Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments

Paperback (Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1979)
$129.00 price
Other sellers (Paperback)
  • All (7) from $95.61   
  • New (6) from $95.61   
  • Used (1) from $156.38   
Sending request ...

More About This Book

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642673306
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 12/27/2011
  • Series: Ecological Studies Series, #34
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1979
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 342
  • Product dimensions: 6.69 (w) x 9.61 (h) x 0.75 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Ancient Agricultural Systems in Dry Regions.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 The Beginnings of Agriculture.- 1.3 Ancient Agricultural Systems in Dry Regions of the Old World.- 1.3.1 The Near East.- The Mesopotamian Heartland.- Other Near Eastern Agriculture.- 1.3.2 The African Continent.- Egypt.- Other Dry Regions of Africa.- 1.3.3 The Indian Subcontinent.- 1.3.4 The Soviet Union and China.- The Soviet Union.- China.- 1.4 Ancient Agricultural Systems in Dry Regions of the New World.- 1.4.1 Mesoamerica.- The Valley of Oaxaca.- The Tehuacán Valley.- The Basin of Mexico.- 1.4.2 The North American Southwest.- The Hohokam.- Lower Colorado River Tribes.- Owens Valley Paiute.- Anasazi.- Casas Grandes.- 1.4.3 South America.- 1.5 Conclusions.- References.- 2 Development of Present Dryland Farming Systems.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Geographic Aspects of the World’s Semi-Arid Tropics.- 2.3 Dryland Farming Systems in the Semi-Arid Tropics.- 2.3.1 Australia.- 2.3.2 India.- 2.3.3 Brazil.- 2.3.4 Southern Africa.- 2.3.5 Sahel Region.- 2.4 Geographic Aspects of the World’s Semi-Arid Mid-Latitude Lands (Steppe).- 2.5 Dryland Farming Systems in the Mid-Latitude Steppes.- 2.5.1 North America.- 2.5.2 Eurasia.- 2.6 Perception of the Semi-Arid Environment.- 2.7 The Future of Dryland Farming Systems.- References.- 3 Semi-Arid Climates: Their Definition and Distribution.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Meteorological Factors Contributing to Aridity and Humidity.- 3.3 Defining Semi-Arid Regions.- 3.3.1 Moisture Balance Over the Year as a Whole.- 3.3.2 Seasonal Considerations in Moisture Balance.- 3.3.3 Attributes of the Bailey Moisture Index.- 3.3.4 Precipitation Variability in Semi-Arid Regions.- 3.4 Thermal Regions of Semi-Arid Zones.- 3.5 Conclusions.- References.- 4 Agroclimatology Applied to Water Management in the Sudanian and Sahelian Zones of Africa.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Climatology and the Hydrologic Budget of Cropping Systems.- 4.2.1 Evaporative Demand of the Atmosphere.- Reference Crop Evapotranspiration.- Pan Evaporation.- Piche Evaporimeter.- Calculating Evaporative Demand from Weather Data.- Relations Between Evaporative Demand and Rainfall.- 4.2.2 Actual Crop Water Requirements.- Methods of Measurement.- Crop Water Requirements.- 4.2.3 Rainfall Efficiency.- The First Useful Rainfall.- The End of the Useful Rainy Season.- Determining the Adequacy of Rainfall and Soil Moisture Reserves to Satisfy Crop Water Needs During the Growing Season.- 4.3 Application of Agroclimatology to Agriculture in Senegal.- 4.3.1 Cultural Practices.- 4.3.2 Varietal Development.- 4.3.3 Regional Water Management.