Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642673306
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 7/31/2012
  • Series: Ecological Studies Series , #34
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1979
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 364
  • Product dimensions: 6.69 (w) x 9.61 (h) x 0.75 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Ancient Agricultural Systems in Dry Regions.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 The Beginnings of Agriculture.- 1.3 Ancient Agricultural Systems in Dry Regions of the Old World.- 1.3.1 The Near East.- 1.3.1.1 The Mesopotamian Heartland.- 1.3.1.2 Other Near Eastern Agriculture.- 1.3.2 The African Continent.- 1.3.2.1 Egypt.- 1.3.2.2 Other Dry Regions of Africa.- 1.3.3 The Indian Subcontinent.- 1.3.4 The Soviet Union and China.- 1.3.4.1 The Soviet Union.- 1.3.4.2 China.- 1.4 Ancient Agricultural Systems in Dry Regions of the New World.- 1.4.1 Mesoamerica.- 1.4.1.1 The Valley of Oaxaca.- 1.4.1.2 The Tehuacán Valley.- 1.4.1.3 The Basin of Mexico.- 1.4.2 The North American Southwest.- 1.4.2.1 The Hohokam.- 1.4.2.2 Lower Colorado River Tribes.- 1.4.2.3 Owens Valley Paiute.- 1.4.2.4 Anasazi.- 1.4.2.5 Casas Grandes.- 1.4.3 South America.- 1.5 Conclusions.- References.- 2 Development of Present Dryland Farming Systems.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Geographic Aspects of the World’s Semi-Arid Tropics.- 2.3 Dryland Farming Systems in the Semi-Arid Tropics.- 2.3.1 Australia.- 2.3.2 India.- 2.3.3 Brazil.- 2.3.4 Southern Africa.- 2.3.5 Sahel Region.- 2.4 Geographic Aspects of the World’s Semi-Arid Mid-Latitude Lands (Steppe).- 2.5 Dryland Farming Systems in the Mid-Latitude Steppes.- 2.5.1 North America.- 2.5.2 Eurasia.- 2.6 Perception of the Semi-Arid Environment.- 2.7 The Future of Dryland Farming Systems.- References.- 3 Semi-Arid Climates: Their Definition and Distribution.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Meteorological Factors Contributing to Aridity and Humidity.- 3.3 Defining Semi-Arid Regions.- 3.3.1 Moisture Balance Over the Year as a Whole.- 3.3.2 Seasonal Considerations in Moisture Balance.- 3.3.3 Attributes of the Bailey Moisture Index.- 3.3.4 Precipitation Variability in Semi-Arid Regions.- 3.4 Thermal Regions of Semi-Arid Zones.- 3.5 Conclusions.- References.- 4 Agroclimatology Applied to Water Management in the Sudanian and Sahelian Zones of Africa.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Climatology and the Hydrologic Budget of Cropping Systems.- 4.2.1 Evaporative Demand of the Atmosphere.- 4.2.1.1 Reference Crop Evapotranspiration.- 4.2.1.2 Pan Evaporation.- 4.2.1.3 Piche Evaporimeter.- 4.2.1.4 Calculating Evaporative Demand from Weather Data.- 4.2.1.5 Relations Between Evaporative Demand and Rainfall.- 4.2.2 Actual Crop Water Requirements.- 4.2.2.1 Methods of Measurement.- 4.2.2.2 Crop Water Requirements.- 4.2.3 Rainfall Efficiency.- 4.2.3.1 The First Useful Rainfall.- 4.2.3.2 The End of the Useful Rainy Season.- 4.2.3.3 Determining the Adequacy of Rainfall and Soil Moisture Reserves to Satisfy Crop Water Needs During the Growing Season.- 4.3 Application of Agroclimatology to Agriculture in Senegal.- 4.3.1 Cultural Practices.- 4.3.2 Varietal Development.- 4.3.3 Regional Water Management.- 4.4 Future Strategies.- References.- 5 Microbiological and Biochemical Aspects of Semi-Arid Agricultural Soils.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Microbial Ecology and Soil Physical Properties.