Word of God. The Jews say that their Word of God was given by God to Moses face to face; the Christians say, that their Word of God came by divine inspiration; and the Turks say, that their Word of God (the Koran) was brought by an angel from heaven. Each of those churches accuses the other of unbelief; and, for my own part, I disbelieve them all.

As it is necessary to affix right ideas to words, I will, be, fore I proceed further into the subject, offer some observations on the word revelation. Revelation when applied to religion, means something communicated immediately from God to man.

No one will deny or dispute the power of the Almighty to make such a communication if he pleases. But admitting, for the sake of a case, that something has been revealed to a certain person, and not revealed to any other person, it is revelation to that person only. When he tells it to a second person, a second to a third, a third to a fourth, and so on, it ceases to be a revelation to all those persons. It is revelation to the first person only, and hearsay to every other, and, consequently, they are not obliged to believe it.

It is a contradiction in terms and ideas to call anything a revelation that comes to us at second hand, either verbally or in writing. Revelation is necessarily limited to the first communication. After this, it is only an account of something which that person says was a revelation made to him; and though he may find himself obliged to believe it, it cannot be incumbent on me to believe it in the same manner, for it was not a revelation made to me, and I have only his word for it that it was made to him.

When Moses told the children of Israel that he received the two tables of the commandments from the hand of God, they were not obliged to believe him, because they had no other authority for it than his telling them so; and I have no other authority for it than some historian telling me so, the commandments carrying no internal evidence of divinity with them. They contain some good moral precepts such as any man qualified to be a lawgiver or a legislator could pro--duce himself, without having recourse to supernatural intervention.

When I am told that the Koran was written in Heaven, and brought to Mahomet by an angel, the account comes to near the same kind of hearsay evidence and second hand authority as the former. I did not see the angel myself, and therefore I have a right not to believe it.

When also I am told that a woman, called the Virgin Mary, said, or gave out, that she was with child without any cohabitation with a man, and that her betrothed husband, Joseph, said that an angel told him so, I have a right to believe them or not: such a circumstance required a much stronger evidence than their bare word for it: but we have not even this; for neither Joseph nor Mary wrote any such matter themselves. It is only reported by others that they said so. It is hearsay upon hearsay, and I do not chuse to rest my belief upon such evidence.

It is, however, not difficult to account for the credit that was given to the story of Jesus Christ being the Son of God. He was born when the heathen mythology had still some fashion and repute in the world, and that mythology had prepared the people for the belief of such a story. Almost all the extraordinary men that lived under the heathen mythology were reputed to be the sons of some of their gods. It was not a new thing at that time to believe a man to have been celestially begotten; the intercourse of gods with women was then a matter of familiar opinion. Their Jupiter, according to their accounts, had cohabited with hundreds; the story therefore had nothing in it either new, wonderful, or obscene; it was conformable to the opinions that then prevailed among the people called Gentiles, or mythologists, and it was those people only that believed it. The Jews, who had kept strictly to the belief of one God, and no more, and who had always rejected the heathen mythology, never credited the story.

It is curious to observe how the theory of what is called the Christian Church, sprung out of the tail of the heathen mythology. A direct incorporation took place in the first instance, by making the reputed founder to be celestially begotten. The trinity of gods that then followed was no other than a reduction of the former plurality, which was about twenty or thirty thousand.. The statue of Mary succeeded the statue of Diana of Ephesus. The deification of heroes changed into the canonization of saints. The Mythologists had gods for everything; the Christian Mythologists had saints for everything. The church became as crouded with the one, as the pantheon had been with the other; and Rome was the place of both. The Christian theory is little else than the idolatry of the ancient mythologists, accommodated to the purposes of power and revenue; and it yet remains to reason and philosophy to abolish the amphibious fraud.

CHAPTER 3

CONCERNING THE CHARACTER OF JESUS CHRIST, AND HIS HISTORY.


NOTHING that is here said can apply, even with the most distant disrespect, to the real character of Jesus Christ. He was a virtuous and an amiable man. The morality that he preached and practised was of the most benevolent kind; and though similar systems of morality had been preached by Confucius, and by some of the Greek philosophers, many years before, by the Quakers since, and by many good men in all ages, it has not been exceeded by any.

Jesus Christ wrote no account of himself, of his birth, parentage, or anything else. Not a line of what is called the New Testament is of his writing. The history of him is altogether the work of other people; and as to the account given of his resurrection and ascension, it was the necessary counterpart to the story of his birth. His historians, having brought him into the world in a supernatural manner, were obliged to take him out again in the same manner, or the first part of the story must have fallen to the ground.

The wretched contrivance with which this latter part is told, exceeds everything that went before it. The first part, that of the miraculous conception, was not a thing that admitted of publicity; and therefore the tellers of this part of the story had this advantage, that though they might not be credited, they could not be detected. They could not be expected to prove it, because it was not one of those things that admitted of proof, and it was impossible that the person of whom it was told could prove it himself.