- 4.4 Future Strategies.- References.- 5 Microbiological and Biochemical Aspects of Semi-Arid Agricultural Soils.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Microbial Ecology and Soil Physical Properties.- 5.2.1 Water.- 5.2.2 Aeration.- 5.2.3 Temperature.- 5.2.4 pH.- 5.3 Organic Matter.- 5.3.1 Decomposition.- 5.3.2 Synthesis.- 5.3.3 Aggregation.- 5.4 Mineral Nutrition of Plants.- 5.4.1 Phosphorus.- 5.4.2 Mycorrhizae.- 5.4.3 Chelation of Iron and Other Metals.- 5.4.4 The Nitrogen Triangle.- 5.5 Future Directions for Research.- References.- 6 Crop Adaptation to Semi-Arid Environments.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Water as a Limiting Factor.- 6.3 Adaptive Attributes for Semi-Arid Environments.- 6.3.1 Phenology and Mechanisms for Escaping Drought.- 6.3.2 Drought Avoidance.- 6.3.3 Tolerance to Drought.- 6.3.4 Heat Resistance.- 6.3.5 Acclimation to Drought and Heat.- 6.3.6 Water-Use Efficiency.- 6.4 Developing Cultivars for Semi-Arid Environments.- 6.4.1 Interactions Between Genotype and Environment.- 6.4.2 Selecting for Yield in Semi-Arid Environments.- 6.4.3 Selecting for Indices of Adaptation.- 6.4.4 Genetic Resources Available.- Barley and Wheat.- Millet and Sorghum.- Maize.- Cowpeas and Beans.- 6.5 Future Strategies for Research.- References.- 7 Water Transport Through Soil, Plant, and Atmosphere.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Components of the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum.- 7.2.1 Surface Water Hydrology.- 7.2.2 Soil Water Movement.- 7.2.3 Evapotranspiration.- Potential Evapotranspiration.- Evapotranspiration with Incomplete Crop Cover.- Stress-Limited Evapotranspiration.- 7.2.4 Plant Water Uptake and Plant Response.- Water Movement Through the Plant.- Behavior of Plant Roots.- Plant Response to Water Deficits.- 7.3 Models of the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum.- 7.3.1 Introduction and Classification.- 7.3.2 Descriptions of Individual Models.- 7.3.3 Application to Dryland Farming Systems.- 7.4 Conclusions.- References.- 8 Crop Management in Semi-Arid Environments.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Management Systems.- 8.2.1 Subsistence Cropping.- 8.2.2 Commercial Crop Production.- 8.3 Cultural Systems.- 8.3.1 Annual Cropping.- 8.3.2 Alternate Crop-Fallow System.- 8.3.3 Ley Farming.- 8.3.4 Shifting Cultivation.- 8.3.5 Mound Culture.- 8.3.6 Recession Farming.- 8.3.7 Mulch Farming.- 8.4 Cropping Methods.- 8.4.1 Sole Cropping.- 8.4.2 Mixed Cropping.- 8.4.3 Intercropping.- 8.4.4 Relay Cropping.- 8.5 Crop Selection.- 8.5.1 Choice of Species.- 8.5.2 Choice of Cultivar.- 8.5.3 Seed Sources.- 8.6 Planting Techniques.- 8.6.1 Time of Planting.- 8.6.2 Planting Depth.- 8.6.3 Seeding Rates.- 8.7 Crop Fertilization.- 8.8 Crop Rotation.- 8.9 Vertebrate Pest Control.- 8.10 Harvesting.- 8.11 Future Directions of Research.- References.- 9 Soil Management in Semi-Arid Environments.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Differing Responses of Soils to Tillage.- 9.3 Objectives of Soil Management.- 9.4 Tillage and Soil Water.- 9.5 Soil Fertility.- 9.6 Tillage and the Soil Microenvironment.- 9.7 Erosion Control.- References.- 10 Erosion and Its Control in Semi-Arid Regions.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Erosion by Water.- 10.2.1 Factors that Influence Erosion by Water.- Rainfall.- Temperature.- Slope.- Soil.