- 5.2.1 Water.- 5.2.2 Aeration.- 5.2.3 Temperature.- 5.2.4 pH.- 5.3 Organic Matter.- 5.3.1 Decomposition.- 5.3.2 Synthesis.- 5.3.3 Aggregation.- 5.4 Mineral Nutrition of Plants.- 5.4.1 Phosphorus.- 5.4.2 Mycorrhizae.- 5.4.3 Chelation of Iron and Other Metals.- 5.4.4 The Nitrogen Triangle.- 5.5 Future Directions for Research.- References.- 6 Crop Adaptation to Semi-Arid Environments.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Water as a Limiting Factor.- 6.3 Adaptive Attributes for Semi-Arid Environments.- 6.3.1 Phenology and Mechanisms for Escaping Drought.- 6.3.2 Drought Avoidance.- 6.3.3 Tolerance to Drought.- 6.3.4 Heat Resistance.- 6.3.5 Acclimation to Drought and Heat.- 6.3.6 Water-Use Efficiency.- 6.4 Developing Cultivars for Semi-Arid Environments.- 6.4.1 Interactions Between Genotype and Environment.- 6.4.2 Selecting for Yield in Semi-Arid Environments.- 6.4.3 Selecting for Indices of Adaptation.- 6.4.4 Genetic Resources Available.- 6.4.4.1 Barley and Wheat.- 6.4.4.2 Millet and Sorghum.- 6.4.4.3 Maize.- 6.4.4.4 Cowpeas and Beans.- 6.5 Future Strategies for Research.- References.- 7 Water Transport Through Soil, Plant, and Atmosphere.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Components of the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum.- 7.2.1 Surface Water Hydrology.- 7.2.2 Soil Water Movement.- 7.2.3 Evapotranspiration.- 7.2.3.1 Potential Evapotranspiration.- 7.2.3.2 Evapotranspiration with Incomplete Crop Cover.- 7.2.3.3 Stress-Limited Evapotranspiration.- 7.2.4 Plant Water Uptake and Plant Response.- 7.2.4.1 Water Movement Through the Plant.- 7.2.4.2 Behavior of Plant Roots.- 7.2.4.3 Plant Response to Water Deficits.- 7.3 Models of the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum.- 7.3.1 Introduction and Classification.- 7.3.2 Descriptions of Individual Models.- 7.3.3 Application to Dryland Farming Systems.- 7.4 Conclusions.- References.- 8 Crop Management in Semi-Arid Environments.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Management Systems.- 8.2.1 Subsistence Cropping.- 8.2.2 Commercial Crop Production.- 8.3 Cultural Systems.- 8.3.1 Annual Cropping.- 8.3.2 Alternate Crop-Fallow System.- 8.3.3 Ley Farming.- 8.3.4 Shifting Cultivation.- 8.3.5 Mound Culture.- 8.3.6 Recession Farming.- 8.3.7 Mulch Farming.- 8.4 Cropping Methods.- 8.4.1 Sole Cropping.- 8.4.2 Mixed Cropping.- 8.4.3 Intercropping.- 8.4.4 Relay Cropping.- 8.5 Crop Selection.- 8.5.1 Choice of Species.- 8.5.2 Choice of Cultivar.- 8.5.3 Seed Sources.- 8.6 Planting Techniques.- 8.6.1 Time of Planting.- 8.6.2 Planting Depth.- 8.6.3 Seeding Rates.- 8.7 Crop Fertilization.- 8.8 Crop Rotation.- 8.9 Vertebrate Pest Control.- 8.10 Harvesting.- 8.11 Future Directions of Research.- References.- 9 Soil Management in Semi-Arid Environments.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Differing Responses of Soils to Tillage.- 9.3 Objectives of Soil Management.- 9.4 Tillage and Soil Water.- 9.5 Soil Fertility.- 9.6 Tillage and the Soil Microenvironment.- 9.7 Erosion Control.- References.- 10 Erosion and Its Control in Semi-Arid Regions.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Erosion by Water.- 10.2.1 Factors that Influence Erosion by Water.- 10.2.1.1 Rainfall.- 10.2.1.2 Temperature.- 10.2.1.3 Slope.- 10.2.1.4 Soil.- 10.2.1.5 Plant Cover.- 10.2.1.6 Universal Soil-Loss Equation.- 10.2.2 Extent of Erosion by Water for Different Farming Systems.- 10.3 Erosion by Wind.