But the resurrection of a dead person from the grave, and his ascension through the air, is a thing very different, as to the evidence it admits of, to the invisible conception of a child in the womb. The resurrection and ascension, supposing them to have taken place, admitted of public and ocular demonstration, like that of the ascension of a balloon, or the sun at noon day, to all Jerusalem at least. A thing which everybody is required to believe, requires that the proof and evidence of it should be equal to all, and universal; and as the public visibility of this last related act was the only evidence that could give sanction to the former part, the whole of it falls to the ground, because that evidence never was given. Instead of this, a small number of persons, not more than eight or nine, are introduced as proxies for the whole world, to say they saw it, and all the rest of the world are called upon to believe it. But it appears that Thomas did not believe the resurrection; and, as they say, would not believe without having ocular and manual demonstration himself. So neither will I; and the reason is equally as good for me, and for every other person, as for Thomas.

It is in vain to attempt to palliate or disguise this matter. The story, so far as relates to the supernatural part, has every mark of fraud and imposition stamped upon the face of it. Who were the authors of it is as impossible for us now to know, as it is for us to be assured that the books in which the account is related were written by the persons whose names they bear. The best surviving evidence we now have respecting this affair is the Jews. They are regularly descended from the people who lived in the time this resurrection and ascension is said to have happened, and they say, it is not true. It has long appeared to me a strange inconsistency to cite the Jews as a proof of the truth of the story. It is just the same as if a man were to say, I will prove the truth of what I have told you, by producing the people who say it is false.

That such a person as Jesus Christ existed, and that he was crucified, which was the mode of execution at that day, are historical relations strictly within the limits of probability. He preached most excellent morality, and the equality of man; but he preached also against the corruptions and avarice of the Jewish priests, and this brought upon him the hatred and vengeance of the whole order of priesthood. The accusation which those priests brought against him was that of sedition and conspiracy against the Roman government, to which the Jews were then subject and tributary; and it is not improbable that the Roman government might have some secret apprehension of the effects of his doctrine as well as the Jewish priests; neither is it improbable that Jesus Christ had in contemplation the delivery of the Jewish nation from the bondage of the Romans. Between the two, however, this virtuous reformer and revolutionist lost his life.

CHAPTER 4

OF THE BASES OF CHRISTIANITY.


IT is upon this plain narrative of facts, together with another case I am going to mention, that the Christian mythologists, calling themselves the Christian Church, have erected their fable, which for absurdity and extravagance is not exceeded by anything that is to be found in the mythology of the ancients.

The ancient mythologists tell us that the race of Giants made war against Jupiter, and that one of them threw a hundred rocks against him at one throw; that Jupiter defeated him with thunder, and confined him afterwards under Mount Etna; and that every time the Giant turns himself, Mount Etna belches fire. It is here easy to see that the circumstance of the mountain, that of its being a volcano, suggested the idea of the fable; and that the fable is made to fit and wind itself up with that circumstance.

The Christian mythologists tell that their Satan made war against the Almighty, who defeated him, and confined him afterwards, not under a mountain, but in a pit. It is here easy to see that the first fable suggested the idea of the second; for the fable of Jupiter and the Giants was told many hundred years before that of Satan.

Thus far the ancient and the Christian mythologists differ very little from each other. But the latter have contrived to carry the matter much farther. They have contrived to connect the fabulous part of the story of Jesus Christ with the fable originating from Mount Etna; and, in order to make all the parts of the story tye together, they have taken to their aid the traditions of the Jews; for the Christian mythology is made up partly from the ancient mythology, and partly from the Jewish traditions.

The Christian mythologists, after having confined Satan in a pit, were obliged to let him out again to bring on the sequel of the fable. He is then introduced into the garden of Eden in the shape of a snake, or a serpent, and in that shape he enters into familiar conversation with Eve, who is no ways surprised to hear a snake talk; and the issue of this tête-à-tête is, that he persuades her to eat an apple, and the eating of that apple damns all mankind.


(Continues...)

Excerpted from The Age of Reason by Thomas Paine, Moncure Daniel Conway. Copyright © 2014 Dover Publications, Inc.. Excerpted by permission of Dover Publications, Inc..
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Part I.
Title-Page to the Original Paris Edition v
Dedication vii
Editor's Introduction 1
Chapter I. The Author's Profession of Faith 21
Chapter II. Of Missions and Revelations 23
Chapter III. Concerning the Character of Jesus Christ, and His History 26
Chapter IV. Of the Bases of Christianity 28
Chapter V. Examination in Detail of the Preceding Bases 30
Chapter VI. Of the True Theology 31
Chapter VII. Examination of the Old Testament 32
Chapter VIII. Of the New Testament 38
Chapter IX. In What the True Revelation Consists 45
Chapter X. Concerning God, and the Lights Cast on his Existence and Attributes by the Bible 47
Chapter XI. Of the Theology of the Christians; and the True Theology 50
Chapter XII. The Effects of Christianism on Education. Proposed Reforms 55
Chapter XIII. Comparison of Christianism with the Religious Ideas Inspired by Nature 62
Chapter XIV. System of the Universe 68
Chapter XV. Advantages of the Existence of Many Worlds in Each Solar System 72
Chapter XVI. Application of the Preceding to the System of the Christians 73
Chapter XVII. Of the Means Employed in All Time, and Almost Universally, to Deceive the People 75
Recapitulation 83
Part II.
Preface 85
Chapter I. The Old Testament 89
Chapter II. The New Testament 152
Chapter III. Conclusion 183
Letters Concerning "The Age of Reason" 196
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Customer Reviews

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( 49 )
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See All Sort by: Showing 1 – 20 of 49 Customer Reviews
  • Posted July 28, 2011

    Un readable!!