- Plant Cover.- Universal Soil-Loss Equation.- 10.2.2 Extent of Erosion by Water for Different Farming Systems.- 10.3 Erosion by Wind.- 10.3.1 Factors that Influence Erosion by Wind.- Wind.- Surface.- Soil.- Wind Erosion Equation.- 10.3.2 Extent of Erosion by Wind.- 10.4 Erosion Control Measures.- References.- 11 Diseases and Nematode Pests in Semi-Arid West Africa.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Principles of Disease and Nematode Management.- 11.2.1 Exclusion.- 11.2.2 Crop Rotation and Cultural Practices.- 11.2.3 Pesticides.- 11.2.4 Resistant Varieties.- 11.3 Diseases and Nematodes of Specific Food Crops.- 11.3.1 Sorghum.- 11.3.2 Millet.- 11.3.3 Cowpea.- 11.3.4 Peanut.- 11.4 Future Directions for Research in Disease and Nematode Pest Control in Semi-Arid Africa.- 11.4.1 Plant Diseases.- 11.4.2 Nematode Pests.- References.- 12 Weed Control.- 12.1 Losses from Weeds.- 12.1.1 Crop Yield Reduction.- 12.1.2 Competition for Moisture.- 12.1.3 Competition for Nutrients.- 12.1.4 Competition for Light.- 12.1.5 Competition in Mixed Populations.- 12.2 Weed Characteristics.- 12.2.1 Weed Reproduction.- 12.2.2 Weed Life Cycle.- 12.3 Management of Weeds.- 12.3.1 Cultural Control.- Prevention.- Competitive Crops.- Crop Rotation.- 12.3.2 Mechanical Weed Control.- Manual.- Hoeing.- Cutting.- Flooding.- Heat.- Smothering.- Tillage.- Biological Control.- 12.4 Herbicides.- 12.4.1 Classification and Selectivity.- Contact.- Translocated.- Soil-Applied.- Time of Application.- Formulation.- 12.5 Interaction of Weed Control and the Environment.- 12.5.1 Weather.- Temperature.- Wind.- Water.- Environmental Interactions with Herbicides.- 12.5.2 Soil and Herbicides.- 12.5.3 General Considerations.- 12.6 Control of Specific Weeds.- 12.6.1 Broadleaved Weeds.- 12.6.2 Weedy Grasses.- 12.6.3 Nutsedge.- 12.6.4 Striga.- 12.7 General Conclusions.- References.- 13 The Interaction Between Cultivation and Livesk Production in Semi-Arid Africa.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.1.1 Basic Differences Between the Two Production Systems.- 13.2 Linkages Between Crop and Livesk Production.- 13.2.1 Interactions When Agricultural and Pastoral Production Take Place in Different Management Units.- No Supporting Linkage.- Ecological Linkage.- Exchange Linkage.- Competition Linkage.- 13.2.2 Interactions When Agricultural and Pastoral Production Take Place Within the Same Management Unit.- Investment Linkage.- Food Linkage.- Manure Linkage.- Draft Linkage.- Fodder Linkage.- 13.3 Selected Cases of Cropping-Livesk Systems.- 13.3.1 Western Senegal.- 13.3.2 Bambara Lands.- 13.3.3 The Gouma Region.- 13.3.4 Mossi Lands.- 13.3.5 Hausaland.- 13.3.6 Bokoro Area.- 13.3.7 Western Darfur.- 13.3.8 Harar Province, Ethiopia.- 13.4 Trends in Organization of Linkages.- 13.4.1 The Process of Adaptation.- Economic Viability.- Political Viability.- Ecological Viability.- 13.4.2 Conditions and Adaptations in the Semi-Arid Zone.- 13.4.3 New Trends and Their Implications.- National Pacification.- Urbanization.- External Demand for Crops and Livesk, and External Supply of Consumer Goods.- Population Growth.- Overall Implications.- 13.5 Conclusions.- References.- Taxonomic Index.
Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star


4 Star


3 Star


2 Star


1 Star


Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation


  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)