- 10.3.1 Factors that Influence Erosion by Wind.- 10.3.1.1 Wind.- 10.3.1.2 Surface.- 10.3.1.3 Soil.- 10.3.1.4 Wind Erosion Equation.- 10.3.2 Extent of Erosion by Wind.- 10.4 Erosion Control Measures.- References.- 11 Diseases and Nematode Pests in Semi-Arid West Africa.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Principles of Disease and Nematode Management.- 11.2.1 Exclusion.- 11.2.2 Crop Rotation and Cultural Practices.- 11.2.3 Pesticides.- 11.2.4 Resistant Varieties.- 11.3 Diseases and Nematodes of Specific Food Crops.- 11.3.1 Sorghum.- 11.3.2 Millet.- 11.3.3 Cowpea.- 11.3.4 Peanut.- 11.4 Future Directions for Research in Disease and Nematode Pest Control in Semi-Arid Africa.- 11.4.1 Plant Diseases.- 11.4.2 Nematode Pests.- References.- 12 Weed Control.- 12.1 Losses from Weeds.- 12.1.1 Crop Yield Reduction.- 12.1.2 Competition for Moisture.- 12.1.3 Competition for Nutrients.- 12.1.4 Competition for Light.- 12.1.5 Competition in Mixed Populations.- 12.2 Weed Characteristics.- 12.2.1 Weed Reproduction.- 12.2.2 Weed Life Cycle.- 12.3 Management of Weeds.- 12.3.1 Cultural Control.- 12.3.1.1 Prevention.- 12.3.1.2 Competitive Crops.- 12.3.1.3 Crop Rotation.- 12.3.2 Mechanical Weed Control.- 12.3.2.1 Manual.- 12.3.2.2 Hoeing.- 12.3.2.3 Cutting.- 12.3.2.4 Flooding.- 12.3.2.5 Heat.- 12.3.2.6 Smothering.- 12.3.2.7 Tillage.- 12.3.2.8 Biological Control.- 12.4 Herbicides.- 12.4.1 Classification and Selectivity.- 12.4.1.1 Contact.- 12.4.1.2 Translocated.- 12.4.1.3 Soil-Applied.- 12.4.1.4 Time of Application.- 12.4.1.5 Formulation.- 12.5 Interaction of Weed Control and the Environment.- 12.5.1 Weather.- 12.5.1.1 Temperature.- 12.5.1.2 Wind.- 12.5.1.3 Water.- 12.5.1.4 Environmental Interactions with Herbicides.- 12.5.2 Soil and Herbicides.- 12.5.3 General Considerations.- 12.6 Control of Specific Weeds.- 12.6.1 Broadleaved Weeds.- 12.6.2 Weedy Grasses.- 12.6.3 Nutsedge.- 12.6.4 Striga.- 12.7 General Conclusions.- References.- 13 The Interaction Between Cultivation and Livesk Production in Semi-Arid Africa.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.1.1 Basic Differences Between the Two Production Systems.- 13.2 Linkages Between Crop and Livesk Production.- 13.2.1 Interactions When Agricultural and Pastoral Production Take Place in Different Management Units.- 13.2.1.1 No Supporting Linkage.- 13.2.1.2 Ecological Linkage.- 13.2.1.3 Exchange Linkage.- 13.2.1.4 Competition Linkage.- 13.2.2 Interactions When Agricultural and Pastoral Production Take Place Within the Same Management Unit.- 13.2.2.1 Investment Linkage.- 13.2.2.2 Food Linkage.- 13.2.2.3 Manure Linkage.- 13.2.2.4 Draft Linkage.- 13.2.2.5 Fodder Linkage.- 13.3 Selected Cases of Cropping-Livesk Systems.- 13.3.1 Western Senegal.- 13.3.2 Bambara Lands.- 13.3.3 The Gouma Region.- 13.3.4 Mossi Lands.- 13.3.5 Hausaland.- 13.3.6 Bokoro Area.- 13.3.7 Western Darfur.- 13.3.8 Harar Province, Ethiopia.- 13.4 Trends in Organization of Linkages.- 13.4.1 The Process of Adaptation.- 13.4.1.1 Economic Viability.- 13.4.1.2 Political Viability.- 13.4.1.3 Ecological Viability.- 13.4.2 Conditions and Adaptations in the Semi-Arid Zone.- 13.4.3 New Trends and Their Implications.- 13.4.3.1 National Pacification.- 13.4.3.2 Urbanization.- 13.4.3.3 External Demand for Crops and Livesk, and External Supply of Consumer Goods.- 13.4.3.4 Population Growth.- 13.4.3.5 Overall Implications.- 13.5 Conclusions.- References.- Taxonomic Index.
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