    This piece of crap has every appearance of having been optically scanned with a bad text recognition program. It is so badly compiled that it cannot be read. Not compatible with Nook.

    3 out of 5 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 27, 2006

    Religion the trap

    Egocentricity is the main reason people choose a religion for. The love of saying I am the one who is right, in case of religion, always right. Age of Reason is a book that tells the reader to simply use his/her brain and make use of the bliss of logic. How come we always accept ideas without examining them? Were we taught at schools to accept things just like that? Then why do we do so with religion? Why do we refuse aliens or some supernatural phenomena but then accept religion? Why do we dare to defy our parents in almost anything but when it comes to religion we just, at least the majority of us, obey?! Religion is truly the opium of the masses. Read Thomas Pain, the man has something to say in this book...

    2 out of 4 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 24, 1999

    An expose of the 'cut and paste' of Christianity's Bible

    Anti-Christian is not the same as anti-God, as Thomas Paine clearly defines. The first is Institutional and supremely demanding, the other (Deism) is one's belief in a personal God based on reason, not tyranny. Although I rated this book five stars, I believe the author ignores perhaps the most important aspect of the Bible, its symbolism. One needs to read Isaiah, Book II to tune into the meaning of those symbols and to more honestly interpret the miracles suppossedly performed. But except for this, the book is a primer for any honest student of Christianity, or other religious belief, all of which are blueprints for values and norms the purpose of which is to make any community functional. Kosovo and the Serbian attempt at ethnic cleansing is but one of several current examples of what religion can do. History is rife with other extreme examples.

    2 out of 3 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 19, 2012

    A terrific book!

    This book, like all of Thomas Paine's work, is wonderful. However, the quality of this e book is just disappointing. It is full of gibberish, the gibberish being horribly translated words and sentences. A few words are easy to make out, but I found much of what I read very difficult to understand, since it was random letters and sometimes even numbers forming "words".

    Again, great book, bad translation. Still worth it since it is free!

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted June 17, 2011

    Love love love must read

    He speaks the truth. Love it.

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted January 23, 2011

    Poorly scanned

    The text is garbled an unreadable.

    1 out of 4 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted February 25, 2014

    My chosen book is Age of Reason, written by Thomas Paine. The Ag

    My chosen book is Age of Reason, written by Thomas Paine. The Age of Reason was written as a revolutionary movement by Thomas Paine and challenged longstanding religions and the validity of the Bible (the central text of Christianity). The time period and the historical events that this book references is known as the European Enlightenment (also called the Age of Reason). Enlightenment thinkers all over Europe examined outdated power players (such as the Papal Seat) and incorporated individualism, humanism, and scientific ways of examining the world. Paine’s credentials and biographical information were important in deciding the point of view at ca. 1700s. Paine openly condemned the Bible and addressed misunderstandings of the Bible. He has these views at this time ca. 1700s as the Catholic Church’s hypocritical behavior is truly farcical and does not help much that almost all of Europeans follow the Papal Seat. This book gave me a deeper insight into this era of world history as helped me understand the ideas of normal common folk challenging traditional authority. This book is from the time period; therefore it tells us the people during ca. 1700s were tired of the traditional social structures, the outdated political structure, the agricultural productivity that increased and so with back pains of the peasant class, cultural conflicts and border disputes, and the unequal socio-economic classes. Paine’s writing style and general pace of the book was affected as it mainly was a bunch of rants that were extended and involving a lot of details that are contrary to traditional ways of thinking about the Creator.

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  • Posted September 13, 2013

    Highly recommended reading - a must for those with inquiring minds

    The first time I ever heard of the book "The Age of Reason" was when I was doing research on the Georgia Guidestones. On it's explanatory tablet was the reference to Thomas Paines's book "The Age of Reason" and it's anti-Christian views, his hostility against religion. Mr. Paine wrote during the French revolution, a revolution to de-Christianize France and throw off the shackles of the Catholic Church. It's an attack on pagan, Babylonian Christianity of Revelation 17 passed off as truth. I highly recommend this book for anyone who wants to know how things were in France and what angered Napoleon and fired up the revolution.

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  • Posted May 19, 2011

    more from this reviewer

    Wow.

    This was revolutionary. Mind toggling.

    0 out of 2 people found this review helpful.

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    Posted June 17, 2013

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